Tri yuan,cai, morrison & linton newDocument Transcript
SEGMENTING WINE FESTIVAL ATTENDEES:
A FACTOR-CLUSTER APPROACH
JINGXUE (JESSICA) YUAN1, LIPING A. CAI2, ALASTAIR M. MORRISON2 and
Department of Nutrition, Hospitality and Retailing, Texas Tech University, USA
Department of Hospitality and Tourism Management, Purdue University, USA
Indiana Wine Grape Council, Food Science Department, Purdue University, USA
Address correspondence to Dr. Jingxue (Jessica) Yuan, Department of Nutrition, Hospitality and
Retailing, Box 41162, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX, USA 79409-1162. Tel: 1-
(806)-742-3068; Fax: 1-(806)-742-3042; E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract: This paper investigates the segmentation of wine festival attendees on the basis of
their motivations. Three distinct groups were identified using a factor-cluster approach. They
were wine focusers, festivity seekers, and hangers-on. Through multiple discriminant analysis,
the study revealed that each of the three segments placed a unique set of priorities on the
available products and activities at the festival. The demographic characteristics of all three
segments were examined. The findings were discussed in comparison with those of the existing
literature on travel motivations and festival motives as well as wine tourist segmentation.
Practical implications of the study’s findings are presented.
Key words: Travel motivation, festival motives, market segmentation, wine festival, wine
tourism, Indiana, USA
Wine tourism is emerging as a viable and rapidly growing field of study for tourism
researchers and practitioners alike, as many wine growing regions throughout the world are
experiencing substantial growth in the wine tourism sector (Macionis & Cambourne, 1998; Ali-
Knight & Charters, 1999; Cambourne et al., 2000). Substantial research to date on wine tourism
has been conducted in the “New World”, particularly in Australia and New Zealand. The
research efforts have recently culminated in the publication of two books (Hall et al., 2000; Getz,
2000) and a number of proceedings of the International Wine Tourism Conference (Carlsen &
Charters, 2004). A few researchers in North America have made important contributions to the
field from either the supply or demand side (e.g., Dodd, 1995; Dodd, Pinkleton, & Gustafson,
1996; Dodd & Bigott, 1997; Dodd, 1998; Telfer & Hashimoto, 1999; Telfer, 2001).
According to Hall and Macionis (1998), wine tourism is the “visitation to vineyards,
wineries, wine festivals, and wine shows for which wine tasting and/or experiencing the
attributes of a wine region are the prime motivating factors for visitors.” Wine tourism is in
essence a phenomenon that involves the participation of a particular group of consumers – wine
tourists. Yet in-depth research is lacking in examining the nature of wine tourists, their
motivations, and how they can be effectively segmented using information inferred from the
demand side (Mitchell, Hall, & McIntosh, 2000; Charters & Ali-Knight, 2002). It is imperative
that more empirical evidence to be gathered from the consumers for a more accurate and
comprehensive picture of wine tourists. With an increasing number of studies on wine tourism
consumers appearing in academic journals, studies on the subject in general are on the rise.
Researchers have acknowledged the role that wine festivals play in selling wine brands,
promoting the attractiveness of wine growing regions, and helping build customer loyalty toward
individual wineries (Cambourne & Macionis, 2000; Getz, 2000; Hoffman, Beverland &
Rasmussen, 2001; Bruwer, 2002). Yet few studies to date have examined issues related to the
nature of wine festival attendees’ motivations and segmentation in the field of wine tourism
research (Beverland et al., 2001; Bruwer, 2002). Visiting wine festivals is one important activity
in the complete construct of wine tourism (Hall & Macionis, 1998). As special events, wine
festivals, if taking place at convenient locations, may attract attendees who do not intend to visit
any winery or wine region and thereby would never be ascribed to the category of wine tourists
(Yuan et al., in press).
The current research was a second in a series of studies on wine tourists. The purpose of
the series was to develop a typology of wine tourists attending the 2003 Vintage Indiana Wine
and Food Festival. The current study was designed to achieve the following objectives:
(1) To segment wine tourists at a wine festival based on their motivations to attend the
(2) To identify factors differentiating wine tourist segments
(3) To profile the segments by their demographic characteristics
The segmentation of wine festival attendees, using their motivations as the base, was the
focus of the current study.
Travel motivation is accepted as a central factor in understanding tourist behavior
(Baloglu, 2000; Dunn Ross & Iso-Ahola, 1991; Fodness, 1994; Pearce, 1995). Crompton (1979)
notes that the understanding of motivation answers the question, “Why do tourists travel?” or in
more specific terms, “Why do certain groups of people choose certain holiday experiences?”
(Pearce, 1995). A more in-depth elucidation of motivation, therefore, may lead to a better
understanding of the overt behaviors of tourists. The initial stage of tourism behavior begins
when an individual recognizes a need to be satisfied (Fluker & Turner, 2000). Basic motivation
theory describes a dynamic process of internal psychological factors (needs, wants, and goals)
that lead to actions designated to release the resulting tension and thereby satisfy the needs
A major tourist motivational model was presented by Dann (1977, 1981) and Crompton
(1979) in the explanation of push and pull theory. Push factors represent the general desire to be
somewhere else (Bansal & Eiselt, 2004). Pull factors (e.g., destinations) are external to an
individual. People travel in response to push and pull factors, that is, to satisfy certain
psychological needs and in search of specific benefits at the destination (Turnbull & Uysal,
1995). Iso-Ahola’s (1982, 1989) concept of motivation involved simultaneously avoiding and
seeking behaviors. The psychological benefits of travel derive from the interplay of escaping
routine or stressful environments while seeking opportunities for certain psychological rewards
(Dunn Ross & Iso-Ahola, 1991). Pearce and Caltabiano (1983, also cited in Pearce, 1988) used
Maslow’s hierarchy of needs as a framework to infer motivations from travelers’ experiences.
They applied a five-fold hierarchical system (physiological, safety and security, love and
belongingness, self-esteem, self-actualization) to rank tourists’ experiences. Fodness (1994),
using a straightforward approach to the study of attitudes, suggested that the reasons people give
for leisure travel represent the psychological functions (the needs) the travel serves.
These studies suggest that travel motivations can be explained in many different ways.
No single conceptualization has been agreed upon (Krippendorf, 1987; Fodness, 1994; Holden,
1999). Motivations for vacations are dynamic and may involve multiple variables (Wight, 1996).
Interpretation of travel motivations lies in a mixture of different theories that researchers have
depended upon (Krippendorf, 1987; Pearce, 1993). Pearce (1995) posited three main approaches
to examining travel motivation: historical and literary accounts of travel and travelers, the
discipline of psychology and its long history of trying to understand human behavior, and the
current practices of tourism industry researchers, particularly those involved with surveying
visitors. From a marketing perspective, tourism products can be designed and marketed as
solutions to consumers’ needs (Fodness, 1994). Tourism researchers measure motivation so that
they can identify types of tourists and segment those traveling for pleasure for the purpose of
product development and service quality evaluation (McIntosh & Goeldner, 1990). Crompton
(1979) concluded that a motivational basis for tourist segmentation may provide cues and
insights around which destinations could develop and promote products and activities to target
markets. Researchers have suggested categories of travel motivations to classify tourists into
various segments (e.g., Cha, McCleary & Uysal, 1995; Bieger & Laesser, 2002; Loker & Perdue,
1992; Lundberg, 1971; Mayo & Jarvis, 1981; Shoemaker, 1989, 1994).
While psychology theories and the extant tourism literature provide a rich source of
potential motives, for travel motivation to be useful and meaningful, it must be placed in a
context (Pearce, 1995). Travel motivations are subject to specific situations and unique settings
(Yuan et al., in press). Gnoth (1997) proposed a dichotomy of internal and external motivators
containing drive-based push factors and pull factors related to knowledge or beliefs. The push
factors are motives, representing the needs that all humans experience. The pull factors indicate
the presence of specific situations with which these needs arise. Motivations thus refer to an
interaction between motives and situations (McCabe, 2000). Festivals and special events provide
such contexts or situations in which people are aroused and motivated to travel.
Festivals are embedded in the construct of special events, which reflect the cultural
resources of an area and are organized to deliver a positive image of a place (Uysal et al., 1993).
Festivals are themed and unique (Falassi, 1987; Getz, 1991). The name of an event or festival
can potentially influence motives and behavior (Getz & Cheyne, 2002). The benefits attained
through participation in festivals and special events are diverse and accordingly, festival
attendees attempt to satisfy one or more needs at the event (Iso-Ahola, 1982). The analysis of
motivations and the underlying benefits sought for festival attendance is an important marketing
tool for market segmentation and effective promotion (Lee, 2000). Segmenting festival visitors
and understanding their characteristics through motivations enables organizers to identify the
strengths and opportunities of each market and promote festival features valued by target
segments (Lee & Lee, 2001).
In recent years, with the wide recognition of festivals and events as one of the fastest
growing forms of tourism attraction, researchers have been prompted to study motivations of
visitors attending festivals and events with a variety of themes (Backman et al., 1995; Carlson,
1998; Crompton & McKay, 1997; Formica & Uysal, 1996, 1998; Gitelson et al., 1995; Green &
Chalip, 1998; Kerstetter & Mowrer, 1998; Lee, 2000; Lee & Lee, 2001; Lee, Lee & Wicks,
2004; Kim, Uysal, Chen, 2002; Mohr et al., 1993; Nogawa et al., 1996; Pitts, 1999; Ralston &
Crompton, 1988; Raybould, 1998; Saleh & Ryan, 1993; Schneider & Backman, 1996; Scott,
1996; Uysal et al., 1991; Uysal, Gahan & Martin, 1993; Weiler, Truong, & Griffiths, 2004; Yuan
et al., in press). A review of the findings from these event- or festival-specific studies on motives
reveals some key dimensions of motivations common in these studies, although the order and the
components of factors vary depending upon the type of festivals. These key dimensions include
escape, excitement and thrills, novelty, socializing, family togetherness, and cultural exploration.
In addition to the common motives and benefits, some of the cited studies also found
unique dimensions of motivation attached to different festivals and events. The uniqueness is
often associated with and specific to the theme of the festival or event. For example, Scott (1996)
noticed differences among visitors’ motivations across three different festivals and verified that
motivations were situation specific. In his study, nature appreciation was found to be the most
important motivation for the two festivals facilitating education of insects and maple sugaring.
Kerstetter and Mowrer (1998) examined First Night, a community-oriented and alcohol-free
festival, and ascertained four reason factors: family fun, entertainment, community, and alcohol
free, of which the latter two exhibited the theme of the festival. Travel motivated by festivals and
special events thus concerns seeking universal leisure experience connected with a special event
as well as attaining unique benefits related to the theme of the event (Getz & Cheyne, 2002; Lee,
2000; Yuan et al., in press).
In their exploratory qualitative research on event motives and behavior, Getz and Cheyne
(2002) provided a general framework for evaluating motives to attend festivals and events.
Multiple motives may apply to any given event visit. First, generic (common) leisure and travel
motives incorporate the related theories (e.g. Iso-Ahola and Maslow). Second, event-specific
motives stem from the inherent uniqueness of events and targeted benefits related to the theme
and program. Getz and Cheyne’s (2002) theoretical framework is congruent with the dichotomy
view of travel motivations postulated by Gnoth (1997) and McCabe (2000), in which the internal
motives represent the needs that all humans experience, whereas the external motivators indicate
the presence of specific situations with which these needs arise. An additional dimension
proposed by Getz and Cheyne in their framework encompasses a number of extrinsic motives
that are unrelated to any specific appeal of the event itself (i.e., business, obligation, and
incentive). For instance, some people might attend a festival out of obligation because friends or
family want to go. Generic leisure/travel motives, event-specific motives, and extrinsic motives
form an integrated framework that can serve as a foundation to study festival motives.
So why do people choose to attend a wine festival? Are there any generic leisure needs,
event-specific benefits and/or extrinsic obligations that they intend to realize at the specific
venue? Can the attendees be segmented on a motivational basis? Can the resulting motivational
groups be differentiated based upon their demographics? The context in which these questions
were addressed in the current study was a festival with a wine theme. In such a context, the
attendees’ motivational segmentation should be examined via their internal or generic needs, the
more situational-based and event-specific motivations (Gnoth, 1997; McCabe, 2000) and the
extrinsic motives that are independent of the event (Getz & Cheyne, 2002). The understanding of
wine festival motivations from both internal and external factors affords a sound basis for
subdividing or segmenting the attendees.
Segmentation of Wine Tourists
Wine tourism researchers and marketers have come to realize that wine tourists are not
alike in terms of their needs, wants, and personal characteristics as there are different types of
experiences sought (Tzimitra-Kalogianni et al., 1999; Bruwer, Li & Reid, 2001; Charters & Ali-
Knight, 2002). Wine tourists should not be treated as being a homogenous group and,
consequently, careful segmentation strategies will benefit wine marketers (Cambourne &
Macionis, 2000). A proper segmentation of wine tourists enables a better understanding of the
characteristics and needs of the particular groups, increases the effectiveness of advertising and
promotional efforts, and enables wine tourism marketers to better target high-yield customers
(Dodd & Bigotte, 1997; Getz, 2000).
The attempts to segment or classify wine tourists have been recent. Examples include the
works of the Roy Morgan study (1996) cited in Cambourne and Macionis (2000), Movimento
del Turismo del Vino (MTV, 1996) cited in Mitchell et al. (2000), and Charters and Ali-Knight
(2002). The MTV study used a lifestyle approach to classify Italian wine tourist into four types:
“the professional”, “the impassioned neophyte,” “the hanger-on,” and “the drinker.” Hall (1996)
(also cited in Hall and Macionis, 1998) identified three market segments: “wine lovers,” “wine
interested” and “curious tourists” according to the different levels of experience sought by wine
tourists at New Zealand wineries. Ali-Knight and Charters (1999), in their qualitative study
exploring the value and importance of education to the wine tourist, confirmed this in their
interviews with eight Western Australian wineries. At least two types of visitors were identified
by the wineries. The “casual visitors” looked to taste and little else. They may have been seeking
“novelty” or “lifestyle” experiences. The “sophisticated drinkers” were hungry for information
and were already educated. Most wine tourists, however, fell into the middle category, claiming
no special knowledge, but were interested in experiences as much as learning.
Dodd and Bigotte (1997) adopted a visitor socio-demographic market segment approach.
They suggested two consumer clusters based on age and income using a consumer-perception
survey at Texas wineries. One cluster was older, with a higher mean income than the other
cluster. Differences in terms of visitor perceptions of wine, winery environment, and service
attributes were detected between the two clusters. Their study, however, focused on the purchase
of wine by wine tourists rather than the process of wine tourism (Charters & Ali-Knight, 2002).
Williams and Dossa (2003) analyzed non-resident visitor markets in British Columbia’s wine
tourism destinations. Two wine tourist clusters were generated and labeled as “the generalist”
and “the immersionist” according to differences in trip motivation characteristics. The
immersionists placed greater importance on being able to increase their knowledge of the region
they were visiting and becoming immersed in a variety of activities. The two market niches
exhibited several other different traits related to socio-demographic, travel philosophy, trip
behavior, activity, and product importance-performance characteristics. Williams and Dossa used
a general visitor survey and the motivation variables, therefore, were not specifically meant for
wine tourists. They also made the assumption that respondents indicating they had included a
visit to a winery/farm during their travels were “wine” tourists.
Charters and Ali-Knight (2002) continued the progress in this research stream. They
conducted personal interviews outside the tasting rooms of six wineries within two different
wine regions of Western Australia in Margaret River and the Swan Valley. Respondents were
asked to self-classify on the basis of their interest and knowledge of wine. This classification
produced a modification of the categories previously suggested (Ali-Knight & Charters, 1999;
Hall, 1996; MTV, 1996). The wine lover (the “highly interested”), the wine interested (the
“interested”), and the wine novice (those with limited interest) segments were joined by a fourth,
marginal group, the “hangers on,” who went to wineries with no apparent interest in wine, but as
a part of a group. The previous educational experience of different segments varied, with the
wine lovers having a more comprehensive grounding in wine education. The entire lifestyle
package (e.g., learning about wine and food links) was particularly important for the wine lovers.
One limitation of the study was that the visitor survey examined wine tourist motivation mainly
in relation to the educational possibilities at the winery.
The current study, built upon Gnoth’s (1997) and McCabe’s (2000) postulations on travel
motivations and Getz and Cheyne’s (2002) framework for evaluating festival motives, attempted
to segment wine tourists attending a regional wine festival based on their reasons for attending
the festival as well as the wine-related leisure experience. The first study in the series by the
authors uncovered the underlying dimensions of wine festival attendees’ motivations (citation
omitted in the review process). The current study focused on the motivational segmentation of
wine festival attendees, with the three objectives as specified earlier.
Sample and Measurement
A visitor survey was conducted at the 2003 Vintage Indiana Wine and Food Festival
(referred to as the festival hereafter), a one-day event organized by the Indiana Wine Grape
Council. It is Indiana’s only statewide wine and food festival and was initiated in June 2000. The
2003 event featured 14 Indiana wineries, live music, a variety of foods presented by local
restaurants, and a wine/food educational area with demonstrations on cooking. More than 6,000
visitors attended the event in 2003 (The Indiana Wine Grape Council, 2004). Ten trained field
workers intercepted the attendees on the site of the festival and completed survey questionnaires
through personal interviews. Only visitors above 21 years old were selected. A total of 510
questionnaires were collected during the festival. Of these, nine were incomplete and thus
excluded from the data analysis.
One major component of the survey was to examine visitors’ motivations to participate in
the festival. A set of 25 questions were extracted from the literature on motivations to visit
wineries/wine regions and to attend other types of festivals. Respondents were asked to indicate
the importance of the reasons to attend the festival on a 7-point Likert scale where 1 = not at all
important and 7 = extremely important.
The analyses of the study consisted of four steps in two stages (Figure 1). To test the first
objective, the 25 motivational elements were factor-analyzed by using the maximum likelihood
method combined with a Varimax rotation. A four-factor solution emerged. This factor analysis
was followed by a cluster analysis to identify the underlying segments on the basis of factor
scores. A two-step clustering procedure was adopted: (1) a hierarchical cluster analysis,
identifying the appropriate number of clusters by Ward’s method; and (2) a K-means cluster
analysis, providing further elaborative information on the cluster membership. A tracing of the
ratio of within-group to between-group variance suggested a three-fold grouping as an
appropriate compromise between generality and within-group uniformity (Hair et al., 1998).
“Insert Figure 1 about here”
To test the second objective, the study employed multiple discriminant analysis (MDA)
to examine the differences in terms of the motivation factors associated with each cluster. The
clusters acted as the dependent variable. The principal objective of the discriminant analysis was
to identify those variables (also known as attributes) that were best able to separate or distinguish
the predefined groups and to interpret these findings (Duarte Silva & Stam, 2000). The MDA
identified the motivation factors that best differentiated members of the three groups from one
another. Since this was a three-group MDA model, it was necessary to define two canonical
discriminant functions in order to discriminate among the three groups (Hair et al., 1998). To
test the third objective, cross-tabulations with chi-square analyses were performed to compare
the demographic profiles of the clusters. Five demographic variables, i.e., gender, education, age,
income, and marital status, were examined to determine whether statistically significant
differences existed among the three different groups.
About 76% of the respondents at the festival had college or above degrees. Nearly 69%
had annual household incomes of more than $40,000. These two demographics were comparable
to the findings of other wine tourist studies (Yuan et al., in press). The respondents were,
nevertheless, younger than the average wine consumers (MKF Research Report, 2000), as 29.5%
of them were in the 21-29 age group and another 22.6% in 30-39 category; and a total of 74.1%
were less than 50 years old. The percentages of male and female respondents were 35.9 and 63.7,
respectively. Married (53.3%) and not married (46.5%) respondents were fairly evenly split (for
the table containing the detailed demographic information, refer to the earlier study conducted by
the authors or contact the authors).
Reasons for Wine Festival Participation
Four factors explaining 53.05% of the variance emerged from the factor analysis of the
25 motivational items (for details of the factor analysis, refer to the earlier study conducted by
the authors or contact the authors). The total Cronbach’s alpha value indicated that the model
was internally reliable (α = 0.89). The four dimensions were labeled as: (1) Festival & escape
(eigenvalue = 4.08, variance explained = 21.5%, α = 0.88), (2) Wine (eigenvalue = 2.67,
variance explained = 14.0%, α = 0.81), (3) Socialization (eigenvalue = 1.77, variance explained
= 9.3%, α = 0.73), and (4) Family togetherness (eigenvalue = 1.56, variance explained = 8.2%, α
= 0.78) (Yuan et al., in press).
The first factor, “Festival & escape,” consisted of nine variables: enjoying special events,
going after the festive atmosphere, enjoying a festival crowd, enjoying a day out, changing pace
from everyday life, enjoying the entertainment, for the uniqueness of the festival, getting away
on weekend and trying something new. The second factor, “Wine,” included five variables:
experiencing local wineries, tasting wine, getting familiar with Indiana wines, increasing wine
knowledge, and buying wines. The third factor, “Socialization,” included three variables:
meeting people with similar interests, exchanging ideas with wine makers, and visiting a place
one can talk about when getting home. The last factor, “Family togetherness,” included two
variables: bringing family together more and spending time with family. These four wine festival
motivational dimensions demonstrated the combined effects of push motives and pull factors
associated with the context as posited by Gnoth (1997) and McCabe (2000). Escape,
socialization, and family togetherness represented the inner desires of the respondents. Festival
and wine expressed the characteristics or activities (pull factors) of the wine festival.
Motivational Segments of Wine Festival Attendees
The cluster analysis produced three distinct groups on the basis of the motivational factor
scores. These three clusters were named after the highest cluster coefficient(s) on each
motivational dimension (Table 1). The clusters were labeled, respectively, as: (1) wine focusers,
(2) festivity seekers, and (3) hangers-on. The festivity seekers segment made up the largest
portion of the respondents (56% of the valid sample), followed by the wine focuser cluster
(27%). The hangers-on represented a smaller group (17%) whose significance should,
nevertheless, not be ignored.
“Insert Table 1 about here”
The wine focusers geared their attention toward the wine-related experience at the
festival. The benefits they were seeking were straightforward and clear-cut: wine was their
primary pursuit. Seemingly, they did not care much about the other activities or entertainment
available at the festival. The festivity seekers indulged themselves in almost every aspect of the
festival with an evident enthusiasm for festivals and escaping. They seemed to consider wine as
an add-on experience. Their major purpose at the festival was to enjoy a special event and its
festive atmosphere, escape from everyday life, be entertained, and/or try something new. The
hangers-on group showed no interest in virtually anything at the festival. They were just hanging
around at the festival site, making no evident attempt to get involved with the festivities. They
particularly eschewed the wine theme.
The means of the four motivation factors for the members of each cluster were computed
and compared (Table 1). The summary information revealed the importance of each factor for
attending the festival for members of each cluster. Significant differences in the mean scores
were detected among all pairings of the three clusters over three motivational factors: festival &
escape, wine, and socialization. For the family togetherness factor, the only significant difference
was between the festivity seekers and the other two clusters. The results provided clear evidence
that motivations represent a potentially useful base to segment the wine tourists at a regional
wine festival. The factor analysis demonstrated that there were multiple motivations for
attending the festival, some of which were directly related to wine, and others that were due to
the festival’s appeal as a special event. The respondents were subsequently classified into three
distinct groups on the basis of motivation factors.
Multiple discriminant analysis (MDA) was performed on the three clusters. The goal of
the discriminant analysis was to identify the motivation factors that best differentiated among the
three identified clusters. Table 2 contains the results for the MDA model. Two canonical
discriminant functions were calculated in order to discriminate among the three groups. The two
functions were statistically significant, as measured by the chi-square and corresponding p-
values. With an eigenvalue of 1.616, Function 1 explained 52.38% of the variation. Function 2
had an eigenvalue of 1.470 and explained the remaining variation (47.62%). Together the two
functions explained 100% of the variance. To determine whether the functions were valid
predictors of cluster memberships, the classification matrices were examined (Table 3). The
discriminant functions achieved a high degree of classification accuracy. They did particularly
well in distinguishing the festivity seekers as 100% of the respondents were correctly ascribed
into that cluster. The hit ratio (percentage of respondents correctly classified by the discriminant
function) of the analysis sample was 93.5%.
“Insert Table 2 about here”
“Insert Table 3 about here”
In determining which predictor variable contributed the most to each function, the partial
F-values and discriminant loadings were employed. The partial F-value is an additional means of
interpreting the relative discriminating power of the independent variables (Hair et al., 1998). A
ranking of the partial F-values in this study showed that the factor differentiating the clusters the
most was wine (F = 347.583, Wilks Lambda = 0.390), followed by festival & escape (F =
224.287, Wilks Lambda = 0.497). The factors of socialization (F = 19.962, Wilks Lambda =
0.918) and family togetherness (F = 12.656, Wilks Lambda = 0.946) did not contribute as much
to the prediction, though their F-values were significant (p < 0.001). It was also noted that the F-
values of these two factors were much lower compared to those of the other two factors. The
discriminant loadings in Table 4 reveal that in Function 1 the wine factor differentiated the
clusters most. In Function 2, the festival & escape factor had the most differentiating power
followed by the socialization and the family togetherness factors.
Respondents at the wine festival were motivated by multiple reasons and could be
classified into distinct clusters on the basis of their motivations. Yet these motivation factors had
varying degrees of power in separating the groups. The ability of the wine and festival & escape
factors to distinguish the members into wine focusers and festivity seekers was more significant
than the other two factors. The wine and the festival & escape delineated the characteristics and
theme of the event.
“Insert Table 4 about here”
A demographic profile of each cluster was compared through cross-tabulations. The chi-
square statistic was employed to determine if there were any statistically significant differences
among the three clusters with respect to selected demographic characteristics. Table 5 provides
the results of the chi-square analyses. It appeared that the three clusters were only significantly
different in terms of annual household incomes. Compared with the other two clusters, the
hangers-on consisted of more people whose incomes were below $20,000 and $60,000,
successively. This cluster had less people in the $60,001-$80,000 income group. The wine
focusers cluster had the largest potion in the $60,000+ income group. The festivity seekers were
mainly in the $20,000-$80,000 income range.
“Insert Table 5 about here”
The study defined the segments of wine tourists attending a regional wine festival on the
basis of attendance motivations. The results indicated that people were drawn to the wine festival
due to multiple motivational factors. Festival & escape and wine, the dominant reasons for
attending the festival, reflected the attendees’ internal needs as well as how their decisions were
influenced by the situational motivations (Gnoth, 1997; McCabe, 2000). These two motivational
factors had the greatest power in distinguishing cluster membership. The wine festival thus
provided a special occasion where the attendees actively pursued the theme of wine and/or
searched for the hedonic attainment made available by other leisure activities at the festival.
The study identified three different types of wine festival attendees, namely wine
focusers, festivity seekers, and hangers-on. The wine focusers were similar to the “wine lovers”
group identified in Charters and Ali-Knight (2002). This was the wine-intensive group, whose
members seemed the most highly interested in wine. They were purpose-driven and pursued the
wine theme when attending the festival. Their motivations were very much focused on the wine,
while the other festival activities were of secondary priority. The hangers-on were similar to the
“hangers on” as described by Charters and Ali-Knight (2002). Their interest in wine was limited
and it was not the reason for attending the festival. This group had no particular goals in seeking
the festival’s leisure experience. They attended the festival as a part of a group or to accompany
someone else. In comparison with the findings from previous wine tourist segmentation studies
(Ali-Knight & Charters, 1999; Charters & Ali-Knight, 2002; Hall, 1996; MTV, 1996), the
festivity seekers identified in the current study were a seemingly newly-defined group, due to the
uniqueness of the study venue. This group searched for a more diversified or integrated
experience incorporating wine, food, environment, setting, learning, and cultural aspects, i.e., the
appeal of a festival. The integrated experience has been referred to by Beames (2003) as the
“total experience” or a culmination of wine-related travel. The festivity seekers may have an
interest in wine, but their participation also involved savoring other leisure experiences at the
festival. This festival provided an ideal venue for them to relax and have fun while pursuing a
special experience with the wine.
The motivational segmentation of attendees at the regional wine festival corresponded
with the postulation for structuring festival motives by Getz and Cheyne (2002), who stated that
festival motives of any given event visit incorporated three interacting components, namely
generic leisure and travel motives, event-specific motives, and extrinsic motives. The festivity
seekers were primarily seeking to fulfill generic needs for a leisure experience. Their
participation in the festival was motivated by common reasons that have been found in other
festival and/or travel motivation studies. The wine focusers were largely pursuing the wine and
its related themes at the festival. Their motives stemmed from the inherent uniqueness of the
festival and targeted benefits related to the theme. The hangers-on might have attended the
festival out of obligation, for example to accompany their friends or families, which are
considered extrinsic motives unrelated to any specific appeal of the festival itself.
From a marketing perspective, tourism researchers measure motivation so that they can
classify and segment tourists, which in turn lead to a systematic analysis of travel patterns for
product development and service quality evaluation (McIntosh & Goeldner, 1990). A
motivational segmentation approach may provide insight on effective promotions and target
marketing (Crompton, 1979; Lee, 2000; Lee & Lee 2001). The segmentation approach in this
study produced viable market segments that can be differentiated on managerially-relevant
variables. These findings should be valuable to the organizers of wine and food festivals and
destination marketers in wine-growing regions. The festival atmosphere appealed successfully to
a large group of attendees who were motivated by the prospect of enjoying a fun experience. The
festival organizers should continue with the provision of the total wine tourism experience to
retain this group of visitors. Other attendees who were highly interested in wine found the
festival an ideal venue to sample and buy local wines and get acquainted with local wineries.
This is where the organizers may accentuate the unique wine theme to meet the needs of these
wine lovers and to promote the regional wines. A small portion of the attendees (the hangers-on)
came for a completely different set of reasons and had limited interest in the event. However, the
exposure likely opened up the world of wine to them. Incentives may be offered to induce them
to attend subsequently, and these people might eventually enjoy the festival. The three groups
were not demographically distinguishable, except for household incomes. This may indicate that
people of similar socio-demographic backgrounds were attracted by this festival. It might also
suggest that segmenting wine festival attendees using demographics is not as viable an approach
as compared with classifying them by motivations.
These findings on the motivational segments of wine festival attendees can be an
important input to designing and implementing marketing programs of wine-growing
destinations. While a wine festival is an attraction in its own right from a destination’s point of
view, its role in generating interest in visiting wine regions represented at the festival should be
explored. Future studies may be designed to investigate wine festival product development,
service quality evaluation, and the interaction between wine festivals and wine-growing
Jingxue (Jessica) Yuan is an Assistant Professor in the Department of Nutrition, Hospitality and
Retailing, Texas Tech University. Her research interests include wine tourism, special interest
tourism, consumer behavior for hospitality and tourism, and e-marketing and Website evaluation.
Her current research focuses on typology and modeling of wine tourists.
Liping A. Cai is an Associate Professor and Director of Purdue Tourism and Hospitality
Research Center in the Department of Hospitality and Tourism Management, Purdue University.
His research interests include destination branding and management, visitor socio-economic and
behavioral profile, and international tourism development. His current research focuses on
destination branding and rural tourism.
Alastair M. Morrison is a Distinguished Professor of Hospitality and Tourism Management,
Purdue University. He holds the position of Associate Dean for Learning and Director of
International Programs in the School of Consumer and Family Sciences. His research interests
include destination marketing, Internet marketing and e-commerce, international tourism market
development, and consumer behavior in tourism. His current research focuses on special interest
tourism markets, destination image measurement, Website satisfaction and evaluation, and
wireless applications in tourism.
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Steps Involved in the Analysis
Stage 1: Cluster Segmentation
Step 1: Factor analysis of 25 motivation items
Results: Identification of four motivation factors
Step 2: Cluster analysis of respondents on the identified four factor
dimensions of motivations
Results: Identification of three clusters
Step 3: Discriminant analysis of motivations
Results: Identification of discriminating motivation factors
for each cluster
Stage 2: Identification of Cluster Descriptors
Step 4: Chi-square tests on demographic variables
Results: Identification of significant cluster descriptors
Means of Motivation Factors among the Three Attendee Clusters
I II III
Motivation Factors Wine Focusers Festivity Seekers Hangers-On
(n = 121) (n = 252) (n = 74) F-value
Festival & escape** 3.76 II, III 5.82 I, III 4.30 II, I 264.10*
(-.99) (.54) (-.21)
Wine 5.34 II, III 5.78 I, III 3.19 II, I 272.99*
(.42) (.27) (-1.60)
Socialization 2.00 II, III 3.57 I, II 2.45 II, I 59.24*
(-.37) (.19) (-.02)
Family togetherness 2.55 II 3.85 I, III 2.79 II 24.29*
(-.29) (.19) (-.17)
Note: Numbers in the brackets are cluster coefficients.
Significant at p < 0.001 level.
Respondents were asked to choose from a 7-point scale where 1 = Strongly Disagree and 7 = Strongly Agree.
I, II, III
The mean of the segment is significantly different from the mean(s) of other segment(s) (p < .05) on the same
attitude dimension based on Tukey’s HSD test. The superscripts represent the corresponding segments.
Summary of Three-Group Discriminant Analysis Results
Discriminant Percent of Wilks
Function Variance Eigenvalue Lambda Chi-square Sig. Level
1 52.38 1.616 0.155 825.65 0.000
2 47.62 1.470 0.405 400.04 0.000
Classification Results of Discriminant Analysis
Predicted Group Membership
Actual Group I II III Total
Wine Focusers (I) 88.43% 11.57% 0.00% 121
Festivity Seekers (II) 0.00% 100.00% 0.00% 252
Hangers-On (III) 4.05% 16.22% 79.73% 74
Percent of original grouped cases correctly classified: 93.5%
Discriminant Function Loadings
Centroids (group means) Function 1 Function 2
Wine Focusers 1.165 -1.643
Festivity Seekers 0.234 1.039
Hangers-On -2.701 - 0.853
Wine 0.959a 0.231
Festival & Escape - 0.141 0.816 b
Socialization - 0.065 0.238 b
Family Togetherness 0.007 0.197 b
One motivation factor discriminates the three clusters in Function 1.
Three motivation factors discriminate the three clusters in Function 2.
Demographic Profile of Three Clusters
I II III
Demographic Profile Wine Focusers Festivity Seekers Hangers-On χ2
(n = 121) (n = 252) (n = 74)
Gender (%) 7.03
Male 38.0 33.3 47.3
Female 62.0 66.3 51.4
21-24 9.9 6.0 12.2
25-34 30.6 40.1 32.4
35-44 20.7 18.7 16.2
45-54 19.8 23.4 27.0
55-64 12.4 10.7 6.8
65+ 4.1 0.8 2.7
High school 4.1 6.7 8.1
Some college 14.9 18.3 16.2
Associate degree 9.1 11.5 6.8
Bachelor’s degree 41.3 38.1 47.3
Graduate degree 30.6 25.4 21.6
Marital Status 7.25
Not married 38.0 48.8 55.4
Married 62.0 50.8 44.6
Household Income 37.78*
Less than $20,000 6.6 5.2 13.5
$20,000-$40,000 11.6 18.3 20.3
$40,001-$60,000 15.7 18.3 13.5
$60,001-$80,000 15.7 15.5 5.4
$80,000+ 43.0 36.2 40.6
χ2 = p < 0.05.
Note: Percentages may not add to 100% due to rounding or missing values.