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Ingles aula 9
Ingles aula 9
Ingles aula 9
Ingles aula 9
Ingles aula 9
Ingles aula 9
Ingles aula 9
Ingles aula 9
Ingles aula 9
Ingles aula 9
Ingles aula 9
Ingles aula 9
Ingles aula 9
Ingles aula 9
Ingles aula 9
Ingles aula 9
Ingles aula 9
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Ingles aula 9
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Ingles aula 9

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  • 1. CURSOS ON-LINE – INGLÊS – PROFESSOR CARLOS AUGUSTO -1- AULA 9 LOOKING BACK ON PREVIOUS LESSONS U.S. Wants WTO Ministerial Meeting After Session in Hong Kong Washington - U.S. Trade Representative Rob Portman is urging countries to advance the long-stalled World Trade Organization (WTO) negotiations at the December Hong Kong ministerial meeting and asserted that trade ministers should meet again soon after to keep the negotiations on track. 5 "I believe we ought to have another meeting," Portman said November 22 at a press conference in Geneva. "Without a meeting, without setting up sort of a backstop, it’s tough to make progress … We need to continue to push, keep the pressure on, to meet the end of 2006 deadline." Portman made the comments after meeting with ministers from Brazil,10 the European Union (EU), India and Japan. Launched in 2001 and stalled almost from the start over politically difficult agricultural trade issues, the negotiations, formally called the Doha Development Agenda, were originally scheduled to conclude in 2005. Since then, participants have pressed for conclusion by December 2006,15 which would give the United States time to submit any agreement to Congress before the president’s negotiating authority, called trade promotion authority or fast track, expires in mid-2007. When the United States submitted an agriculture proposal October 10 to substantially reduce domestic support payments to farmers and tariffs, Portman20 said the aim was to revive chances for the December 13-18 Hong Kong meeting to set the modalities -- the details and deadlines -- necessary for concluding the negotiations a year later. That aim was frustrated, however, when a subsequent EU agriculture proposal was found by other participants to offer no real increased market25 access. Outside the EU, food-importing developed countries and major developing countries issued statements rejecting market-opening concessions. Still, at the November 22 press conference Portman said that, although the Hong Kong ministerial will not establish modalities, the United States remains committed to concluding an agreement with real substance.30 "While expectations for Hong Kong have been lowered, and while Hong Kong will not be all we had hoped it would be," he said, "the U.S. continues to have very high expectations." (By Bruce Odessey Washington File Staff Writer) Visit http://usinfo.state.gov www.pontodosconcursos.com.br
  • 2. CURSOS ON-LINE – INGLÊS – PROFESSOR CARLOS AUGUSTOCURSOS ON LINE Prof. Carlos Augusto -2-Pre-testing VocabularyNo quadro seguinte você encontra transparent words associadas a outras nãotão evidentes. Faça o skimming do texto e, sem dicionário, tente traduzi-las. A B1. the long-stalled negotiations a. ( ) instalar um tipo de proteção2. keep the negotiations on track b. ( ) comprometidos em fechar o acordo3. setting up sort of a backstop c. ( ) as expectativas diminuíram4. committed to concluding an agreement d. ( ) negociações há muito emperradas5. expectations have been lowered e. ( ) manter as negociações nos eixos ANALYSIS OF TEXT 11. Escreva um exemplo retirado do text 1 nos Verb tenses below:Present continuous ____________________________________________Present simple _________________________________________________Past simple ___________________________________________________Present perfect _________________________________________________Future Simple __________________________________________________Past perfect ____________________________________________________2. Escreva dois exemplos de construções na voz passive:________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________3. Como você traduz a expressão em negrito no seguinte fragmento do texto?: “the United States remains committed to concluding an agreement with real substance…” (L- 28/29)________________________________________________________________ www.pontodosconcursos.com.br
  • 3. CURSOS ON-LINE – INGLÊS – PROFESSOR CARLOS AUGUSTOCURSOS ON LINE Prof. Carlos Augusto -3-Reading Comprehension – Answer in Portuguese:1. Após reunir-se com representantes do Brasil, da Europa do Japão por que Rob Portman sugere uma nova reunião após Hong Kong?_________________________________________________________________________2. Porque motivo as negociações sobre comércio travaram logo depois de seu início em 2001?_________________________________________________________________________3. Quais os motivos que reduzem consideravelmente as chances de sucesso da reunião dos ministros do comércio em Hong Kong?_________________________________________________________________________4. A expressão ‘Since then’ (L 14) está usada no texto para indicar o quê?_________________________________________________________________________5. Que idéia indica a palavra ‘still’ (L-27) como marcadora do discurso?_________________________________________________________________________6. Que idéia indica a palavra ‘while’ (L-30) como marcadora do discurso?_________________________________________________________________________7. É possível parafrasear o fragmento ‘the long-stalled WTO negotiations…” (L-2) da seguinte forma: The WTO negotiations that have not advanced for a long time. True ( ) or False ( )?8. In "I believe we ought to have another meeting," (L-5) o modal verb “ought to” pode ser substituído por “should” sem prejuízo do sentido. True ( ) or False ( )? www.pontodosconcursos.com.br
  • 4. CURSOS ON-LINE – INGLÊS – PROFESSOR CARLOS AUGUSTOCURSOS ON LINE Prof. Carlos Augusto -4- WORD FORMS: PREFIXES AND SUFFIXES É fundamental que você acredite no estudo que vem realizando. Se vocêchega à AULA 9 de um curso programado para dez aulas e não é capaz de pôrem prática os ensinamentos ministrados, de duas uma: ou não está estudandosuficientemente ou ao professor falta demonstrar o encadeamento didático domaterial apresentado. Well (faltava um well), desta vez vamos fazer umverdadeiro ‘affix rally’ –juntar prefixos e sufixos num estudo abrangente. Nofinal desta aula disponibilizamos uma coletânea com os principais AFFIXESpara sua referência. Não deixe de estudá-los para o simulado que vamos proporapós a AULA 10. Com o propósito de lhes dar maior confiança neste estudo vamos repassarvários exemplos de palavras com formação prefixal e sufixal no texto 1. First,em ministerial meeting, a reunião dos trade ministers (=ministros docomércio), evidentemente ministerial pertence à família da palavra minister evocê chega ao significado em português com facilidade. Em WTOnegotiations (= negociações da OMC) o substantivo negotiations pertence àfamília do verbo regular negotiate, do adjetivo negotiable, ou do seuantônimo non-negotable, e vai por aí. Em press conference (= conferência de imprensa), conference ésubstantivo derivado do verbo regular confer. Na expressão keep thepressure on (=manter a pressão sobre) você tem o substantivo pressure, damesma família do verbo regular press (= pressionar) e do substantivo press (=imprensa) supracitado. Em politically difficult =(= politicamente difíceis) aíesta o advérbio com a terminação –mente de que tanto falamos. No fragmento‘participants have pressed for conclusion’, o substantivo participants(= participantes) é da mesma família do verbo regular participate, econclusion (= conclusão) da mesma família do verbo regular conclude. Em‘submit any agreement’, tem-se o substantivo agreement (= acordo)formado com o acréscimo do sufixo –ment ao regular verb to agree. Vocêreconhece em ‘agriculture proposal’ o substantive proposal (= proposta)derivado de o regular verb to propose? Last but not least, observe em ‘expectations lowered’, ambas aspalavras podem ser dissecadas: expectations vem do verbo expect elowered, particípio passado do verbo to lower (= diminuir). Como você percebe os prefixos e sufixos aparecem dezenas de vezes emtextos de todas as espécies. Familiarize-se sempre mais com eles e sua leituraserá indubitavelmente mais fluente.Faça os exercícios que se seguem e procuretraduzir as frases curtas. No final confronte seu trabalho com minha tradução. www.pontodosconcursos.com.br
  • 5. CURSOS ON-LINE – INGLÊS – PROFESSOR CARLOS AUGUSTOCURSOS ON LINE Prof. Carlos Augusto -5-I - Use the prefixes in the box to complete the sentences below: IL- IR IM IN UN1. The witness’s account of the facts was rather ___-accurate.2. I’m not going to do it because it’s against the law. It’s ___-legal.3. We all expect judges to be ____-partial.4. As the leader, he had to take ____-popular decisions.5. I was drawn to the place by some kind of ____-resistible force.II - Use the prefixes in the box to complete the sentences below: MIS- DIS- NON- IN- UN-1. Don’t cheat on the exam or you’ll be ___-qualified.2. Make a decision. Why do you always have to be so ___-decisive?3. She’s been feeling so ___-sure.4. There must some ___-understanding. This is not what I meant.5. Mr. Lombard said he worked for a ___-profit organization.III - Add the suffixes in the box to the nouns in parentheses. -ISH -ABLE -OUS -IC -IVE1. Doctor Sales found out that Julia was _________ (allergy) to penicillin.2. You have to read the _________ (class) authors.3. Share your room with your cousin. Be less _________ (self), Gene.4. That snake is _________ (poison). Be careful.5. Freddy’s business is very _________ (profit).IV - Add the suffixes in the box to the nouns in parentheses. -FUL -IBLE -LY -AL -Y1. Samantha has a _________ (love) child.2. Because of Julia’s hypertension she can’t eat _________ (salt) food.3. We have to remain ________ (watch) so that another robbery does not happen again.4. I hated that scene. It was _________ (horror).5. My father loves _________ (class) music. www.pontodosconcursos.com.br
  • 6. CURSOS ON-LINE – INGLÊS – PROFESSOR CARLOS AUGUSTOCURSOS ON LINE Prof. Carlos Augusto -6- VOCABULARY BUILD UP Para fins didáticos dividi o artigo “Unleashing Growth Through SoundDeveloping Policies” (Promovendo o Crescimento através de Políticas deDesenvolvimento Saudáveis) em dez excerpts. Como lhes disse antes este é otipo do exercício que cada um pode preparar a seu bel prazer. Eight words have been removed from the excerpts. Complete withthe words from the box paying attention to the meaning andstructure of the mini-texts.Mini-text 1: Unleashing Growth through Sound Developing Policies sponsored business gather join accomplished successful pledged key In September 2000, 189 nations agreed to ____________ (1) forces in afight against poverty, illiteracy, hunger, lack of education, gender inequality,child and maternal mortality, disease, and environmental degradation. Thesecountries, including the United States, __________ (2) to take bold decisions tomake development a reality for all nations. On September 14, 2005, five yearsafter that historic meeting, leaders from more than 170 nations will____________ (3) at the United Nations in New York City to take measure ofthe progress made to date. While much remains to be __________ (4), theprogress has been substantial. The 2000 meeting gave the political impetus for reform, but it was twoyears later, at the 2002 United Nations-___________ (5) InternationalConference on Financing for Development held in Mexico, that leaders agreedto the definitive framework for ___________ (6) development called theMonterrey Consensus. At that meeting, developing countries and donors alike,with input from civil society and the __________ (7) community, embracedgood governance, domestic ownership of development strategies, trade, andprivate investment as ___________ (8) elements of economic growth andprosperity. (By Andrew Natsios – USAID Administrator // Excerpt I) www.pontodosconcursos.com.br
  • 7. CURSOS ON-LINE – INGLÊS – PROFESSOR CARLOS AUGUSTOCURSOS ON LINE Prof. Carlos Augusto -7-Mini-text 2: Unleashing Growth through Sound Developing Policies nearly eradication sustainable corruption beyond mechanisms assistance industrialized In Africa, for example, many leaders are now working through the NewPartnership for Africas Development (NEPAD) process, linking poverty___________ (1) to policies that promote ___________ (2) growth and trade,good governance, and the fight against the pernicious evil of __________ (3). For its part, the United States has increased its official developmentassistance (ODA) even _________ (4) President Bush’s 2002 Monterreypledge. Since 2000, American assistance has __________ (5) doubled, risingfrom $10 billion to $19 billion in 2004. That constitutes one-quarter of the ODAfrom the 30 ___________ (6) member countries of the Organization forEconomic Cooperation and Development. History has shown, however, that the amount of development__________ (7) is less important than the uses to which it is put and theimplementation __________ (8) used to carry out programs. It is essential,therefore, that increases in ODA be matched by increases in effectiveness andsustainability. (By Andrew Natsios – USAID Administrator // Excerpt 2)Mini-text 3: Unleashing Growth through Sound Developing Policies sources growth donations commitment assistance figures contributions institutions Countries that have proven their ___________ (1) to change and reform,governing justly, investing in their people, and maintaining policies and___________ (2) that support market-led ___________ (3) will receive billionsof dollars in the coming years from another of President Bushs initiatives: theMillennium Challenge Corporation. But the United States gives far more development ___________ (4) thanis reflected in ODA statistics. ___________ (5) from the private sector, forexample, whether corporations, private voluntary organizations, ornongovernmental organizations, are not counted as official developmentassistance. And yet these private ___________ (6) of capital account for a largepercentage of what the people of the United States contribute to developmentevery year. According to ___________ (7) released by the Hudson Institute, anonpartisan policy research organization, U.S. private ___________ (8) todeveloping countries exceeded $62 billion in 2003. (By Andrew Natsios – USAIDAdministrator // Excerpt 3) www.pontodosconcursos.com.br
  • 8. CURSOS ON-LINE – INGLÊS – PROFESSOR CARLOS AUGUSTOCURSOS ON LINE Prof. Carlos Augusto -8-Mini-text 4: Unleashing Growth through Sound Developing Policies relief partners development further resources failure achievement advantage The U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) has tried totake __________ (1) of these new sources of development assistance in recentyears, joining forces with socially responsible private sector organizations inour Global Development Alliance. Since 2002, we have invested $1 billion in290 public-private alliances in 98 countries, while our private sector _________(2) have contributed more than $3.7 billion in total __________ (3). Too often, humanitarian ____________ (4) has been treated as if it weresomehow separate from development and the ___________ (5) of the goals setforth in the 2000 Millennium Declaration. It is not. The ___________ (6) torespond to food emergencies in countries in Africa and elsewhere can only leadto ___________ (7) instability and make their ____________ (8) even moredifficult. (By Andrew Natsios – USAID Administrator // Excerpt 4)Mini-text 5: Unleashing Growth through Sound Developing Policies founder path respond health conflict totals separate family Too often, humanitarian relief has been treated as if it were somehow__________ (1) from development and the achievement of the goals set forth inthe 2000 Millennium Declaration. It is not. The failure to __________ (2) tofood emergencies in countries in Africa and elsewhere can only lead to furtherinstability and make their development even more difficult. To help states caught up in crisis and _________(3) return to stability andput their economies on the _________ (4) to sustained growth, President Bushrecently announced that the United States will provide an additional $674million for humanitarian emergencies in Africa this year. This is beyond theapproximately $1.4 billion already committed. As a ___________ (5) and largest donor of the Global Fund to FightHIV/AIDS, Tuberculosis, and Malaria, the United States also provided $459million to the fund in 2004. The U.S. contribution for all of its HIV/AIDSprograms __________ (6) more than $2.8 billion in the current fiscal year. Inaddition, we provide approximately $435 million annually for voluntary_________ (7) planning and maternal __________ (8) care to 60 countries. (ByAndrew Natsios – USAID Administrator // Excerpt 5) www.pontodosconcursos.com.br
  • 9. CURSOS ON-LINE – INGLÊS – PROFESSOR CARLOS AUGUSTOCURSOS ON LINE Prof. Carlos Augusto -9-Mini-text 6: Unleashing Growth through Sound Developing Policies experience considerable wealth mission revenues articulated poverty agency Achieving the goals __________ (1) in the Millennium Declaration isvery much in the interests of the United States and central to the mission ofUSAID. As the first-ever bilateral development _________ (2) - and still thelargest - we have had ___________ (3) stake in the process and more than 40years of __________ (4) in what works and what does not. That is why we putso much emphasis on economic growth. Simply put: Without trade, there can beno sustained economic growth. Without economic growth, there will be noincrease in tax __________ (5) to support improved public services. Withoutgrowth and services, there will be no increase in _________ (6) and reduction in___________ (7) Unless foreign aid contributes to economic growth, it isfailing to achieve its primary __________ (8). (By Andrew Natsios – USAIDAdministrator // Excerpt 6)Mini-text 7: Unleashing Growth through Sound Developing Policies debt components forefront benefit owed liberalization incomes reach There are several __________ (1) of a successful economic growthprogram. One of the most important, we have learned, is trade. The UnitedStates has long led the world in trade __________ (2), and USAID devotessubstantial resources to helping countries participate successfully in tradenegotiations and enter the World Trade Organization (WTO). Liberalizing tradelaws and participating fully in the global economy does not just __________ (3)developed countries. The completion of the WTO Doha Development Roundcould add $200 billion annually to developing countries’ __________ (4) andlift more than 500 million people out of poverty. For several years, the United States has been at the __________ (5) of themovement to ease the Third World’s __________ (6) burdens. The UnitedStates and other G8 countries have called for 100 percent cancellation of manydebt obligations __________ (7) to the World Bank, the African DevelopmentBank, and the International Monetary Fund. This could result in approximately$40 billion in immediate debt relief - and it could __________ (8) more than$56 billion if all the Heavily Indebted Poor Countries become eligible. (ByAndrew Natsios – USAID Administrator // Excerpt 7) www.pontodosconcursos.com.br
  • 10. CURSOS ON-LINE – INGLÊS – PROFESSOR CARLOS AUGUSTOCURSOS ON LINE Prof. Carlos Augusto -10-Mini-text 8: Unleashing Growth through Sound Developing Policies mobilized estimates property assets immense inability borders tapped Another __________ (1) source of potential revenue for the developingcountries of the world lies within their own __________ (2). The report of theU.N. Commission on the Private Sector and Development - UnleashingEntrepreneurship: Making Business Work for the Poor - __________ (3) thatdeveloping countries have $9.4 trillion dollars in private financial __________(4) that cannot be fully __________ (5) for development, largely because ofcorruption and inadequate legal protections for __________ (6) and contracts.Further, as the Peruvian economist Hernando de Soto has shown in a number ofhis works, the _________ (7) of millions of Third World people to capitalize ontheir homes and businesses due to overly rigid property and titling regulationssuggests that a great reservoir of wealth remains to be __________ (8) in manydeveloping nations. (By Andrew Natsios – USAID Administrator // Excerpt 8)Mini-text 9: Unleashing Growth through Sound Developing Policies wealthiest fostering devised enforce consumers competitive goals confidence A ____________ (1), well-regulated private market is indispensablebecause it is the most effective institution ever ____________ (2) for allocatingresources efficiently, for ____________ (3) innovation, and for communicatinginformation that helps ____________ (4) and producers make decisions. It is nocoincidence that the ____________ (5) and most developed countries of theworld are all free market democracies. Regulatory frameworks that build_____________ (6) in private markets, protect property, ____________ (7)contracts, and generally respect the rule of law are essential if developingnations are to achieve the ____________ (8) of the Millennium Declaration. (ByAndrew Natsios – USAID Administrator // Excerpt 9) www.pontodosconcursos.com.br
  • 11. CURSOS ON-LINE – INGLÊS – PROFESSOR CARLOS AUGUSTOCURSOS ON LINE Prof. Carlos Augusto -11-Mini-text 10: Unleashing Growth through Sound Developing Policies debating barriers blazed persistence choices register basic challenge According to a World Bank study, in one developing country, it takes 203days to ____________ (1) a business, while in another enforcing a contracttakes 1,459 days. With ____________ (2) to business formation andentrepreneurship such as these, businesses remain small and in the informalsector. There is no point in ____________ (3) whether official developmentassistance should be $68 billion or $100 billion or $195 billion when the most____________ (4) policies for generating wealth are not in place. Ending poverty is a serious ____________ (5). Building effective andequitable economic institutions takes time, ____________ (6), and reform.Policies must be put in place to safeguard the most vulnerable members ofsociety. The good news is that many countries have already ____________ (7) atrail and that the United States and the international community will help thoseprepared to help themselves. With the right ____________ (8), we have a goodchance of reaching the goals we set for ourselves at Monterrey and in theMillennium Declaration. (By Andrew Natsios – USAID Administrator // Excerpt 10) www.pontodosconcursos.com.br
  • 12. CURSOS ON-LINE – INGLÊS – PROFESSOR CARLOS AUGUSTOCURSOS ON LINE Prof. Carlos Augusto -12- LIGHTEN UP! I – ANGUISHED LOVER An elderly man was sitting on a park bench in tears. A police officercame up and asked him what was wrong. “I’m 85 years old,” sobbed the man. “Ihave a 25-year-old wife at home. She is beautiful, charming and madly in lovewith me.” “So whats the problem?” “I cant remember where I live!” (Tom Pennington in Louisville Courier Journal) II - A GEM OF AN IDEA A parable told by William Cunningham, education adviser to Gov.George Deukmejian of California: A man was out walking in the desert when a voice said to him, “Pick upsome pebbles and put them in your pocket, and tomorrow you will he both sorryand glad.” The man obeyed. He stooped down and picked up a handful of pebblesand put them in his pocket. The next morning he reached into his pocket andfound diamonds and rubies and emeralds. And he was both glad and sorry. Gladthat he had taken some - sorry that he hadnt taken more. And so it is with education.Which one did you like better: the old man’s joke in I or the parablein II? Why?___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ www.pontodosconcursos.com.br
  • 13. CURSOS ON-LINE – INGLÊS – PROFESSOR CARLOS AUGUSTOCURSOS ON LINE Prof. Carlos Augusto -13- WARM UP FOR MOCK TEST The mock test (=exame simulado) date is drawing near. Do the nextquestions as if they were part of your exam. Good Luck!Read the text below then choose the best option to answer questions 1 to 4Meetings Fail To Advance WTO Negotiations, U.S. Officials SayWashington – December’s trade ministers meeting in Hong Kong shouldcontinue work toward consensus even though key parties have failed again toproduce a framework for concluding the long-stalled World Trade Organization(WTO) negotiations, U.S. Trade Representative Rob Portman says. Portman and U.S. Secretary of Agriculture Mike Johanns said that WTOparticipants should keep working hard to make progress before the Hong Kongmeeting. The two officials November 9 conducted a teleconference with reportersin the United States from aboard an airplane carrying them from Geneva toOuagadougou, Burkina Faso, where they are scheduled to meet with sub-Saharan African officials to discuss cotton trade. He said the United States still intends to push hard for consensus over thecoming weeks. And Johanns called premature any notion of ending thenegotiations, which are formally called the Doha Development Agenda. "It would be a grave mistake to declare this round at an end at the HongKong meeting," Johanns said. "There is still an entire year ahead of us when wecan work aggressively to have a successful Doha round, and we are committedto doing that." (By Bruce Odessey, Washington File Staff Writer)Visit: http://usinfo.state.gov/ei/Archive/2005/Nov09-445315.html1. In relation to the World Trade Organization (WTO) negotiations the author says thata) trade ministers will hardly reach a consensus in Hong Kong.b) they have not advanced for quite a while.c) will rely on the trade ministers’ consensus.d) depend on the production of a framework.e) may progress in Hong Kong at last. www.pontodosconcursos.com.br
  • 14. CURSOS ON-LINE – INGLÊS – PROFESSOR CARLOS AUGUSTOCURSOS ON LINE Prof. Carlos Augusto -14-2. It’s possible to infer as to the Doha round that ita) should depend on the Hong Kong meeting.b) might bring some progress.c) will fail to produce expected results.d) might be canceled.e) should be held in December 2006.3. The expression “even though” (L-2), 1st pr. indicatesa) addition and could be replaced by moreoverb) emphasis and could be replaced by indeed.c) concession and could be replaced by although.d) purpose and could be replaced by thus.e) contrast and could be replaced by nevertheless.4. According to the two American officialsa) key parties won’t be able to produce the appropriate framework for the Doha round of negotiations.b) just the Secretary of Agriculture a and a U.S. trade representative are not enough to reflect the North American policy on this issue.c) WTO participants should strive to make progress before the trade ministers’ meeting in Hong Kong.d) the atmosphere preceding the Hong Kong meeting is one of undeniable pessimism about reaching any consensus.e) demonstrated they are somewhat helpless to combat the key parties failure to work toward consensus. www.pontodosconcursos.com.br
  • 15. CURSOS ON-LINE – INGLÊS – PROFESSOR CARLOS AUGUSTOCURSOS ON LINE Prof. Carlos Augusto -15- Alguns comentários antes do gabarito Se você é bom observador notou que nesta nona aula procuramos repassarvariados pontos. Tenha em mente que, a não ser em textos adaptados, nenhumautor escreve um determinado essay, article ou report para que se estude opresent simple, o past tense, present perfect, prepositions, passivevoice, etc. O autor escreve para passar sua mensagem, para discorrer sobredeterminado assunto. Como você viu no text 1 desta aula, lá estão os modal verbs pipocandoaqui e ali, os verb tenses acima citados e outros, os prefixes e suffixesaparecem em profusão, os exemplos de discourse markers, e até algunsexemplos de passive voice. Devo dizer, honestamente, que não escolhi o texto inicial para demonstrarestes pontos. Actually, escolhi o text 1 porque se tratava de umdesdobramento do assunto: reunião dos trade ministers em Hong Kong -mesmo tópico do texto com as questões que já havia proposto num simuladoaqui no RJ e que, aqui, estão funcionando como warm up para o nossosimulado depois da AULA 10. Acredito que tenha conseguido provar o meu ponto. Eu não tive quebuscar desesperadamente um texto que falasse de todos os assuntos que vimosestudando; eles simplesmente estavam lá. Provavelmente, será isso queacontecerá no dia da sua prova. Esses mesmos pontos fundamentais estarão lá e,aí, tudo vai depender de como a banca examinadora irá explorá-los. Portanto, keep in mind that a probabilidade de não aparecer nenhumdos tópicos que estamos estudando é zero. A não ser, é claro, que você tenhapegado a prova de espanhol por engano! www.pontodosconcursos.com.br
  • 16. CURSOS ON-LINE – INGLÊS – PROFESSOR CARLOS AUGUSTOCURSOS ON LINE Prof. Carlos Augusto -16- ANSWERSPre-testing Vocabularya. 3 // b. 4 // c. 5 // d. 1 // e. 2Verb TensesPresent continuous: is urging (L-1)Present simple: We need (L-7)Past simple: Portman made (L-9), the United States submittedPresent perfect: have pressed (L-14),Future simple: will not establish (L-28), Hong Kong will not be (L-32)Past perfect: all we had hoped,Passive voice Items:Quaisquer dois dos seguintes exemplos:That aim was frustrated, … // when a subsequent EU agriculture proposal wasfound by other participants,… // expectations for Hong Kong have beenlowered …Translation of the text fragment:In “the United States remains committed to concluding an agreementwith real substance…” (L- 28/29) Apesar de o verbo concluding apresentar-se com a forma ...ing usamos o infinitivo na tradução por causa da preposição to exigida pelo verbo committed. Portanto: os EUA permanecem determinados a concluir um acordo ... é a melhor tradução do trecho. www.pontodosconcursos.com.br
  • 17. CURSOS ON-LINE – INGLÊS – PROFESSOR CARLOS AUGUSTOCURSOS ON LINE Prof. Carlos Augusto -17-Reading Comprehension1. Para estabelecer uma base de proteção uma vez que progredir nasnegociações é tarefa árdua.2. Logo de início, em 2001, por causa da questão de comercialização dosprodutos agrícolas.3. As chances de sucesso na reunião em Hong Kong ficaram sensivelmentereduzidas após constatar-se que a proposta da União Européia não representavanenhum aumento real de acesso aos mercados.2. A expressão since then (= desde então) indica tempo decorrido desde olançamento em 2001.5. A palavra still (= contudo, todavia) é usada como uma transitional word oumarcadora do discurso e não como advérbio. Aqui marca oposição ou contraste.6. A palavra while (= apesar de)é usada como uma transitional word oumarcadora do discurso. Igualmente, aqui está indicando oposição ou contraste.True or False?7. (T) Ought to pode ser substituído por should8. (T) A tradução “the long-stalled WTO negotiations é: ‘as negociaaçõestravadas há longo tempo’ www.pontodosconcursos.com.br
  • 18. CURSOS ON-LINE – INGLÊS – PROFESSOR CARLOS AUGUSTOCURSOS ON LINE Prof. Carlos Augusto -18-Prefixes // SuffixesI.1. [INACCURATE] O relato dos fatos apresentado pela testemunha foi impreciso (OU inexato)2. [ILLEGAL] Não vou fazer isto porque é contra a lei; é ilegal.3. [IMPARTIAL] Todos nós esperamos que juízes sejam imparciais.4. [UNPOPULAR] Na qualidade de líder tinha que tomar decisões impopulares.5. [IRRESISTIBLE] Fui arrastado para o local por um tipo de força irresistível.II.1. [DISQUALIFIED] Não cole no exame ou você será desclassificado.2. [INDECISIVE] Tome uma decisão. Por que você tem que ser sempre tão indeciso?3. [UNSURE] Ela tem se sentido tão insegura.4. [MISUNDERSTANDING] Deve haver algum mal-entendido. Não era isso que eu queria dizer.5. [NON-PROFIT] Mr. Lombard disse que trabalhava para uma organização não lucrativa.III1. [ALLERGIC] O Doutor Sales descobriu que a Julie era alérgica à penicilina.2. [CLASSIC] Você tem que ler os autores clássicos.3. [SELFISH] Divida seu quarto com sua prima. Não seja tão egoísta, Gene.4. [POISONOUS] Aquela cobra é venenosa. Tenha cuidado.5. [PROFITABLE] A empresa do Freddy é muito lucrative.IV1. [LOVELY] Samantha tem um / uma filho /a adorável.2. [SALTY] Por causa de sua hipertensão Julie não pode comer comidas salgadas.3. [WATCHFUL] Temos que permanecer vigilantes a fim de que outro roubo não ocorra novamente.4. [HORRIBLE] Detestei aquela cena. É horrível.5. [CLASSICAL] Meu pai adora música clássica. . www.pontodosconcursos.com.br
  • 19. CURSOS ON-LINE – INGLÊS – PROFESSOR CARLOS AUGUSTOCURSOS ON LINE Prof. Carlos Augusto -19-Vocabulary Buil UpMini-text 11. join // 2. pledged // 3. gather // 4. accomplished // 5. sponsored // 6.successful // 7. business // 8. keyMini-text 21. eradication // 2. sustainable // 3. corruption // 4. beyond // 5. nearly/ 6.industrialized // 7. assistance // 8. mechanismsMini-text 31. commitment //2. institutions //3. growth //4. assistance // 5. contributions// 6. sources // 7. figures // 8. donationsMini-text 41. advantage // 2. partners // 3. resources // 4. relief // 5. achievement / 6.failure // 7. further // 8. developmentMini-text 51. separate // 2. respond // 3. conflict // 4. path // 5. founder / 6. totals // 7.family // 8. healthMini-text 61. articulated // 2. agency // 3. considerable // 4. experience // 5. revenues / 6.wealth // 7. poverty // 8. missionMini-text 71. components // 2. liberalization // 3. benefit // 4. incomes // 5. forefront / 6.debt // 7. owed // 8. reachMini-text 81. immense // 2. borders // 3. estimates // 4. assets // 5. mobilized / 6.property // 7. inability // 8. tappedMini-text 91. competitive // 2. devised // 3. fostering // 4. consumers // 5. wealthiest / 6.confidence // 7. enforce // 8. goalsMini-text 101. register // 2. barriers // 3. debating // 4. basic // 5. challenge / 6.persistence // 7. blazed // 8. choices www.pontodosconcursos.com.br
  • 20. CURSOS ON-LINE – INGLÊS – PROFESSOR CARLOS AUGUSTOCURSOS ON LINE Prof. Carlos Augusto -20-MOCK TEST1. B Veja o exercício sobre a paráfrase desse fragmento no texto 1 desta nossaaula. O que está dito na letra A? Os ministros do comércio mal conseguirãoobter um consenso em Hong Kong [Atenção para a palavra ‘hardly cuja força énegativa Por exemplo: Without make-up, you could hardly recognizethe movie star (Sem maquiagem mal se podia reconhecer a estrela docinema). Na letra C tem-se: dependerão (as negociações) do consenso dosministros do comércio; na letra D, na elaboração de um painel e, em E, podem(é provável que) progridam em Hong Kong, contrariando tudo o que é esperadoe mencionado no texto.2. E Apareceu o verbo ‘infer’ (ou o substantivo inference) sinal de alerta!Você está sendo convidado a tirar uma conclusão sobre alguma coisa nãopresente no texto com todas as letras. Na presente questão, só é razoávelconcluir que a rodada de Doha está programada para dezembro de 2006 comapoio na declaração do secretario de agricultura norte-americano o qual diz queseria um erro descartar tal rodada quando se tem um ano inteiro para trabalharativamente e se buscar avanços para preparar a reunião. Quanto às demaisopções: em A, deve depender da reunião de Hong Kong, em B, talvez possatrazer algum progresso [vaga demais]; em C, fracassará em produzir osresultados esperados; [não é possível afirmar isso, e mais, não é uma inferência]em D, poderá, é provável que seja cancelada [não passa de um chute]3. C Estude a folha com os discourse markers (=marcadores do discurso).Even though (=muito embora) indica concessão e poderia nesse contexto sersubstituído por although (=embora).4. C Esta resposta está no segundo parágrafo do texto. Traduzindo: osparticipantes das negociações na OMC devem envidar esforços para progredirantes mesmo da reunião dos ministros de comércio em Hong Kong. em A, aspartes-chave não serão capazes de produzir um painel adequado para a rodadade negociações de Doha; em B, somente um secretário de agricultura e umrepresentante comercial não são suficientes para refletir a política norte-americana sobre este assunto; em D, a atmosfera precedendo a reunião de HongKong é de inegável pessimismo quanto a se alcançar um consenso. Finalmente,em E, lê-se: demonstraram que estão um tanto indefesos para combater ofracasso da forças-chave quanto a se alcançar algum consenso. www.pontodosconcursos.com.br
  • 21. CURSOS ON-LINE – INGLÊS – PROFESSOR CARLOS AUGUSTOCURSOS ON LINE Prof. Carlos Augusto -21- SUPPLEMENT: AFFIXES É de grande utilidade o estudo das word forms do inglês. Quanto maisfamiliarizado você estiver com os vários affixes (prefixes / suffixes) maisfacilidade terá em decoding novos significados, e mais fluentemente vocêconseguirá ler e estará aumentando o seu vocabulary power.1) PREFIXESAnti as in: anti-war manifestação contra a guerraAuto as in: autobiography autobiografiaDis as in: disconnect desconectarEn as in: enlarge ampliarIl as in: illegal ilegalIm as in impatient impacienteIn as in: indecent indecenteInter as in interdependent interdependentIr as in irrelevant irelevanteMid as in: mid-way a meio caminhoMis as in misinterpret interpretar malMulti as in multinational multinacionalNon as in nonsmoking não fumanteOut as in outlive viver mais queOver as in overweight obeso, acima do pesoPre as in: pre-test pré testePro as in: pro-abortion manifestação em favor do abortoSemi as in: semicircle semicírculoUn as in unwrap desembrulharUnder as in: undernourished subnutrido2) SUFFIXESFormadores de verbos-ate as in: estimate estimar-en as in: blacken escurecer-fy as in: certify certificar-ize as in: liberalize liberar www.pontodosconcursos.com.br
  • 22. CURSOS ON-LINE – INGLÊS – PROFESSOR CARLOS AUGUSTOCURSOS ON LINE Prof. Carlos Augusto -22-Formadores de advérbios-ly as in sincere sincerely-ward(s) as in: toward(s) em direção a-wise as in: clockwise no sentido horárioFormadores de substantivos-age as in: marriage casamento-ance as in attendance presença-er as in hunter caçador-hood as in: childhood infância-ician as in: statistician estatístico-ics as in: statistics estatística-ish as in: childish infantil-ism as in: fanaticism fanatismo-ist as in: physicist físico-ity as in: brutality brutalidade-ment as in: improvement melhoria-ness as in: happiness felicidade-or as in: survivor sobrevivente-ship as in: friendship amizade-sis as in: synthesis síntese-tion as in: attention atençãoFormadores de adjetivos-able as in: reliable confiável-al as in: cultural cultural-an as in American americano-ation as in: explanation explicação-ed* as in experienced experiente-ee as in trainee estagíário/a, treinando-ful as in: grateful grato/a, agradecido/a-ible as in: responsible responbsável-ic as in: classic clássico-ive as in: responsive responsivo/a-less as in: careless descuidado-ly as in: friendly amigável-ous as in: ambitious ambicioso/a-y as in: rainy chuvoso www.pontodosconcursos.com.br
  • 23. CURSOS ON-LINE – INGLÊS – PROFESSOR CARLOS AUGUSTOCURSOS ON LINE Prof. Carlos Augusto -23-AULA 9 Avalie se os seguintes objetivos desta aula foram alcançados. TÓPICOS & OBJETIVOS Raise your awareness of: Despertar sua conscientização para:I– Reading Text: US wants WTO Ministerial Meeting after Session in Hong Kong Texto para Leitura: ‘Os EUA querem uma reunião ministerial da OMC após a sessão de Hong Kong’II – Brief analysis of text 1: Verb Tenses, Modals, Passive Voice Discourse Markers Breve análise do texto 1: Tempos Verbais, Os modais, Voz Passiva, e Marcadores do DiscursoIII – Reading Comprehension text 1 Compreensão da Leitura do texto 1IV - Word Forms – Affixes together Formação de Palavras – Vários afixos juntosV– Vocabulary Build-up: Specialized vocabulary: 10 excerpts from the article ‘Unleashing Growth through Sound Development Policies Construção de Vocabulário: Vocabulário técnico: 10 trechos do artigo ‘Promovendo o Crescimento através de Políticas de Desenvolvimento Adequadas’.VI– Lighten up! Two stories: Anguished Lover & A Gem of an Idea Relaxe! Duas histórias: O amante angustiado & Uma jóia de Idéia.IX– Warm Up for the Mock Test // Text + comments on answers Aquecimento para o Teste Simulado Texto + gabarito comentado www.pontodosconcursos.com.br
  • 24. CURSOS ON-LINE – INGLÊS – PROFESSOR CARLOS AUGUSTO www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

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