Design for Discovery
Peter Morville & Jeffery Callender
in•for•ma•tion ar•chi•tec•ture n.
• The structural design of shared
• The combination of organization,
labeling, search, and navigation
systems in web sites and intranets.
• The art and science of shaping
information products and experiences
to support usability and findability.
• An emerging discipline and
community of practice focused on
bringing principles of design and
architecture to the digital landscape.
Design for Discovery
“Search is among the
innovations of our time.
It influences what we
buy and where we go. It
shapes how we learn
and what we believe.”
Peter Morville & Jeffery Callender
Illustrated by Jeff Callender, Q LTD
Most of the complaints
we get are due to the way
users search; they use
the wrong keywords.
• Conversion rate increased over 30% in first two weeks.
• Double digit increase in average order size.
• Technical information downloads increased by 48%.
• Email and telephone inquiries reduced by 21%.
• Increased successful searches from 53% to 83%.
• Increased site traffic to the final product detail page by 80%.
“A leading e-commerce site reported a revenue increase
of $370 million in the year following launch.”
Source: Endeca 9
Search is a…
Complex, Adaptive System
Goals Interaction Features Indexing Tools
Psychology Aﬀordances Technology Structure Process
Behavior Language Algorithms Metadata Incentives
Query Results Engine Content
Source: Search Patterns (2010) 11
Principles of Design
Immediate Response User
Recognition Over Recall
Context of Use
Incremental Construction Progressive Disclosure
one step at a time… more within reach… 13
Immediate Response Predictability
flow requires feedback… feed-forward features and results…
Direct Manipulation Context of Use
tapping into muscle memory… the delight is in the details… 15
There is one timeless way of building.
It is thousands of years old, and the same
today as it has always been.
The great traditional buildings of the past,
the villages and tents and temples in
which man feels at home, have always
been made by people who were very close
to the center of this way.
It is not possible to make great buildings,
or great towns, beautiful places, places
where you feel yourself, places where you
feel alive, except by following this way.
And, as you will see, this way will lead
anyone who looks for it to buildings
which are themselves as ancient in
their form, as the trees and hills,
and as our faces are.
The Timeless Way of Building
Window Place (180)
Everybody loves window seats,
bay windows, and big windows
with low sills and comfortable
chairs drawn up to them.
May be part of:
• Entrance Room (130)
• Zen View (134)
• Light on Two Sides (159)
• Street Windows (164)
• Alcoves (179)
• Low Sill (222)
• Built-In Seats (202)
• Deep Reveals (223)
A Pattern Language
Christopher Alexander et al.
The quality of being locatable or
The degree to which an object is
easy to discover or locate.
The degree to which a system or
environment supports wayfinding,
navigation, and retrieval.
enveloping (e.g., ambient air)
the ability to find anyone or anything
from anywhere at anytime 58
Ubiquitous Service Design firstname.lastname@example.org
Information is blurring the lines between products
and services to create multi-channel, cross-platform,
trans-media, physico-digital user experiences.
32,000 B.C. Visual Thinking
I n t e rt w i n g l e
1976 Information Architecture
1995 User Experience
1982 Service Design
2005 Ubiquitous Computing
1986 Interaction Design
I follow a plant that
tweets. Her name is
pothos and she lives in
Toronto with Angela, an
When pothos is thirsty,
she asks for help.
Sometimes days pass
before the water comes.
Bruce Sterling once noted,
"Futurism doesn't mean
predicting an awesome
wonder; rather it means
describing a small
apparent oddity that is
destined to become a
“When a unique identifier is
attached to an object, it
becomes possible to collect the
metadata about that object into
a single information shadow.”
“The unique identifier is the
leverage point with which to
access and manipulate the
whole information shadow in
relation to similar shadows.”
While Kuniavsky advises that we view information as one of many design
materials (like wood and carbon fiber) from which devices can be made, he
also highlights its role as “the core material in creating user experiences.”
1cm 10cm 1m 10m 100m 1km
Pervasive Information Architecture
Andrea Resmini & Luca Rosati
Service Design email@example.com
The difference between products and services is more
than semantic. Products are tangible objects that exist in
both time and space; services consist solely of acts or
process(es), and exist in time only.
The basic distinction between ‘things’ and ‘processes’ is
the starting point for a focused investigation of services.
Services are rendered; products are possessed.
Services cannot be possessed; they can only be
experienced, created or participated in. Though they are
different, services and products are intimately and
How to Design a Service by G. Lynn Shostack (1982)
Watch Search for Get Watch Return
Movie Movie Movie Movie Movie
Ann Arbor Washington
Home Mobile Office
Search is a Wicked Problem
• Hybrid between design,
engineering, and marketing.
• No definitive formulation.
• Considerable uncertainty.
• Complex interdependencies.
• Incomplete, contradictory, and
• Stakeholders have radically
different world views.
• It’s a project and a process.
• The problem is never solved.
User Experience Honeycomb: Searcher’s Edition
Is it useful? Is search the right Will it work for all users? Are
solution? Will it help our users features and results accessible
achieve their goals? And, given to blind and visually impaired
the state of technology, should users? Can people search from
we revisit our goals? Can search a wide variety of platforms and
be more? browsers?
Is it easy to use with maximum Does the design inspire trust?
eﬃciency and minimal error? Do the order and display of
Are there aﬀordances for novice results convey authority? Will
and expert searchers? Are there users believe that the top
gentle slopes to support results are the best or most
learning? popular or most relevant?
Is it satisfying to use? Does it What is the value of search?
make people want to search? Does it build the bottom line or
Does it embody the values and advance the mission? Is the
identity of your brand? Does user experience aligned with
search leverage the power of strategy? Can search confer
emotional design? competitive advantage?
Can users ﬁnd your site? Can How do these qualities interact?
they ﬁnd their way around your Which are most and least
site? Can they ﬁnd your content important to search? What have
despite your site? Is search we missed? Go ahead. Erase a
aligned with search engine few. Add your own. This is only
optimization? a place to start. 83
IA Therefore I Am