Walt Disney: Race and Gender An Examination of Stereotypes in Commercial American Theatrical Animation By Moryen Park
Disney’s success began with itstrademark character Mickey Mousewith a series of short comedic •Mickey Mousetheatrical shorts that were in thesame vein as those of hispredecessor Felix the Cat. Disney’ssuccess with the character of Mickeyand his friends led to other studioswishing to cash in on the new fad,notably Warner Bros. The studioexperimented with a number ofideas and the culmination of theirefforts would lead to the creation ofBosko the Talk-Ink Kid, MerrieMelodies, and finally Looney Tunes.The Looney Tunes shorts featured itsown rouges gallery of cartoon icons,most notably Bugs Bunny and friends,who engaged in more physical andcrude comedy than characters inDisney films. MGM also followed suitbut was not as successful as WarnerBros. Nevertheless a number of MGMicons also emerged, most famouslyTom and Jerry. •Bugs Bunny and Friends
Disney and Feature Length Films In 1937, Walt Disney released Snow White and the Seven Dwarves, the first full length animated feature film. The film was a colossal success and remains today as the 10th highest grossing film of all time. Over the next several years Disney would release a number of other full length animated films including Fantasia, Dumbo, Bambi, and others. Due to the immense popularity of the outrageous antics of the Looney Tunes characters, popularity of Disney shorts waned and production was subsequently ended as the studio chose to focus more on its more profitable feature length films. As a result Disney began to distance itself in terms of style and content from its competitors.
The TV and Renaissance Ages of Television In the mid 1950s, the Golden Age of Animation came to an end. Decreased viewership combined with the high production costs of theatrical shorts forced many studios to close down their animation departments. Television also made a notable dent as many would now elect to stay home to watch shows instead of going to a theater. Joseph Hanna and William Barbera cashed in on this market with their studio Hanna-Barbera Productions. A number of animation techniques such as a reduction in animation quality were developed by the studio that cut down the costs that had ended the lives of previous studios. Disney continued to make a tremendous profit on its full length films and refused to animate for television. Many of Warner Bros animators such as Chuck Jones also refused to animate for television. As a result the majority of the shows produced during this era showed a noticeable decline in quality.
Rebirth After falling into disarray by the 1980s, animation saw a renaissance in the 1990s and the new millennium. Warner Bros, Disney, and Fox opened their own television animation studios whose productions were a marked improvement over the previous four decades. The Walt Disney Company itself also faced another renaissance after a decline in it films following the death of Walt Disney. High quality films were produced that won multiple academy awards with features such as Beauty and the Beast, Aladdin, and the Lion King.
Stereotypes in AnimationBecause traditional animation and CGI do not use images with real objects, thegenre lends itself to an exaggeration of reality. This is evident in theanthropomorphism of cartoon characters such as Bugs Bunny and theircomedic actions which in reality in some instances would kill an individual. Inthe silent and golden eras of animation, comedy was a key selling point inattracting audiences to shows, allowing studios to recoup their financialinvestments. Comedic shorts became routine and as a result a number ofnorms came about. The aforementioned anthropomorphism and slapstick anticswere usually in the company of sight gags, comic props, and racial and ethnicstereotypes. It is of no surprise that stereotypes are included in and a part ofanimation as they themselves are already an exaggeration of specific humantraits and cultures.
The Traditional Negro Image In the early advent of animation where Technicolor had not yet been invented as well as the use of synchronized sound, animators relied on the visual exaggeration to get their points across. Often lampooned was the mammy figure who with her large girth and kind subservient actions made her an ideal servant character. Also lampooned was the black minstrel who with his big lips, bulging eyes, lanky stance, and oversized hands and feet were able to play any musical instrument given to them. The Warner Bros character is often cited as a very basic form of the black minstrel as he retains many of these traits yet features a toned down look that obscures his race or ethnicity. The Disney character of Mickey Mouse also shares some of the same evolutionary history and physical appearance with that stereotyped image, obscured however by its anthropomorphized features.
Other Emerging Stereotypes As time grew on and animation became more and more popular, a steady growth of characters came out based upon stereotyped images. Native Americans were portrayed as tobacco smokers who lived in teepees and fought against the soldier of the Union who were the “good guys”. Hispanics were most often represented as lazy individuals who wore sombreros and were constantly napping. Anthropomorphized versions can be found in Speedy Gonzales shorts where many secondary and tertiary characters were in this mold, despite that the protagonist was of almost a complete reversal of this image. Asians featured almost trademarked squinted and slanted eyes which were accompanied by a wide sly grin. Arab stereotypes were of large burly men who wielded scimitars and acted in a truly barbaric fashion of slashing at everything that came about them. The Original Speedy Gonzales, a Mexican mouse (left), and the later revised one which shot to fame (right)
World War II and Stereotypes in Animation With the advent of World War II, stereotypes took on a new form. Stereotypical images of the people of the countries of the Axis served in propaganda aimed at not only moralizing the troops heading out to war but also to help focus the general public on who the enemies were. Japanese characters in animated short films during this time were extremely exaggerated due to the fact that they were the primary opposition to the United States at the time. Many animated films produced during this era featured characters such as Donald Duck, Popeye the sailor, and Bugs Bunny, who often fought the leaders of the nations of •Bugs Bunny and a heavily the Axis and routinely won. These stereotyped Japanese soldier animated features are questioned as to in “Bugs Bunny Nips the Nips” whether or not they influenced the American public, old and youth, into despising these individuals for years after the war.
Why Examine Disney? The Walt Disney company has marketed itself as the face of the American public. Warner Bros and MGM, despite their vast contributions to the genre, have waxed and waned over the years whereas Disney has continued to flourish. This popularity denotes that possibly Disney films have hit a chord in its viewers that not only appease their comedic and visual wants but also falls in line with their moral beliefs and attitudes. Even more so Disney images and films have been an innovator in animation all over the world, heavily influencing styles and artwork, most notably in Japan where anime can be seen as a direct descendant of the Disney styles. Disney‟s image has also been labeled as the face of Americanization in the world of globalization thus strengthening its power and giving it a good / evil balance.
The Five Films The five films we have chosen from the Disney canon represent varying views of stereotypes and racism of a different culture and creed. Not only that but they span the entire lifespan of the company and are indicative of how stereotypes are not only used over the past 70 years but also how the public has reacted to those images.
%20records/walt_disney_dumbo.JPGhttp://www.e-profession.com/records/Walt%20Disney Dumbo images/A092-DUM_Crows-570x436.jpg http://www.firstanimationart.com/sitebuilder/ This all-time favorite hit Disney adventure from 1941 is still touching audiences‟ hearts everywhere, particularly children. Seemingly sweet, innocent, and a tale of overcoming differences, the optimism in the film can‟t be missed. However, the darker side to Dumbo is Disney himself, incorporating black caricatures and stereotypes as forms of racist entertainment marginal to the main character Dumbo. This ironic incorporation is a paradox to the film‟s message of accepting everyone the way they are, despite superficial differences.
Dumbo (1941), Animated Movie SYNOPSIS: Dumbo is brought to Mrs. Jumbo, a performing circus http://lnx.ginevra2000.it/Disney/dumbo.htm elephant as her newborn child but is ridiculed by all when they see his abnormally large ears. Mrs. Jumbo has undying love, however, for her baby elephant and eventually is locked up as a "mad elephant“ when she causes a riot protecting Dumbo from kids jeering and poking fun at his ears. Now alone, Dumbo eventually meets Timothy mouse who becomes his only friend and the ironic friendship helps him cope with the loss of his mother. Timothy mouse attempts to improve Dumbos situations by influencing his incorporation into main acts in the circus arena. Dumbo messes up an act involving the other elephants and eventually ends up as a humiliated low-tier elephant-clown. Things look up after both Timothy and Dumbo accidentally drink water that is spiked with alcohol and hallucinate a very bizarre pink-elephant dance sequence, waking high up in a tree the next morning to laughing black crows. After initially poking fun at an "elephant flying" and being in a tree, Timothy gains their AWARDS AND NOMINATIONS: sympathy for Dumbo and they help Timothy convince (1942 Won): Oscar for Best Music, Scoring Dumbo he can fly with a "magic feather" although he can fly of a Musical Picture without it. During the clown act of falling down a huge building, Dumbo loses the feather but flies up at the very (1942 Nominated): Oscar for Best Music, last moment. Dumbo gets revenge on everyone who was Original Song mean to him, becomes the star of the circus, and lives (1947 Won): Best Animation Design @ the happily ever after. Cannes‟ Film Festival
ney22.jpg .com/images/disney/dis http://www.scifistation Racial Stereotypes The two main racist scenes in Dumbo is the brief and often overlooked “black workerscene” and the notorious “black crow sequence”. A brief description of both scenes andtheir racial stereotypes are discussed below. A continued analysis on the crow sequence will follow. Black Worker Scene: Towards the The Crow Sequence: This scene is now beginning of the film, the scene where famous for its black caricature the circus is being set up, the black representation. The blatant stereotype is stereotype of a working black brute is most evident through the “Amos‟ n‟ Andy” especially offensive although brief. dialect the crows speak when they find They sing a stereotypical “working Dumbo and Timothy in the tree. Timothy is song” and are, of course, completely initially very rude to the main crow, who faceless. Not only is this simply creepy, Disney had the audacity to name “Jim Crow”, as though the crows are known to be hostile but also depicts blacks as marginal and marginal characters of society. This brutes only useful working in the clear parallel is far too obvious. Although lowest tiers for the white bureaucrats many would argue that the black depiction of the circus. The faceless aspect here is sympathetic and they are the only removes any sort of real humane characters that help Dumbo out, the show- identity while all the white human like depiction along with a dance and characters have distinct faces. Albeit it singing jazz sequence pigeonholes the black is 1941 where most African Americans identity as loopy, lazy-looking, and minstrel- are forced into manual labor work at like. the bottom of the hierarchy, this scene seems to be regressing to times of slavery and bondage.
The Moral Paradox Dumbo, a movie about an elephant with no friends based upon his appearance, is ridden with hypocrisy due to the black caricatures. What was supposed to be an enlightening film with a moral of “accepting others‟ http://i-love-disney.com/1/dumbo.jpg differences” and the worthiness of every individual is contrasted with the crow sequence of blatant stereotyping. Thus, although the crow sequence is “sympathetic”, the paradox is still evident. Parents and children alike enjoyed the movie for over 60 years, recognizing Dumbo‟s plight as an elephant who “has big ears”, living peripherally in the circus, yet they fail to apply the obvious moral to racist mechanisms in society, especially when, IN THE SAME MOVIE, there exists a rather obvious and unsettling racist cartoon sequence (the crow sequence) and a more subtle sequence as well (the working scene)
The Crows‟ Controversy Contemporary reviewers and audiences today find themselves split almost completely down the middle in terms of the movie Dumbo. On one hand many people claim that it is NOT racist because not only the crow sequence the so-called “best” part of the film in terms ofhttp://www.fantasiescometrue.com/PINS/boxcrowpin.htm optimism, liveliness, and fun, but the black caricatures are sympathetic, not villains. They are one of the only ones that help Dumbo and claim that over-sensitive critics are overreacting to a fun, happy scene that, if anything, breaks racial barriers by making them “good”. This side claims that the crows are not a racist stereotype, but have a racial identity. On the other hand, re-watching Dumbo now in decades after its first release alarms many viewers due to the blatant stereotyping of blacks. The Amos n‟ Andy dialect, dress, etc, everything about the crow sequence is poking fun, if not directly, at the African American. Although others may claim that the crows really had a human good side, this side argues that the crow sequence is far too short to create humanity in any of the caricatures, and all of them talked the same, acted the same, and had no definitive individual character. They are lumped together with their leader, Jim Crow (what?!), defining the African American as such, perpetuating decades-old stereotypes to a child-aged audience.
http://www.ferris.edu/htmls/news/jimcrow/coon/more/greet.jpg http://going24-7.com/pins/images2/dumbocrows.gif "Uh, whats all the rookus? Cmon, step aside brothuhs, uh, whats cookin around heah? What new? What fryin, boys?“ – „Jim Crow‟ in Dumbo Author‟s Notes: The unmistakably Amos n‟ Andy dialect, the crows‟ dress as well as mannerisms are reminiscent to the “coon” or “dandy” stereotype as fun-loving, lazy, watermelon-eating useless blacks. The jazz musical dance sequence, also argued to be the liveliest and climax of the film, is no doubt reminiscent of minstrel shows throughout the Jim Crow Era. This display of blackface known as minstrel shows, poked fun at blacks through mal-intentioned entertainment. Not only was it demeaning, as if the black-faced minstrel actor was some sort of sick puppet, it perpetuated the very stereotype that this was the only sort of activity “blacks were good for”, being foolish, stupid, brutish, slow, and they need to know their place. So sure, the crow sequence was sympathetic and they were the ones that helped Dumbo out, yet in the end they are left behind, living marginally because THEIR differences simply couldn‟t be integrated into the “circus”, or should we say “society”, while Dumbo, with his big blue eyes and light skin, could. The proponents that argue that the crows are not a negative depiction but rather a positive spin on the stereotype also seem to completely ignore the fact that the main crow is named Jim Crow, as if that isn‟t blaring enough. He is also the only crow whose voice is played by a white man, kind of reminiscent of black-face, but “black-voice”, perhaps. Although the crows help Dumbo and may be argued as a sympathetic depiction of an originally racist stereotype, knowing Disney‟s inherent racism and understanding that it was 1941, this is a NEGATIVE perpetuation of a black stereotype. I, personally, believe that to say otherwise is appalling. - Evelyn Chuang
Impact? Or Reflection of Racial Mechanisms Already at Work? Although Dumbo was a huge hit during the early years of Disney‟s feature- length film empire, it is a tough statement to say that Dumbo really impacted racial attitudes at the time, rather it was perpetuating (on a lesser scale than the macro-level), racial attitudes that had endured for hundreds of years. Simply, Dumbo is a great example of racist cartooning, and black stereotype in caricature, but was not one of the forefront films, such as “Birth of a Nation”, for instance, that could influence a viewer at the time to become racist if they weren‟t already. If anything, viewers at the time probably dismissed the black stereotypes as simply a true aspect of life, laughed a little, and thought nothing much of it. It is a reflection of the racial mechanisms that had been turning all through the Jim Crow era. “We‟re not racist, blacks are really like that…”/2003marchpics/wdw_sstt_timothy_031303.jpghttp://www.dizpins.com/archives/images Contemporary viewers on the other hand probably find it blatantly offensive (well, some don‟t as mentioned earlier), understanding that these stereotypes are no longer accepted in the mainstream ideology, although racism is still rampant today. Showing Dumbo today, although still regarded as a sweet and fun movie, might have a different influence on viewers, regressing our attitudes back to 1941 and previously. I can‟t really say which is the lesser of two evils, Dumbo impacting a new generation of racist children, through a crow sequence or Dumbo reflecting the already scary racial attitudes of the times. However, the latter of the two seems to be a more viable statement. It is also tragic that people still don‟t realize the racism in Dumbo and will argue for its sympathetic renderings of black folk, particularly the Crow sequence, is also a frightening situation.
Peter Pan Peter Pan is a fictional character created by Scottish novelist and playwright, James Matthew Barrie (1860-1973), as well as the title of a stage play and novel based on the character. A mischievous little boy who refuses to grow up, Peter Pan spends his never-ending childhood adventuring on the small island of Neverland as leader of his gang, the Lost Boys.1 In 1953, Walt Disney Animation released its 14th motion picture based upon J.M Barrie’s original story. As with other Disney films, artistic license was taken in rewriting the films plot. However despite the changes the film remains remarkably close to the source material and served as the best visual representation of the original material beating out the numerous plays which had come before it. The film made $87.4 million dollars and was followed up with a sequel in 2002 entitled “Return to Neverland.”
Native American Stereotypes This film‟s concern with racism lies in the portrayal of Native Americans. The portrayal is highly stereotypical, with Native Americans being shown as warlike primitives who speak in guttural tones. This comes into play when Captain Hook captures the Indian princess Tiger Lily. •The lost boys are excited to go and find some Indians. TheyControversial sing a song “We‟re off to find the Indians.” This song isn‟t thatSegments of the Film bad but it does mention the term red skins. •Also the Indians in this movie are portrayed by having red skins. Every Indian in this film has red skin. One of the lost boys states in the movie: “ Indians are cunning but less intelligent” •The lost boys and Captain Hook mention that the Indians are savages. Wendy states: “Do you want to stay here and grow up like savages?” •The song: “What makes the red man, red?”. This is the song that the Indians are singing after Peter Pan saves Tiger Lily and brings her back to her village. After she is returned safely, her village gives Peter Pan and the Lost Boys a celebration. http://cache.tias.com/stores/hga/pictures/38314a.jpg
Aladdin Released by Walt Disney Pictures in 1992, Aladdin was a firm step in a new direction for the animation studios of Disney. Aladdin marks their first real departure in a full length animated film from the traditional European fairy tales to those of other cultures, in this case the Arab world. The film grossed $217 million dollars in the US and another $504 million internationally making it the most successful film of the year. At the 1993 Academy Awards it won Oscars in the categories of Best Song (A Whole New World) and Best Original Score.
Persian Stereotypes and Controversy Due to the fact that this was the first Disney film that not only crossed studio norms but also examined the Arab world, a number of inferences have been made relating to the characters and their world. The culture of the world portrayed in the movie is a hybrid of Persian, Arab, and Indian backgrounds Characters refer to “Allah” instead of “God” There is a distinct image that the majority of people in this world are in poverty, illustrated by the vast number of street merchants and the mud housing. This is contrasted to apparently the few who are wealthy in the film who live a far more opulent lifestyle than those they preside over. This is illustrated with the Sultan‟s palace being roughly half the size of the entire city.
The Controversy with the Main Song “Arabian Nights” A large controversy erupted over the original lyrics to the song “Arabian Nights.” The lyrics initially featured in the film were claimed by the American-Arab Anti-Defamation League to be offensive and politically insensitive. As a result the following home video release was edited to include replacement lyrics.Original Lyrics Edited Lyrics“Oh I come from a land, from a Oh I come from a land, from afaraway place faraway placeWhere the caravan camels roam Where the caravan camels roamWhere they cut off your ear Where its flat and immenseIf they dont like your face And the heat is intenseIts barbaric, but hey, its home” Its barbaric, but hey, its home
Pocahontas Released by Walt Disney Pictures in 1995, Pocahontas was the 33rd full length animated feature released by the studio. The film was the first Disney animated feature to be based upon actual events. The film follows in Disney‟s trend of the 1990s of straying from the traditional European fairy tale story. The film grossed $141.6 million domestically and $347 million internationally. It won the 1995 Academy Award for Best Song for “Colors of the Wind.”
Controversies At the center of the controversy with this film is the fact that the events of the life of Pocahontas have been romanticized to the point where the story is historically inaccurate. As such the debate remains as to what is potentially more dangerous, exploring the actual darker truths of the original subject matter with children or distorting historical events giving them less of an impactOther Controversies Include: •Pocahontas‟s Age: In real life she was around the age of 11 when the events of the film transpired. In the film she appears to be in her early to mid 20s •Distorted physical images of Native Americans: While not as stereotypical as those that appeared in the film “Peter Pan”, the Native Americans in this film take an appearance that is slightly European, much in the same way characters in Aladdin shared the same trait. http://lnx.ginevra2000.it/Disney/pocahontas1/0 14p.jpg
References to Related Journal Articles Animation and Stereotypes The best cartoon youve never seen Jaime J Weinman. Macleans. Toronto: Mar 27, 2006. Vol. 119, Iss. 13; p. 57 (1 page) – A look at the short “Coal Black and the Sebben Dwarves” That„s Enough, Folks. Sampson, T., Henry. Lanham, Md.: Scarecrow Press, 1998. – a look at black stereotyped characters from 1900 to the 1950s Snow Whitey? Robertson, Gail. Canadian Dimension. Winnipeg: Sep 1998. Vol. 32, Iss. 5; p. 42 (3 pages) – A look at the stereotypes in a number of Disney films Cartoons: One Hundred Years of Cinema Animation . Bendazzi, Giannalberto. London: J. Libbey, op 1994. Controversial cartoons: The unlikely animation of yesteryear Robert L Tefertillar. The World & I. Washington: May 2000.Vol.15, Iss. 5; pg. 183 7 Minutes: The life and death of the American animated cartoon Amy M Davis. Historical Journal of Film, Radio, and Television. Dorchester-on-Thames: Jun 1999.Vol.19, Iss. 2; pg. 265, 2 pgs Disney and its conservative critics: Images versus realities Ostman, Ronald E. Journal of Popular Film & Television. Washington: Summer 1996. Vol. 24, Iss. 2; p. 82 (8 pages)
Dumbo http://www.regent.edu/acad/schcom/rojc/wainer.html (this is a site that shows a specific argument that those deeming Dumbo as racist are overreacting) http://www.washingtonfreepress.org/17/Disney.html (Here is a discussion of Disney‟s racism in general) http://www.ferris.edu/jimcrow/coon/ (A great analysis of the coon stereotype) http://www.amazon.imdb.com/title/tt0033563/usercomments?start=30 (An online discussion between users on their contemporary reaction to Dumbo, including racial issues)
Aladdin "Saving Other Women from Other Men: Disneys Aladdin.“ Addison, Erin. Camera Obscura: A Journal of Feminism, Culture, and Media Studies, vol. 31. 1993 Jan-May. pp: 5-25. "2 Films Spin Their Own Special Magic”.“Britt, Donna. (Column) Washington Post v115 (Fri, Nov 13, 1992):D1, col 1, 18 col in. (comparing Walt Disney film Aladdin to documentary film about black soldiers in World War II) Corrigan, Don. "Aladdin - Like Much of U.S. Entertainment and Media - is Flawed by Stereotypes." St. Louis Journalism Review v22, n153 (Feb, 1993):13 (2 pages). Felperin Sharman, Leslie "New Aladdins for Old." Sight & Sound ( III/11, Nov 93; p.12-15. Discusses the attraction of the Aladdin story to filmmakers and its representation of Arabs, with particular reference to the 1992 Disney production. Felperin, Leslie "The Thief of Buena Vista: Disneys Aladdin and Orientalism." In: A reader in animation studies / edited by Jayne Pilling. London : J. Libbey, c1997. --MAIN: TR897.5 .R43 1997 Fox, David J. "Disney Will Alter Song in Aladdin." (changes come after Arab-Americans protest that lyrics are racist) Los Angeles Times v112 (Sat, July 10, 1993):F1, col 5, 17 col in. Geist, Kenneth "Aladdin." (movie reviews) Films in Review March-April 1993 v44 n3- 4 p127(2) Gorchev, Leila. "When Will it be Okay to be an Arab?" (on Disney film Aladdin and its portrayal of Arabs) (Column) Washington Post v116 (Sun, Dec 27, 1992):C7, col 2, 16 col in. Irwin, Robert "Aladdin." (movie reviews) TLS. Times Literary Supplement Dec 24, 1993 n4734 p14(2) "Its Racist, But Hey, Its Disney." (racist lyrics in song from Walt Disney Productions movie Aladdin) (Editorial) New York Times v142 (Wed, July 14, 1993):A14(N), A18(L), col 1, 6 col in.
Aladdin cont. Klawans, Stuart "Aladdin." (movie reviews) The Nation Dec 7, 1992 v255 n19 p713(4) UC users only Macleod, Dianne Sachko. "The Politics of Vision: Disney, Aladdin, and the Gulf War." In: The Emperors old groove: decolonizing Disneys Magic Kingdom / edited by Brenda Ayres. pp: 179-91. New York: P. Lang, c2003. --Main Stack PN1999.W27.E48 2003 --Bus & Econ PN1999.W27.E48 2003 Maslin, Janet "Aladdin." (movie reviews) The New York Times Nov 11, 1992 v142 pB1(N) pC15(L) col 3 (26 col in) Phillips, Jerry. "Telling Tales to Children: The Pedagogy of Empire in MGMs Kim and Disneys Aladdin." The Lion and the Unicorn: A Critical Journal of Childrens Literature vol. 20 no. 1. 1996 June. pp: 66- 89. Nadel Alan "A whole new (Disney) world order: Aladdin, atomic power, and the Muslim Middle East." In: Visions of the East: orientalism in film / edited by Matthew Bernstein and Gaylyn Studlar. New Brunswick, N.J.: Rutgers University Press, c1997. --Main Stack PN1995.9.E95.V57 1997 Phillips, Jerry and Ian Wojcik-Andrews "Telling Tales to Children: The Pedagogy of Empire in MGMs Kim and Disneys Aladdin." The Lion and the Unicorn 20.1 (1996) 66-89 UC users only Scheinin, Richard. "Angry Over Aladdin;"Arabs decry films racial stereotypes. Washington Post v116 (Sun, Jan 10, 1993):G1, col 1, 36 col in. Shaheen, Jack. "Aladdin: Animated Racism." Cineaste, vol. 20 no. 1. 1993. pp: 49 UC users only Sharman, Leslie Felperin. "New Aladdins for Old." Sight and Sound v3, n11 (Nov, 1993):12 (4 pages). Simon, John "Aladdin." (movie reviews) National Review Dec 14, 1992 v44 n24 p53(2) UC users only Staninger, Christiane. "Disneys Magic Carpet Ride: Aladdin and Women in Islam." In: The emperors old groove: decolonizing Disneys Magic Kingdom / edited by Brenda Ayres. pp: 65-77. New York: P. Lang, c2003. --Main Stack PN1999.W27.E48 2003 --Bus & Econ PN1999.W27.E48 2003 White, Timothy R. and J. E. Winn "Islam, Animation and Money: The Reception of Disneys Aladdin in Southeast Asia." Kinema, Spring 1995
Pocahontas Disneys Pocahontas: Reproduction of Gender, Orientalism, and the Strategic Construction of Racial Harmony in the Disney Empire Kutsuzawa, Kiyomi. Asian Journal of Womens Studies. Seoul: Dec 31, 2000. Vol. 6, Iss. 4; p. 39 Disneys politically correct Pocahontas--Race in contemporary American cinema: Part 5 Kilpatrick, Jacquelyn. Cineaste New York:1995. Vol. 21, Iss. 4, p. 36 Jamestowns Pocahontas Schwartz, Amy E. The Washington Post. Washington, D.C.: Aug 26, 1995. p. A13 Coming to classrooms: The real Pocahontas storyKershaw, Sarah. New York Times (Late Edition (East Coast)). New York, N.Y.: Jul 12, 1995. p. B6 Is Pocahontas really for children? Black, M Sean. New York Amsterdam News. New York, N.Y.: Jun 17, 1995. p. 25 Song of the South "Take a Frown, Turn It Upside Down": Splash Mountain, Walt Disney World, and the Cultural De- rac[e]-ination of Disneys Song of the South (1946) Jason Sperb. Journal of Popular Culture. Bowling Green: Aug 2005. Vol. 38, Iss. 5; p. 924 (15 pages) Disney vs. history Graham, Otis L Jr. The Chronicle of Higher Education. Washington: Sep 14, 1994. Vol. 41, Iss. 3; p. B1 (2 pages) http://www.corporate-ir.net/ireye/ir_site.zhtml?ticker=DIS&script=1010&item_id=1225645 (webcast of Disney Stockholder Meeting of 2006) www.songofthesouth.net (website devoted to the preservation of the film with articles)
Retrospective Over the course of the 20th century, the Walt Disney company has become a symbol of the American people and it shared culture and beliefs. Among the majority of organizations that branched out globally during the course of the century, it has been noted in refraining from goal displacement in staying true to its intentions of providing wholesome family entertainment. However as illustrated by the subject matter of some of its films, we come to question what exactly is deemed wholesome to the American public. A number of questions emerge that need to be mulled over including:•Is there a line to be drawn between •Should the correcting of pastartistic liberty and the opinions of the mistakes involve the censoring ofpublic? images, despite their historical significance?•Does Disney have a responsibility toshow politically appropriate material •How should one cater to allto the public? audiences without offending anyone?•How should images be marketed in a •Is there a line that denotes whatworld that is now highly globalized? should and should not be censored? If so how do we decide where that line is and how does it shift?
Works Cited and Bibliographies Media Aladdin (Disney Special Platinum Edition) (2004) Disney 2004 Alice in Wonderland (Masterpiece Edition) (1951) Disney 2004 Dumbo (60th Anniversary Edition) (1941) Disney 2001 Looney Tunes - Golden Collection (1955) Warner Bros 2003 Looney Tunes - Golden Collection, Volume Two Warner Bros 2004 Peter Pan (Special Edition) (1953) Disney 2002 Pocahontas (10th Anniversary Edition) (1995) Disney 2005 Walt Disney Treasures - On the Front Lines (1943) Disney 2004
Texts Harris, C., Joel. Uncle Remus. D, Appleton and Company. New York and London 1908 Sampson, T., Henry. That„s Enough, Folks. Lanham, Md.: Scarecrow Press, 1998. – a look at black stereotyped characters from 1900 to the 1950s Various Writers. Oriental Tales XIII: Alaeddin and the Enchanted Lamp. 1914• Websites Peter Pan •http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Peter_Pan#Controversy •http://parentcenter.babycenter.com/reviews/bigkid/gentertainment/view/ 5-249 •http://www.surlalunefairytales.com/boardarchives/2005/dec2005/racism disney_1.html •Harvard Business School Case. Disney: The Entertainment King. Case No. 9-701-035 Page 21. Exhibit 7: Top Grossing Animated Films of All Time.
Websites Dumbo "Center for American Music." Minstrelsy. Center for American Music. May 2006 <http://www.pitt.edu/~amerimus/minstrel.htm>. Wainer, Alex. Reversal of Roles: Subversion and Reaffirmation of Racial Stereotypes in Dumbo and the Jungle Book. Spring 1994. Sync: The Regent Journal of Music and Video. May 2006 <http://www.regent.edu/acad/schcom/rojc/wainer.html>. Wasko, Janet. Understanding Disney: the Manufacture of Fantasy. Malden: Blackwell Inc., 2001. Animation http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Animation_Before_Hollywood:_The_Sil ent_Period http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Animation_in_the_United_States_in_th e_television_era http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Looney_Tunes
Done by Christina Baez, Evelyn Chuang, Katiria Gonzalez, and Lloyd Johnston Animation History Segment – Lloyd Johnston Dumbo – Evelyn Chuang Peter Pan – Katiria Gonzalez Aladdin – Christina Baez and Lloyd Johnston Pocahontas – Christina Baez and Lloyd Johnston Song of the South – Lloyd Johnston