Task based instruction method

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  • 1.  
  • 2.
    • Inventor/Proponent
    • Prahbu.
    • Country of origin
    • India.
    • TASK
    • Activity that needs to have a specific outcome or a result.
  • 3.
    • Theory of Language
    • -“Language is primarily a means of making meaning”.
    • Theory of Learning -> Communicative Approach.
    • “ Tasks provide both input and output processing necessary for language acquisition”.
  • 4.
    • Role of T:
    • - Facilitator and chairperson
    • -Sets up the tasks and helps Ss to
    • complete them.
    • -Supervises the reporting of the task.
    • -Provides vocabulary needed
    • -Gives suggestions on revising and rewriting & presenting material
    • -Gives feedback on presentation and written material.
  • 5.
    • Role of Ss
    • Active participants
    • Has to work with others and
    • be collaborative
    • Needs -> guessing meaning
    • from context, rephrasing &
    • negotiating meaning.
    • Use of L1
    • Can be used to clarify instructions
    • Should be used less as the class progresses
  • 6.
    • Materials
    • Resources books
    • Newspaper
    • Magazine
    • Radio programs
    • CDs
    • TV
    • Internet
    • Board
    • Worksheets
    Task Based Instruction
  • 7.
    • Techniques -> Types of Tasks
    LISTING: Processes    -   Brainstorming, fact-finding. ORDERING AND SORTING: Processes   -     Sequencing, ranking, categorizing, classifying. COMPARING: Processes   -   Matching, finding similarities, finding differences. PROBLEM SOLVING: Processes     -   Analysing real or hypothetical situations, reasoning, and decision making. SHARING PERSONAL EXPERIENCES: Processes     -    Narrating, describing, exploring and explaining attitudes, opinions, reactions. CREATIVE TASKS: Processes    -     Brainstorming, fact-finding, ordering and sorting, comparing, problem solving and many others (Willis 1996).
  • 8.
    • Task cycle
    Pre-task Introduction to topic and task: Teacher explores the topic with the class, highlights useful words and phrases, helps students understand task instructions and prepare. Task Cycle   Task: Students do the task, in pairs or small groups. Teacher monitors.   Planning: Students prepare to report to the whole class( orally or in writing) how they did the task, what they decided or discovered.   Report: Some groups present their reports to the class, or exchange written reports and compare results. (Ss receive feedback on their level of success on completing the task). Language Focus Analysis: Students examine and discuss specific features of the text or transcript of the recording. Practice: Teacher conducts practice or new words, phrases and patterns occurring in the data, either during or after the analysis (Willis 1996: 38).
  • 9.
    • Modes of Interaction
    • T-Ss (Whole group) When T is giving instructions
    • Ss-Ss : When T is around and Ss are completing the tasks
    • Ss-T : check tasks’ results
  • 10.
    • Areas of Language
    • Communication, meaning & fluency.
    • Evaluation
    • Ss can be evaluated in written
    • form or presentations.
  • 11.
    • How Ss’ errors are corrected
    • Ss are corrected discreetly.
    • T want Ss to use the TL.
    • Ss’s feelings
    • Ss should
    • feel comfortable
    • during class.
  • 12. Advantages
    • TBL is applicable and suitable for Ss of all ages and backgrounds.
    • Ss will have a much more varied exposure to language with TBL.
    • Ss are free to use whatever vocabulary and grammar they know, rather than just the TL of the lesson.
    • Allows meaningful communication.
    • Ss will be exposed to a whole range of lexical phrases, collocations and patterns as well as L forms.
    • Encourages Ss to be more ambitious in the L they use.
  • 13. Disadvantages
    • TBL requires a high level of creativity and initiative on the part of the T.
    • TBL requires resources beyond the textbooks and related materials usually found in language classrooms.
    • T-B instruction is not teacher-centered and it requires individual and group responsibility and commitment on the part of Ss.
    • There is a risk for learners to achieve fluency at the expense of accuracy.
  • 14. Reference
    • Larsen-Freeman, D. (2000). Techniques and Principles in Language Teaching. (Second Edition). Oxford University Press .