Task based instruction method


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Task based instruction method

  1. 2. <ul><li>Inventor/Proponent </li></ul><ul><li>Prahbu. </li></ul><ul><li>Country of origin </li></ul><ul><li>India. </li></ul><ul><li>TASK </li></ul><ul><li>Activity that needs to have a specific outcome or a result. </li></ul>
  2. 3. <ul><li>Theory of Language </li></ul><ul><li>-“Language is primarily a means of making meaning”. </li></ul><ul><li>Theory of Learning -> Communicative Approach. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Tasks provide both input and output processing necessary for language acquisition”. </li></ul>
  3. 4. <ul><li>Role of T: </li></ul><ul><li>- Facilitator and chairperson </li></ul><ul><li>-Sets up the tasks and helps Ss to </li></ul><ul><li>complete them. </li></ul><ul><li>-Supervises the reporting of the task. </li></ul><ul><li>-Provides vocabulary needed </li></ul><ul><li>-Gives suggestions on revising and rewriting & presenting material </li></ul><ul><li>-Gives feedback on presentation and written material. </li></ul>
  4. 5. <ul><li>Role of Ss </li></ul><ul><li>Active participants </li></ul><ul><li>Has to work with others and </li></ul><ul><li>be collaborative </li></ul><ul><li>Needs -> guessing meaning </li></ul><ul><li>from context, rephrasing & </li></ul><ul><li>negotiating meaning. </li></ul><ul><li>Use of L1 </li></ul><ul><li>Can be used to clarify instructions </li></ul><ul><li>Should be used less as the class progresses </li></ul>
  5. 6. <ul><li>Materials </li></ul><ul><li>Resources books </li></ul><ul><li>Newspaper </li></ul><ul><li>Magazine </li></ul><ul><li>Radio programs </li></ul><ul><li>CDs </li></ul><ul><li>TV </li></ul><ul><li>Internet </li></ul><ul><li>Board </li></ul><ul><li>Worksheets </li></ul>Task Based Instruction
  6. 7. <ul><li>Techniques -> Types of Tasks </li></ul>LISTING: Processes    -   Brainstorming, fact-finding. ORDERING AND SORTING: Processes   -     Sequencing, ranking, categorizing, classifying. COMPARING: Processes   -   Matching, finding similarities, finding differences. PROBLEM SOLVING: Processes     -   Analysing real or hypothetical situations, reasoning, and decision making. SHARING PERSONAL EXPERIENCES: Processes     -    Narrating, describing, exploring and explaining attitudes, opinions, reactions. CREATIVE TASKS: Processes    -     Brainstorming, fact-finding, ordering and sorting, comparing, problem solving and many others (Willis 1996).
  7. 8. <ul><li>Task cycle </li></ul>Pre-task Introduction to topic and task: Teacher explores the topic with the class, highlights useful words and phrases, helps students understand task instructions and prepare. Task Cycle   Task: Students do the task, in pairs or small groups. Teacher monitors.   Planning: Students prepare to report to the whole class( orally or in writing) how they did the task, what they decided or discovered.   Report: Some groups present their reports to the class, or exchange written reports and compare results. (Ss receive feedback on their level of success on completing the task). Language Focus Analysis: Students examine and discuss specific features of the text or transcript of the recording. Practice: Teacher conducts practice or new words, phrases and patterns occurring in the data, either during or after the analysis (Willis 1996: 38).
  8. 9. <ul><li>Modes of Interaction </li></ul><ul><li>T-Ss (Whole group) When T is giving instructions </li></ul><ul><li>Ss-Ss : When T is around and Ss are completing the tasks </li></ul><ul><li>Ss-T : check tasks’ results </li></ul>
  9. 10. <ul><li>Areas of Language </li></ul><ul><li>Communication, meaning & fluency. </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluation </li></ul><ul><li>Ss can be evaluated in written </li></ul><ul><li>form or presentations. </li></ul>
  10. 11. <ul><li>How Ss’ errors are corrected </li></ul><ul><li>Ss are corrected discreetly. </li></ul><ul><li>T want Ss to use the TL. </li></ul><ul><li>Ss’s feelings </li></ul><ul><li>Ss should </li></ul><ul><li>feel comfortable </li></ul><ul><li>during class. </li></ul>
  11. 12. Advantages <ul><li>TBL is applicable and suitable for Ss of all ages and backgrounds. </li></ul><ul><li>Ss will have a much more varied exposure to language with TBL. </li></ul><ul><li>Ss are free to use whatever vocabulary and grammar they know, rather than just the TL of the lesson. </li></ul><ul><li>Allows meaningful communication. </li></ul><ul><li>Ss will be exposed to a whole range of lexical phrases, collocations and patterns as well as L forms. </li></ul><ul><li>Encourages Ss to be more ambitious in the L they use. </li></ul>
  12. 13. Disadvantages <ul><li>TBL requires a high level of creativity and initiative on the part of the T. </li></ul><ul><li>TBL requires resources beyond the textbooks and related materials usually found in language classrooms. </li></ul><ul><li>T-B instruction is not teacher-centered and it requires individual and group responsibility and commitment on the part of Ss. </li></ul><ul><li>There is a risk for learners to achieve fluency at the expense of accuracy. </li></ul>
  13. 14. Reference <ul><li>Larsen-Freeman, D. (2000). Techniques and Principles in Language Teaching. (Second Edition). Oxford University Press . </li></ul>