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Ingles aula 4

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  • 1. CURSOS ON-LINE – INGLÊS – PROF. CARLOS AUGUSTO -1- Aula 4 INTENSIVE READING Text 1: The Rise of the Tycoon America once idealized the businessman who amassed a vast financial empire – the business tycoon. His epoch was the second half of the 19th century. It began with the spread of the railroad networks in the 1850s, and included the growth of northern industry in the 1860s, and the rise of investment banking in the 1870s.5 Throughout this period, business interests had significant influence over government. The great tycoons were fierce competitors, single-minded in their pursuit of financial success and power. Some of the giants were Jay Gould, J. P. Morgan, Andrew Carnegie, John D. Rockefeller and Henry Ford. Some of these men were honest according to business standards of their day; others used force, bribery and10 guile to achieve their wealth and power. The business spirit was not indigenous to America; it grew from the soil of European capitalism. By the time of the American Revolution, businessmen were operating in Italy, Holland, and England. Very early in American history there were industrialists, mostly in New England and along the northeastern seaboard. They15 were shipbuilders, manufacturers, land speculators, and bankers. Only a few, however, amassed large fortunes. J. Pierpont Morgan, perhaps the most flamboyant of the entrepreneurs, operated on a scale of magnificence. He displayed aggressiveness and grandeur in his private and business life. He and his companions gambled, sailed yachts, gave20 lavish parties, built palatial homes, and bought the art treasures of Europe. In contrast, such men as John D. Rockefeller and Henry Ford demonstrated taut Puritan qualities. They retained their small-town values and life styles. As churchgoers, they felt a sense of responsibility to others. They demonstrated that personal virtues could bring success; theirs was the gospel of work and thrift. Later25 their heirs would establish the largest philanthropic foundations in America. While many European intellectuals saw business and moneymaking as degrading, Americans generally embraced it with enthusiasm. They enjoyed the risk and excitement of business enterprise, as well as the potential rewards of power and acclaim.30 By the time of the Great Depression in the 1930s, however, the image of the entrepreneur as an American ideal had lost much of its luster. The crucial change came with the rise of corporation. Few business barons remained. They were replaced by "technocrats" as the heads of corporations. These executives, expert in every phase of corporate activity, became the indispensable cogs in the industrial35 machine. The high-salaried manager replaced the swaggering tycoon. The big business leaders today are often involved in many areas of public life. They not only direct the fate of corporations, they also serve on boards in their community and as university trustees. The new corporate leaders fly to Washington to confer with government officials on national policy. They are concerned about the40 state of the national economy and America’s relationship with other nations. (From An Outline of American Economy, ps.11/12, USIA) www.pontodosconcursos.com.br 1
  • 2. CURSOS ON-LINE – INGLÊS – PROF. CARLOS AUGUSTOCURSOS ON LINE Prof. Carlos Augusto -2- Procure responder as questões de reading comprehension como seelas fossem questões da sua prova. Utilize as técnicas e estratégias já abordadas.Choose the best option:1. All these options can be used to refer to the great Tycoons, excepta) they were fierce competitors.b) single-mindedly they pursued wealth and power.c) they all resorted to bribery and guile to achieve power.d) according to business standards of their day some were honest.2. The image of the tycoons lost much of its luster by the time ....a) the Great Depression which devastated America.b) corporate activity grew more intense.c) high-salaried experts were employed.d) industrial machines had to be replaced.3. After reading the text you can affirm that ...a) Europeans made a fortune by selling the Americans their art treasures.b) Americans and Europeans enjoyed the risk of business enterprise.c) the excitement of business enterprise fascinated Europeans.d) Americans and European intellectuals regarded business differently.4. New England industrialists early on in American history ...a) were mainly shipbuilders, manufacturers, land speculators and bankers.b) were highly influenced by Italians, Dutch and British businessmen.c) hardly ever amassed large fortunes.d) did not pursue financial power so hard as the great tycoons.5. It can be inferred from the passage that ...a) were it not for the tycoons there would never be philanthropic foundations in America today.b) the tycoons’ self-centered business led to their eventual replacement.c) big business leaders nowadays have as much influence over government as the great tycoons did in the past.d) heads of corporate activity do not enjoy the risk of business enterprise.6. The word while (L-26) as a discourse marker indicatesa) contrast.b) time.c) emphasis.d) consequence. www.pontodosconcursos.com.br 2
  • 3. CURSOS ON-LINE – INGLÊS – PROF. CARLOS AUGUSTOCURSOS ON LINE Prof. Carlos Augusto -3- ANALYSIS OF TEXT 1I. Do texto 1 retire 20 true cognates, as palavras transparentes, cujasemelhança com nosso português é evidente. Já comecei para você:America, idealized, vast, financial, empire ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________II - Verifique quantas vezes ‘the little word of’ a quem demos tantaimportância antes aparece no texto?________________________________________________________________III - Por ser uma narrativa histórica o past simple predomina no texto 1. Sóno primeiro parágrafo encontrei: idealized, amassed, was, began,included, had. Escreva nas linhas a seguir os exemplos de past simple que vocêencontra no trecho que vai de J. Pierpont Morgan, perhaps ... até rewards of powerand acclaim (L-17/29)________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________IV -- Retorne à aula 1 e veja que reading strategies você poderia ter usadopara responder cada uma das questões de reading comprehension.Questão 1 ________________________________________________Questão 2 ________________________________________________Questão 3 ________________________________________________Questão 4 ________________________________________________Questão 5 ________________________________________________Questão 6 ________________________________________________ www.pontodosconcursos.com.br 3
  • 4. CURSOS ON-LINE – INGLÊS – PROF. CARLOS AUGUSTOCURSOS ON LINE Prof. Carlos Augusto -4- ANALYSIS OF VOCABULARY ITEMS FROM TEXT 1I- “Throughout this period, business interests had significant influence over government.” (L-5)A function word ‘throughout’ (=in every part of, all through) é umapreposição. No fragmento em negrito é: durante todo este período.II - “In contrast, such men as John D. Rockefeller and Henry Ford demonstrated taut Puritan qualities.” (L-21/22)Como discourse marker, ‘in contrast (=conversely) que indica contraste.A tradução do fragmento em negrito é: ao contrário, inversamente. VOCABULARY POST TESTVeja se consegue traduzir os seguintes fragmentos do texto 1. Não usedicionário. No final da aula apresento a minha tradução para confronto.1. amassed large fortunes ______________________________2. gave lavish parties _________________________3. were fierce competitors ______________________________4. bought art treasures _________________________5. retained small-town values _________________________6. embraced moneymaking with enthusiasm _______________________________________7. enjoyed the risk of business enterprise ___________________________________8. had lost much of its luster _________________________9. came with the rise of corporations ________________________________10. became the indispensable cogs in the industrial machine _____________________________________________________11. direct the fate of corporations _________________________12. concerned about the state of national economy ___________________________________________ www.pontodosconcursos.com.br 4
  • 5. CURSOS ON-LINE – INGLÊS – PROF. CARLOS AUGUSTOCURSOS ON LINE Prof. Carlos Augusto -5- WORDS FORMSa) the suffix -OR Na aula 3 falamos sobre o sufixo –ER , acrescentado a verbos eindicando aquele que faz alguma coisa. Veja alguns exemplos do texto 1: Shipbuilders ( = aqueles que constroem navios) Manufacturers ( = aqueles que fabricam algo) Bankers (banqueiros , os que realizam as operações bancárias) No texto, nesta mesma seqüência você encontra land speculators (=especuladores de terras) Ao verbo speculate acrescentou-se o sufixo –ORVeja estes outros exemplos com este mesmo sufixo: They are expecting more visitors over the weekend. Eles estão esperando mais visitantes durante o fim de semana. As a result, a large number of investors changed route. Em conseqüência, um grande número de investidores mudou de rumo. My brother had some experience as a realtor. Meu irmão tinha alguma experiência como corretor de imóveis. Acrescente aqui outras palavras com esta mesma formação quando encontrá-las em suas leituras.a) the suffix -SHIPFrom text 1: “They are concerned about the state of the national economy andAmerica’s relationship with other nations.” (L-39/40) Neste caso, relationships significa relações diplomáticas com outras nações. O sufixo –SHIP é normalmente acrescentado a substantivos para formaroutros substantivos. Estude estes exemplos: www.pontodosconcursos.com.br 5
  • 6. CURSOS ON-LINE – INGLÊS – PROF. CARLOS AUGUSTOCURSOS ON LINE Prof. Carlos Augusto -6- For me nothing was more precious that her friendship. Para mim nada era mais precioso do que a amizade dela. It was an old manuscript whose authorship was hard to determine. Era um velho manuscrito cuja autoria ficava difícil determinar. Nobody enjoys living under dictatorship. Ninguém gosta de viver numa ditadura. Acrescente aqui outras palavras com esta mesma formação quando encontrá-las em suas leituras.c) the prefix -INFrom text 1: “These executives, expert in every phase of corporate activity, became theindispensable cogs in the industrial machine.” (L-33/35) Eis outro prefixo que forma antônimos em inglês. Já tínhamos estudadoNON-. De dispensable (=dispensável) forma-se indispensable (=indispensável). Veja outros exemplos: We could barely hear those indistinct sounds. Mal conseguíamos ouvir aqueles sons indefinidos. In English you have definite and indefinite articles. Em inglês tem-se artigos definidos e indefinidos. Acrescente aqui outras palavras com esta mesma formação quando encontrá-las em suas leituras. www.pontodosconcursos.com.br 6
  • 7. CURSOS ON-LINE – INGLÊS – PROF. CARLOS AUGUSTOCURSOS ON LINE Prof. Carlos Augusto -7- WORDS IN FAMILIESComplete the sentences with one of the words in bold type:1. Belong / belonged / belongings ‘Our airline cannot be held responsible for any personal ............................ left on the plane,’ the flight attendant announced.2. Pursuit / pursue / pursuer The .............................. of happiness must be every man’s dream in life.3. Unions / unify / unification / reunification With the advent of computer technology most business enterprises in Brazil have ................................ their controlling systems.4. Trends / trendy / trend If purple hair comes in fashion, be sure Lola will wear it. God knows how .................................... she is.5. Industrial / industrialists / industrialized / industrialization Wealthy ...................................... in São Paulo begin to demonstrate signs of impatience with the government’s economic policies.6. Magnificence / magnificent / magnified We found the scenery ................................ Never had we seen such a beautiful waterfall.7. Profit / profitable / profiteer Mr. Weld runs a very ................................. business.8. Account / accountable / accountings / accountant Soon the auditors found out that the ............................... had been cooking the books for quite a while.9. Advantage / advantageous / advantages Talk to your bank manager. He can show you the most ............................. form of investing your money.10. Competitor / compete / competitive / competitiveness The racer’s complaints had to do with his car’s lack of ............................. www.pontodosconcursos.com.br 7
  • 8. CURSOS ON-LINE – INGLÊS – PROF. CARLOS AUGUSTOCURSOS ON LINE Prof. Carlos Augusto -8- SUMMARY OF VERB TENSES RESUMO DOS TEMPOS VERBAISFrom Text 1: “By the time of the Great Depression in the 1930s, however, the image ofthe entrepreneur as an American ideal had lost much of its luster…”(L-30/31)5.1 THE PAST PERFECTUtilizemos as expressões learn fast (=aprender rápido) com o verbo regularlearn e grow old (ficar velho) com o verbo irregular grow (grew, grown).AFFIRMATIVEI / You / He / She / It/ We / They had learned fast/ grown oldComo você pode observar usa-se o passado simples do auxiliar ‘to have’ + oparticípio passado do verbo principal.QUESTIONS Had I/ You / He / She / It/ We / They learned fast/ grown old?Forma-se a interrogativa com a inversão do auxiliar ‘have’ e o sujeito da frase.NEGATIVEI/ You / He / She / It/ We / They had not learned fast / grown oldForma-se a negativa com o acréscimo de ‘not’ após o auxiliar ‘had’.Encontra-se a forma contraída: had not = hadn’t. www.pontodosconcursos.com.br 8
  • 9. CURSOS ON-LINE – INGLÊS – PROF. CARLOS AUGUSTOCURSOS ON LINE Prof. Carlos Augusto -9-5.2 USES OF THE PAST PERFECTa) Used to describe a past action that took place before another past action. Descreve uma ação passada que ocorre antes de outra ação passada.Exs.: When I got to the airport, Jenny had already left. Quando cheguei ao aeroporto, a Jenny já havia partido. Had she learned any English before you met? Ela havia aprendido inglês antes de vocês se encontrarem?b) In indirect speech, when the past simple was used in direct statements or questions. Em discurso indireto quando o passado simples foi usado nas afirmativas diretas.Exs.: “I saw Vera ”, John confirmed. (–Eu vi a Vera, confirmou o João.) John confirmed that he had seen her. João confirmou que tinha visto a Vera. ‘The witness didn’t talk to the criminal.’ the inspector said. A testemunha não falou com o criminoso - declarou o inspetor. The inspector said that the witness hadn’t talked to the criminal. O inspetor disse que a testemunha não havia falado com o criminoso. DIALOGUE PRACTICE Sinceramente já perdi a conta das vezes em que utilizei esta atividade nasminhas aulas. É excelente para praticar estruturas com past simple e pastperfect. Aos alunos é apresentado o seguinte diálogo incompleto: [S1 éstudent 1 // S2 é student 2]S1: Did you _________________ last night?S2: No, I didn’t. Last night I _____ something I had never ______ in my life.S1: Oh, really! What ___________?S2: I _______________________. Um exemplo com o verbo to see (saw, seen) [=ver]S1: Did you see the film on TV last night?S2: No, I didn’t. Last night I saw something I had never seen in my life.S1: Oh, really! What did you see?S2: I saw a hockey game. www.pontodosconcursos.com.br 9
  • 10. CURSOS ON-LINE – INGLÊS – PROF. CARLOS AUGUSTOCURSOS ON LINE Prof. Carlos Augusto -10-E se o verbo escolhido fosse drink (drank, drunk)? O diálogo poderia serpreenchido assim:S1: Did you drink Guaraná last night?S2: No, I didn’t. Last night I drank something I had never drunk in my life.S1: Oh, really! What did you drink?S2: I drank Tequila. A seguir você encontra uma lista de verbos irregulares que se encaixamno diálogo incompleto acima. A lista não está dada de mão beijada para você.Deixei uma das formas - ou do past tense ou do past participle em zigzag- para você preencher. Esteja você estudando alone ou in small groups eu aconselho que façaeste exercício para treinar estruturas com past simple e past perfect. Infinitive Past Simple Past Participle buy bought _____________ catch _________ caught choose chose _____________ do _________ done draw drew _____________ drink _________ drunk eat ate _____________ feel _________ felt fly flew _____________ hear _________ heard hit hit _____________ leave _________ left lose lost _____________ make _________ made run ran _____________ sell _________ sold spend spent ______________ spread _________ spread steal stole _____________ teach _________ taught tell told _____________ throw _________ thrown understand understood _____________ wear _________ worn www.pontodosconcursos.com.br 10
  • 11. CURSOS ON-LINE – INGLÊS – PROF. CARLOS AUGUSTOCURSOS ON LINE Prof. Carlos Augusto -11-Não deixe de preencher este word formation cloze pois ele lhepermitirá verificar o quanto você desenvolveu seu conhecimentode word families Choose the best word in parentheses to complete the text: The Federal Reserve Board–in Washington, D.C., coordinates FederalReserve Banks, which in fact constitute a central (1-banker / banking /banked) system. The Federal Reserve Board helps (2-stabilization / stabilize /stabilizing) and coordinate the nation’s commercial banks. About 6,000 of the14,000 banks (3-belong / belonging / belongs) to the system. The memberbanks handle more than 3/4 of all U.S. bank deposits. The Federal ReserveBanks lend money to (4-membership / member / members) banks for the cashreserves they are required to hold, (5-issuing / issue /issues) paper money, actas check (6-cleared /clearer /clearing) houses and provide other services. Byincreasing or decreasing cash reserve requirements and by raising or lowering(7-interesting / interest /interested) rates banks must pay for loans from theReserve Banks, the Federal Reserve Board can influence the (8-availability /available/ avails) and cost of money for loans, and thereby check inflationaryor deflationary trends in the economy. Most business and industrial activity inthe United States is financed by loans from commercial banks and (9-insured /insuring / insurance) companies. Commercial banks receive money in the formof deposits, (10-savings / saver / saved) or repayments from the public, thenlend it at interest to borrowers. Profit is made (11-primaries / primarily/primary) from interest. The (12-pools / pooling / pool) of funds for bank loanscomes from deposits by (13-businessmen / businesses / business-like) andindividuals and from bank investment profits. Banks return a (14-portioned/portion / portions) of investment profits to depositors in the form of servicesand interest on savings accounts. The money for insurance-company lendingcomes from the (15-annual / annually /annuals) premium paid by individualsand businesses for insurance (16-politics / policies / policy). Money saved by individuals is usually deposited for safekeeping ininterest– (17-bearing / bearer / born) accounts in one of four types of (18-private / privacy/ privately) institutions: commercial banks, savings banks,savings and loan associations and group credit unions. Interest-bearing U.S.government savings (19-bonds / bonding / bonded) are also available and are(20-widely / widening / width) used. Almost all the private savings institutionsbuy insurance offered by federal government corporations to protect individualsavings accounts up to $ 100,000. Most of the money deposited in theseindividual savings accounts is used by the institutions to finance the purchase,building or remodeling of private homes. (From “This is America”, p.54, USIA-1990 and from “An Outline of American Economy”, p.87, USIA-l981) www.pontodosconcursos.com.br 11
  • 12. CURSOS ON-LINE – INGLÊS – PROF. CARLOS AUGUSTOCURSOS ON LINE Prof. Carlos Augusto -12- WORDS IN PAIRS: TO BORROW / TO LENDFrom the Word Formation Cloze: “The Federal Reserve Banks lend money to member banks for the cash reserves they are required to hold.” (L-8/9) “The money for insurance-company lending comes from the annual premium paid by individuals...” (L-25/26) “Commercial banks receive money in the form of deposits, savings or repayments from the public, then lend it at interest to borrowers. (L-20/21) Distinguish between the usage of ‘to lend’ and ‘to borrow’:a) To borrow (r.v.)–be given sth. or take sth. intending to return it.Exs.: Marjorie borrowed $ l,000 from her father. Mark borrowed a video tape from me. Philip had to borrow from the bank to pay for his motorcycle. The book you borrowed from the library is due tomorrow.b) to lend ( lent, lent) - give sth as a loan.Exs.: The bank lent me $l.000. Lend you video game to your friend, Paul. The dim lights lent a romantic touch to the room. Two options of the quiz question were correct. I’m sure you can say: ‘He lent his CD to me’ or ‘He lent me his CD.’Summarizing: You borrow things from somebody and you lend things to somebody. www.pontodosconcursos.com.br 12
  • 13. CURSOS ON-LINE – INGLÊS – PROF. CARLOS AUGUSTOCURSOS ON LINE Prof. Carlos Augusto -13- VOCABULARY BUILD-UP A number of words have been removed from the minitexts that follow. Complete them with the words from the box paying attention to the meaning and structure of the texts.Mini-text 1: How to Understand Corporate Taxes in Brazil havens dividends rendered levied rates remittances profits domain A withholding income tax is __________ (1) on transactions involvingcompanies or individuals, residents or domiciled outside of Brazil. Tax__________ (2) may vary from case to case. In most international transactions,such as interest and capital gain __________ (3), the applicable rate is 15%.Payments for services __________ (4) by non-residents are subject towithholding at the rate of 25%. Royalties are subject to withholding tax of 15%plus a contribution to the economic intervention __________ (5) of 10%.Distribution of __________ (6) and__________ (7) generated as from January1996, are not subject to withholding income tax. Most of the payments toresidents or individuals domiciled in tax __________ (8) are subject towithholding income tax at the rate of 25%. (From How to Understand CorporateTaxes in Brazil, p.4, a publication of the American Chamber of Commerce (SP),sponsored by Price Waterhouse Coopers)Mini-text 2: Petrobrás seeks more refining capacity demand decision units join building production record jobs The _________ (1) by Petrobrás to _________ (2) Venezuela’s state-runpetroleum company, PDVSA, in _________ (3) a new refinery in the state ofPernambuco means that the Brazilian state-run enterprise will increase its________ (4) level by 200,000 barrels/day by the year 2011. That is good newswith domestic ________ (5) rising between 2.6% to 2.7% annually. The newrefinery will also create a total of 230,000 _________ (6) over a four-year period. At the moment, Petrobrás has eleven refining __________ (7), most inthe Southeastern regions of the country, and has been setting new productionrecords with regularity. In August, average daily production reached 1,8 millionbarrels. That is a new __________ (8). The problem is that by 2011 it will nolonger be enough. (Agência Brasil. by Nielmar de Oliveira, Translator: Allen Bennett) www.pontodosconcursos.com.br 13
  • 14. CURSOS ON-LINE – INGLÊS – PROF. CARLOS AUGUSTOCURSOS ON LINE Prof. Carlos Augusto -14- BANKING SERVICES Fill each blank in the text with the correct word or phrase.Choose from the items in the box. Use each item once only. commission debited in full interest issued outstanding ATM withdraw credit rating statement loan default collateral overdraft bounce financial Banks offer many services to businesses and their customers. Here aresome of the most common: Many people now have a card which enables them to ___________ (1)money from an ___________ (2). You feed your card into the machine and keyin your PIN (personal identification number) and the amount of money youwant. If you have enough in your account, the amount requested will be___________ (3) to you up to a daily limit. Your account is automatically____________ (4) for the amount you have drawn out. Provided you have a sound ___________ (5), you can get a credit cardfrom a bank and other ___________ (6) institutions. To obtain goods andservices, you present your card and sign a special voucher. When it receives thevoucher the credit card company pays the merchant minus a __________ (7)and then sends you a monthly ___________ (8). Depending on the type of cardyou have, you will either have to pay ___________ (9) or be able to pay part ofwhat is owed and pay _________ (10) on the balance left _________ (11). If you need additional money for investment or other major purchases,you can take out a _________ (12). The bank may need you to offer themsomething as __________ (13) in case you __________ (14) on your loan. Mostgood banks offer checking accounts with _________ (15) protection so that acheck won’t _________ (16) in case no funds are available in your account.(From American Business Vocabulary, by John Flower and Ron Martinez, p.15) LIGHTEN UP! Como eu já disse antes: seu estudo de inglês não tem que ser boring. Otexto a seguir, extraído do velho, porém interessante, livro do Alexander,Perguntas e Respostas, intitula-se Blackmail (=chantagem). O seu tom jocosofacilita a memorização. Se você tiver um parceiro /a de estudos de inglês tentecontar-lhe esta historinha resumidamente. Se for em inglês, ótimo; mas se sóconseguir em português também está bom. Responda as perguntas em inglês.Use-as como guide to retell the story. www.pontodosconcursos.com.br 14
  • 15. CURSOS ON-LINE – INGLÊS – PROF. CARLOS AUGUSTOCURSOS ON LINE Prof. Carlos Augusto -15- BLACKMAIL The great liner had anchored some distance from the harbor. The captainhad told the passengers that they could visit the port if they wished to but theymust be on board at 5.30, as the ship would set sail at 6 o’clock. The ship wasfar too big to dock in the harbor and all day long local boatmen had beenrowing to and from the liner carrying sightseers to the small port. At about 5 o’clock, Miss Merryweather hired a local boatman to take herback to the ship. The man had asked for $5, which Miss Merryweatherthought excessive. “Either you accept $3, or I shall hire another boatman, Miss Merryweathersaid firmly. After a good deal of arguing, the man reluctantly agreed to take her for $3. When they were about two hundred yards from the liner, the boatmanstopped rowing. “Is anything the matter? inquired Miss Merryweather anxiously. Nothing at all, the boatman replied. Either you pay me $5, or you can sithere and watch the ship sail away without you.”(From Question an Answer, by L.G. Alexander, p.112, Longman)1. What kind of ship was anchored some distance from the harbor? ________________________________________________________2. What had the captain told the passengers? ________________________________________________________3. Why had the boatmen been rowing to and from the ship? ________________________________________________________4. What did Miss. Merryweather do at 5 o’clock? ________________________________________________________5. How much had the boatman asked to take her back to the ship? ________________________________________________________6. How much was Miss. Merryweather willing to pay the boatman? ________________________________________________________7. Why did the boatman stop when they were about 200 yards from the ship? ________________________________________________________8. What did Miss. Merryweather ask the boatman? ________________________________________________________9. How did the boatman reply? ________________________________________________________ www.pontodosconcursos.com.br 15
  • 16. CURSOS ON-LINE – INGLÊS – PROF. CARLOS AUGUSTOCURSOS ON LINE Prof. Carlos Augusto -16- A LOOK AT PAST EXAMSESAF /AFC STN/2005 Read the text below in order to answer questions 24 to 26.Not exactly Major league By most measures, the president has quite an ambitious economic agendafor his second term. George Bush’s goals include overhauling the tax code,reforming the Social Security System halving the budget deficit and pushingthrough more trade agreements. But who exactly is meant to do all this stuff? In theory, Mr. Bush’s economic team is headed by John Snow. Thepresident was on the point of sacking his treasury secretary at the end of lastyear; he then pulled back- but only apparently to keep Mr. Snow as a travelingsalesman for his pension reform scheme. The former railroad boss has recentlyvisited such well-known global financial centers as San Antonio, Albuquerqueand New Orleans. The treasury itself seems short of both staff and clout with theadministration. That might be excusable if economic policy were being steeredby a professional team in the White House; but it is short of economists,particularly ones that are dose to Mr. Bush.(Source: The Economist / May 17th 2005)24. According to the article,a) Mr. Bush’s treasury secretary was on the brink of being dismissed.b) Mr. Bush’s economic team intends do away with the tax code.c) the Social Security System has been remodeled and upgradedd) the former American president established four economic aims.e) Mr. Bush set an unachievable economic agenda in his first term.25. As to the budget deficit, it is supposed to be halved, which means to bea) 100% cleared.b) reduced by 50%.c) settled in percentages.d) increased by 15%.e) cut by around 75%26. The text refers to the Treasury asa) lacking political power with the opposition.b) not having had enough staff with the administration.c) having the political clout with the administration.d) not aiming for economic influence with the administration.e) not having enough influence with the administration. www.pontodosconcursos.com.br 16
  • 17. CURSOS ON-LINE – INGLÊS – PROF. CARLOS AUGUSTOCURSOS ON LINE Prof. Carlos Augusto -17- ANSWERSReading Comprehension QuestionsQuestão 1. C O autor menciona que os tycoons - os barões de indústria –eram ferozes competidores (a); que buscavam a riqueza e o poder comdeterminação (b), também é mencionado que para os padrões da época algunsdeles eram tidos como honestos. Agora a letra (c) está invalidada por causa dapalavra ‘all’. Cuidado com as palavras como todos, sempre, etc e nenhum,nunca etc. Essa questão já obrigava ao intensive reading.Questão 2. A Idéia expressa no texto: a imagem dos tycoons perdeumuito do seu brilho na época em que a grande depressão arrasou os EUA (L-....), na letra b) lê-se: a atividade corporativa tornou-se mais intensa, na letra c)lê-se: peritos altamente remunerados foram empregados; na letra d), temos: asmáquinas industriais tiveram que ser substituídas. Bastava você fazer oscanning e detectar que a informação desejada se encontravaQuestão 3.D Não há respaldo no texto para se afirmar que os europeusfizeram fortuna vendendo aos americanos suas obras de arte (a). O textomenciona que apenas os americanos gostavam do risco empresarial (b); oentusiasmo pelos negócios fascinava os americanos e não os europeus, segundoo autor. Bastava fazer o de novo o scanning para buscar a idéia expressa.Questão 4. A Outra idéia expressa no texto. Não se tem elementos paraafirmar que os industriais de New England eram altamente influenciados porhomens de negócios da Itália da Holanda e da Grã Bretanha(b), não para seprecisar também quanto industriais de New England hardly ever(=raramente) amealhavam uma fortuna (c) . Também não se pode afirmar que osindustriais de New England não buscavam o poder financeiro tão arduamentequanto os barões.Questão 5.B Cuidado com questões de inferência. O examinador pede quevocê chegue a uma conclusão sobre um ponto que não está dito expressamenteno texto. Certamente seria ir muito longe dizer que se não fossem os barões enão haveria instituições filantrópicas na América hoje (a). Com relação à opção(c), no texto há uma menção a grande influência que os barões exerciam sobre ogoverno nos áureos tempos. Quanto à opção (d), a mais fora de propósito, comoafirmar ou mesmo inferir que os dirigentes das grandes corporações de hoje nãoapreciem o risco pela atividade empresarial!?.Questão 6.A Tipo de questão que deveria ser respondida primeiro se vocêestivesse com pouco tempo de prova sobrando. Basta fazer uma leitura rápida esaber que while (L-26) está indicando contraste, significando enquanto www.pontodosconcursos.com.br 17
  • 18. CURSOS ON-LINE – INGLÊS – PROF. CARLOS AUGUSTOCURSOS ON LINE Prof. Carlos Augusto -18-VOCABULARY POST TEST1. acumularam grandes fortunas // 2. davam festas suntuosas // 3. eram ferozescompetidores // 4. compravam tesouros artísticos // 5. conservavam valores daspequenas cidades // 6. abraçaram a ambição pelo dinheiro com entusiasmo // 7.adoravam o risco da atividade empresarial // 8. haviam perdido muito do seubrilho // 9. veio com o crescimento das corporações // 10. tornaram-se peçasindispensáveis da máquina industrial // 11. dirigem os destinos das corporações// 12. preocupados com a situação da economia nacional.WORDS IN FAMILIES1. ‘Our airline cannot be held responsible for any personal belongings left on the plane,’ the flight attendant announced. Nossa companhia não pode ser responsabilizada por objetos pessoais deixados no avião, anunciou a aeromoça.2. The Pursuit of happiness must be every man’s dream in life. A busca da felicidade deve ser o sonho na vida de todo homem.3. With the advent of computer technology most business enterprises in Brazil have unified their controlling systems. Com o advento da tecnologia da computação a maiorias da empresas no Brasil unificaram seus sistemas de controle .4. If purple hair comes in fashion, be sure Lola will wear it. God knows how trendy she is. Se cabelo roxo virar moda esteja certo de que Lola vai usá-lo. Deus sabe como ela é ligada em moda.5. Wealthy industrialists in São Paulo begin to demonstrate signs of impatience with the government’s economic policies. Ricos industriais de S.Paulo começam a demonstrar sinais de impaciência com as políticas econômicas governamentais. .6. We found the scenery magnificent Never had we seen such a beautiful waterfall. Acham o cenário magnífico. Nunca havíamos visto tão bela cachoeira.7. Mr. Weld runs a very . profitable business. O Sr. Weld dirige uma empresa muito lucrativa.8. Soon the auditors found out that the accountant had been cooking the books for quite a while. Logo os auditores descobriram que o contador vinha fraudando os livros por algum tempo.9. Talk to your bank manager. He can show you the most advantageous form of investing your money. Fale com o gerente do banco. Ele poderá lhe mostrar a formar mais vantajosa de investir o seu dinheiro. .10. The racer’s complaints had to do with his car’s lack of competitiveness. As reclamações do piloto diziam respeito à falta de competitividade do carro. www.pontodosconcursos.com.br 18
  • 19. CURSOS ON-LINE – INGLÊS – PROF. CARLOS AUGUSTOCURSOS ON LINE Prof. Carlos Augusto -19-WORD FORMATION CLOZE1. banking // 2. stabilize // 3. belong // 4. member // 5. issue // 6. clearing // 7.interest // 8. availability // 9. insurance // 10. savings 11. primarily // 12. pool //13. businesses // 14. portion // 15. annual // 16. policies// 17. bearing // 18.private // 19. bonds // 20. widely.VOCABULARY BUILD UPMini-text 1: 1. levied // 2. rates // 3. remittances // 4. rendered // 5. domain // 6.profits // 7. dividends ( or 6. dividends // 7. profits) 8. havens.Mini-text 2: 1. decision // 2. join // 3. building // 4. production// 5. demand // 6.jobs // 7. units // 8. recordBANKING SERVICES1. withdraw // 2. ATM ( automatic teller machine) // 3. issued // 4. debited // 5.credit rating// 6. financial// 7. commission // 8. statement //9. in full // 10.interest // 11. outstanding // 12. loan // 13. collateral // 14. default // 15.overdraft // 16. bounce I almost forgot (fora de ordem)I. True cognates epoch, included, industry, investment, significant, influence, government,competitors, financial, success, honest, force, spirit, indigenous, capitalism,European, American, Revolution, operating, history, industrialists speculators…II. The little Word of A palavra ‘of aparece 22 vezes.III. Past simple examples operated, displayed, gambled, sailed, gave, built, bought, demonstrated,retained, felt, could, was, would, saw, embraced, enjoyed,ESAF /AFC STN / 200524. a 25.b 26. e www.pontodosconcursos.com.br 19
  • 20. CURSOS ON-LINE – INGLÊS – PROF. CARLOS AUGUSTOCURSOS ON LINE Prof. Carlos Augusto -20-AULA 4 Avalie se os seguintes objetivos desta aula foram alcançados. TÓPICOS & OBJETIVOS Raise your awareness of: Despertar sua conscientização para:I– Reading Strategy (III): Inference questions Estratégia de Leitura (II): questões envolvendo inferênciaII – Study of text 1: The Rise of the Tycoon Estudo do texto1 “A ascenção dos Barões da Indústria ”III – Key Words : throughout, conversely Palavras-chave: por toda parte, inversamenteIV – Word Forms – The prefix IN- Formação de Palavras – prefixo –NONV– Word Forms – The suffixes: –OR, –SHIP Formação de Palavras – Sufixos: -OR, -SHIPVI - Summary of Verb Tenses: Past Perfect Resumo dos tempos verbais: Passado PerfeitoVII – Word Formation Cloze : The Fed Texto (Cloze) sobre formação das palavras: Federal ReserveVIII – Vocabulary Build-up: Specialized vocabulary: taxes / oil/ banking Construção de Vocabulário: Vocabulário técnico: tributos, petróleo, termos bancáriosIX– Lighten up! Blackmail – a story to retell (Exs. c/ Past Perfect) Relaxe! Chantagem – uma historinha para recontar (Exs. c/ passado perfeitoX– Analysis of past exams: ESAF / AFC/STN – 2005 Text: “Not exactly Major League” Análise de provas anteriores: ESAF / AFC / STN – 2005 Texto : “Não exatamente Primeira Divisão” www.pontodosconcursos.com.br 20
  • 21. CURSOS ON-LINE – INGLÊS – PROF. CARLOS AUGUSTO www.pontodosconcursos.com.br 21