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    • This article was downloaded by:[Morrison, Alastair M.] On: 11 April 2008 Access Details: [subscription number 792081846] Publisher: Routledge Informa Ltd Registered in England and Wales Registered Number: 1072954 Registered office: Mortimer House, 37-41 Mortimer Street, London W1T 3JH, UK Asia Pacific Journal of Tourism Research Publication details, including instructions for authors and subscription information: http://www.informaworld.com/smpp/title~content=t713694199 Definition of adventure travel: Conceptual framework for empirical application from the providers' perspective Heidi H. Sung a; Alastair M. Morrison b; Joseph T. O'Leary c a Graduate research and teaching assistant in the Department of Restaurant, Hotel, Institutional, and Tourism Management, Purdue University, b Professor in the Department of Restaurant, Hotel, Institutional, and Tourism Management, Purdue University, c Professor in the Department of Forestry and Natural Resources, Purdue University, Online Publication Date: 01 January 1996 To cite this Article: Sung, Heidi H., Morrison, Alastair M. and O'Leary, Joseph T. (1996) 'Definition of adventure travel: Conceptual framework for empirical application from the providers' perspective', Asia Pacific Journal of Tourism Research, 1:2, 47 - 67 To link to this article: DOI: 10.1080/10941669708721975 URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10941669708721975 PLEASE SCROLL DOWN FOR ARTICLE Full terms and conditions of use: http://www.informaworld.com/terms-and-conditions-of-access.pdf This article maybe used for research, teaching and private study purposes. Any substantial or systematic reproduction, re-distribution, re-selling, loan or sub-licensing, systematic supply or distribution in any form to anyone is expressly forbidden. The publisher does not give any warranty express or implied or make any representation that the contents will be complete or accurate or up to date. The accuracy of any instructions, formulae and drug doses should be independently verified with primary sources. The publisher shall not be liable for any loss, actions, claims, proceedings, demand or costs or damages whatsoever or howsoever caused arising directly or indirectly in connection with or arising out of the use of this material.
    • Asia Pacific Journal of Tourism Research Volume 1 Issue 2 Downloaded By: [Morrison, Alastair M.] At: 04:13 11 April 2008 Definition of Adventure Travel: Conceptual Framework for Empirical Application from the Providers' Perspective Heidi H. Sung Alastair M. Morrison Joseph T. O'Leary The growth of adventure travel has been accompanied by an enormous variety and availability of adventure travel products in international travel and tourism. This study attempts to search for a comprehensive definition of adventure travel from the providers' perspective in order to build a conceptual framework for empirical application. A qualitative analysis of past leisure or recreation theories identified six major component variables which define adventure travel. Together with these six components, several alternative definitions of adventure travel are studied in detail as part of the research. This study proposes a new definition of adventure travel, as a standard tool for measuring and segmenting the adventure travel market. Key words: adventure travel, outdoor adventure activities, adventure-based leisure or recreation theories, a new definition. Since the late 1970s, studies in travel and Canada, 1995). We have witnessed dramatic tourism marketing have faced new and growth in specific tourism segments such as increasing challenges arising from 'ecotourism' (Cater & Lowman, 1994), 'nature sododemographic changes such as increased tourism1 (Whelan, 1991), and 'special interest spending power per capita and greater tourism' (Hall & Weiler, 1992) to cater for leisure time. A discerning public with greater today's sophisticated travelers with "the travel experience, has benefited from more means and the will to travel" (Jefferson, convenient and cheaper transportation and 1995). advanced technology (Chon & Singh, 1995; While travel costs remain a Jefferson, 1995; Edgell, 1996). This resulted in significant determinant in making travel substantial changes in travel and leisure decisions, tourist satisfaction is increasing in demand, and in the patterns of international importance (Krinppendorf, 1987). A true travel market in the 1990s (Hall & Weiler, travel product must provide something extra 1992; McCarville & Smale, 1993; Tourism besides value for money to attract the tourist for some deeply satisfying purpose. This has led to a remarkable shift towards new Heidi H. Sung (Email: sungh@cfs.purdue.edu) is patterns in vacation choices to accommodate a graduate research and teaching assistant in the expanding range of interests and leisure the Department of Restaurant, Hotel, travel activities (Hall & Weiler, 1992) and Institutional, and Tourism Management, Purdue 'experience-oriented' vacations. Adventure University, where Dr. Alastair M. Morrison is a travel has gained more popularity among Professor. Dr. Joseph T. O'Leary is a Professor in the Department of Forestry and Natural today's sophisticated travelers who want to Resources, Purdue University. An earlier "experience" a vacation rather than just spend version of this article was presented in the their vacations on sitting in a tour bus (Black 1996 Annual Society of Travel and Tourism & Rutledge, 1995; Madrigal, 1995; Tourism Educators Conference in Ottawa, Canada in Canada, 1995; VeUas, 1995). October 1996. In adventure travel, travelers' increased interest in experiencing "active" 47
    • Asia Pacific Journal of Tourism Research Volume 1 Issue 2 Downloaded By: [Morrison, Alastair M.] At: 04:13 11 April 2008 holidays has been matched with the rapid relate data to a theory or to generate a theory growth in equipment manufacturing and the from data." In order to hold existing and new extended capability of commercial operators knowledge, theory should provide a including outfitters and retailers to deliver conceptual framework, so that knowledge more diversified "activity" travel products. can be interpreted for empirical application Australia and North America appear to have in a comprehensive manner. Unfortunately, been leading such efforts (Hall, 1992). the critidsins of theory in tourism have Adventure travel has now become one of the ranged from a lack of theory to poor fastest-growing travel market segments and theoretical quality. Iso-Ahola (1986) lamented has broadened its scope and appeal in on the lack of broad theoretical international travel and tourism. The variety conceptualizations in tourism (traditionally and availability of adventure travel products understood as leisure') research, arguing that for a wide range of interests and abilities research has focused too much on practice appear to be limitless. and often does not address theory. Adventure travel is being promoted Added to the lack of a theoretical by many regions such as ASEAN foundation, tourism studies have also (Association of South-East Asian Nations), wrestled with various methodological where tourism resources are heavily drawbacks and limitations in field tests dependent on less-developed, natural (Schuett, 1993). Considering the nature of environments (Hall, 1989). Tourism is travel and tourism, being highly active and expected to generate substantial impact on industry-oriented, research is most useful limited domestic economic bases in these when it contributes to empirical application regions. Apart from traditional long-haul and helps in understanding and addressing destinations such as Kenya or Nepal, most managerial issues. As suggested by leading operators (i.e., Badkroads, Mountain Henderson (1994), theories, conceptual Travel-Sobek, Overseas Adventure Travel, frameworks, and empirical applications need and Wilderness Travel) have included more to be highly interrelated in a comprehensive Indochinese destinations in their new manner such that "theory guides research or adventure itineraries. Table 1 illustrates research guides theory" (Figure 1). popular adventure travel programs currently The purpose of this study is to offered in the Asia Pacific region. develop a comprehensive definition of The size of this industry is difficult to adventure travel in order to construct a measure. Nobody seems to be sure what is to conceptual framework for the interpretation be measured and how it is to be done. To and presentation of the definition. Past address these questions, there should be: (1) leisure and/ or recreation studies were a definition of adventure travel as a examined to guide the research and to relate measuring tool and (2) a conceptual the notion of 'adventure' with 'travel and/or framework for the interpretation and tourism.' Although there exists no theoretical presentation of the definition. While there foundation, it is generally agreed that have been many studies conducted in the adventure travel is a viable segment of leisure or recreation field under the headings tourism that has been developed and is of 'adventure recreation,1 'high adventure,1 recognized by the industry. The segment is 'natural challenge activities,' 'outdoor represented by numerous products and pursuits,' and 'risk recreation' (Ewert, 1989), adventure travel activities. This study little has been reported on adventure travel. examines the providers' perspective in Indeed, in distinguishing between adventure placing the body of knowledge upon recreation and adventure travel, the field of conceptual framework. Further, implications adventure travel suffers from the same for the use of theory in management will be difficulties as other areas of tourism in terms discussed in an effort to bridge the gap of the lack of a universal definition. between research and the industry. Henderson (1994) argued that the major aims of research should be to "either 48
    • Asia Pacific Journal of Tourism Research Volume 1 Issue 2 Downloaded By: [Morrison, Alastair M.] At: 04:13 11 April 2008 Table 1 Popular Adventure Travel Programs in Asia Pacific Region Operator Destination Program AATKing* Australia Safaris, wilderness trips Abercrombie & Kent China Adventure holidays with comfort Asia Transpacific Journeys* Southeast Asia Multi-activity, cultural experiences Asian Pacific Adventures* Asia, Pacific Multi-activity and cultural trips Backroads Asia, Pacific Multi-activity adventure trips Contiki Holidays Australia, New Zealand Active trips for 18-35 year olds Destination Downunder* Australia, New Zealand Multi-activity adventure trips ElderTreks Southeast Asia Cross-cultural adventure travel Geographic Expeditions Southeast Asia Multi-activity, cultural experiences Latitudes Expeditions East* Southeast Asia Custom-designed culture/nature trips Mountain Travel - Sobek Asia Trekking, culture, wildlife trips New Zealand Adventures* New Zealand, Australia Soft adventure packages Nomadic Expeditions* Mongolia Nature tours, cultural experiences Overseas Adventure Travel Asia, Pacific Soft adventure packages The Global Spectrum* Indochina Eco-cultural programs Wilderness Travel Asia, Pacific Trekking, culture/wilderness trips : Marked companies primarily focus their businesses on Asian Pacific region. Source: The International Adventure Travel & Outdoor Show, 1996-1997 Figure 1 Interrelationship among Theory, Empirical Application, and Conceptual Framework Theory Empirical Application Conceptual Framework REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE usually involve elements of skill in a specific outdoor setting. It is this "setting11 that Major Components to Define Adventure provides the primary attraction in special Travel interest travel. However, in adventure travel, Adventure travel appears to have developed it is the "activity" that attracts travelers as out of the broader, wider growth of participants. This study argues that adventure traditional outdoor and wilderness recreation travel is primarily associated with activities during the 20th century. Unlike other forms of where the purpose of trip is to be engaged in recreation, adventure travel offers a unique experiences through participation rather than opportunity in which participants become in sightseeing at traditional tourist attractions. more experienced and pursue extended scales What distinguishes these adventure of "adventurous endeavors." Ewert (1989) travel activities from those of traditional referred to this notion as the "adventure outdoor recreation is "the deliberate pursuit of pursuit" Traditional forms of recreation risk and uncertainty of outcome often referred 49
    • Asia Pacific Journal of Tourism Research Volume 1 Issue 2 Downloaded By: [Morrison, Alastair M.] At: 04:13 11 April 2008 to as adventure" (Ewert, 1989) where an interrelated with activities. In a more individual often faces increasing levels of risk comprehensive manner, Hall (1992) tried to or personal threat (Hall, 1992). Although categorize the motivations associated with Ewert (1989) asserted that adventure pursuits adventure travel into risk-seeking, self- can be subsumed under the broader category discovery, self-actualization, contact with of outdoor recreation, it is arguable whether nature, and social contact. such a category is broad enough to cover the Ewert (1989) argued that the concept overall scope of adventure travel. Moreover, of risk-taking is essential to adventure travel his term "adventure pursuit" should be activities. One can predict that the absence of considered as a subdomain, that is, not at a risk may result in a decrease in satisfaction as equivalent level with adventure travel but well as a decrease in the desire to participate. with adventure activities. As such, risk is considered to be an important Also representing the development of element in distinguishing outdoor adventure the adventure travel market is the growth of activities and other outdoor recreation journals, magazines, and periodicals such as activities that are not adventure-based (Ewert, the Specialty Travel Index illustrating 1987; Ewert & Hollenhorst, 1989; Meier, 1978). "thousands of unusual travel opportunities The challenging nature of adventure experiences, worldwide" (Hall, 1992). Although the exact as Iso-Ahola (1980) reported, comes from the size of the market is unclear, it is generally interaction of situational risk and personal agreed that there are some adventure travel competence. In other words, the degree of risk- activities commonly provided by organized taking appears to have a positive correlation with and commercial operators which can be the level of experience and skill of the participant considered under the adventure travel (Ewert, 1989). Past recreation studies have category (Table 2). observed that performance in adventure travel is It has been argued that outdoor consistently associated with skill level (Ewert, recreation and outdoor adventure often serve 1987; Ewert & Hollenhorst, 1994; Martin & Priest, different clientele with different needs, 1986). It is more often linked to the expectations, and motivations (Ewert & accomplishment of self-imposed, more abstract, Hollenhorst, 1989; Schreyer & White, 1979; personal goals than with the tangible Schuett, 1993). The similarities and differences outcomes of traditional forms of outdoor between adventure travelers and outdoor recreation (Ewert, 1989). recreationaHsts are difficult to identify, The outdoor adventure experience particularly in the areas of motivation (Ewert, has been conceptualized in many ways and 1989), challenge (Ewert, 1987; Yerkes, 1985), generally consists of two constructs: perceived risk (Ewert, 1987; Ewert & Hollenhorst, 1989; risk and perceived competence. Ewert and Meier, 1978), and the specific setting Hollenhorst (1989) described such experiences (Robinson, 1992; Schuett, 1993). as a 'search for competence' coupled with 'the valuation of risk and danger.' Priest (1992) It may have been Iso-Ahola (1980) proposed five concepts of competence related who initially conceptualized the fundamental to the adventure experience: fear, eustress, motivations as to why people engage in distress, abilities, and attitudes. He tested a outdoor recreation. He clearly identified two model to represent the role which perceived dimensions: 'an attempt to achieve something1 risk and perceived competence play in the and 'an attempt to avoid something.1 Ewert adventure experience domain. Another (1989) argued that, in the case of adventure underlying assumption is that an adventure travel, this definition should be extended to experience is essentially associated with a include a third dimension: 'Risk-taking.1 psychological state and the participation in Manning (1986) reported that motives for physical activities while facing the challenges participation in outdoor recreation generally and risks of a specific environmental setting. consist of a desire for achievement, affiliation, Therefore, in adventure travel, the control, escape, and self-awareness. In environmental setting is highly interrelated addition, it should be noted that the motives with the experience of engaging in a for participation in adventure travel are also particular activity (Hall & Weiler, 1992). Thus, 50
    • Asia Pacific Journal of Tourism Research Volume 1 Issue 2 Downloaded By: [Morrison, Alastair M.] At: 04:13 11 April 2008 it can be argued that adventure travel is ingredient of adventure travel is an amount of associated with specific activities as a primary risk associated with the performance of these motive for trips, as well as the expected activities. Key constructs of major components outcomes from the participants' experiences to define the notion of adventure are in particular environments. Another summarized in Table 3 by authors. Table 2 Most Commonly Provided Outdoor Adventure Travel Activities Arctic Trips Backpacking Ballooning Bicycling Birdwatching Bungee Jumping Camping Canoeing (River, Sea) Diving (Scuba, Sky) Dogsledding Fishing Four Wheel Drive Trips Hanggliding Hiking Horseback Riding Hunting Jungle Exploring Kayaking (River, Sea) Motorcycling Mountain Biking Mountain Climbing (Ice, Rock) Nature Trips Orienteering Paragliding Rafting Rappelling Rogaining Safaris Sailing Snorkeling Skiing (Alpine, Cross-Country, Downhill, Heli, Nordic, Water & Wilderness) Skydiving Snowshoeing Snowmobiling Soaring Spelunking Survival & Wilderness Training Trekking Walking Tours Windsurfing Sources: Ewert, 1989; McMenamin, 1992; Hall, 1992-; Specialty Travel Index, 1992 Alternative Definitions of Adventure Travel Another factor to distinguish adventure To define adventure travel, various travel from adventure recreation was components including activity, motivation, identified by Ewert (1987). He noticed that risk, performance, experience, and the distinction lies in the degree to which environment must be considered. Equally participants have traveled from their home important is how these components can be and have engaged in formal, commercialized combined to composed a definition. Ewert adventure-based activities. As activities (1989) suggested that outdoor adventure become commercialized, it is the tour involves an interaction with the natural operator who manages and provides the environment, and this interaction requires an adventure experience or package. As Hall element of risk, often exposed to physical (1992) pointed out, this is particularly true danger. Given these factors, adventure travel when the nature of the risk elements in has been defined as: adventure activities has to present perceived Any number of leisure pursuits danger controlled by the expertise of an which provide exposure to physical operator. Hall's effort to define adventure danger (Meier, 1978). travel was: A broad spectrum of outdoor touristic A variety of self-initiated activities activities, often commercialized and involving utilizing an interaction with the natural an interaction with the natural environment environment, that contain elements of real or away from the participant's home range and apparent danger, in which the outcome, while containing elements of risks in which the uncertain, can be influenced by the outcome is influenced by the participant, participant and circumstance (Ewert, 1989). setting, and management of the tourists' experience (Hall, 1989). 51
    • Asia Pacific Journal of Tourism Research Volume I Issue 2 Downloaded By: [Morrison, Alastair M.] At: 04:13 11 April 2008 Table 3 Key Constructs of Major Components to Define the Notion of Adventure Component Author(s) Key concepts or findings Activity Ewert (1989) Adventurous endeavors, the adventure pursuit Hall (1992) Activity attracts the travelers as participants Experience Iso-Ahola (1980) Situational risk and personal competence Ewert & Hollenhorst (1989) Search for competence with the valuation of risk and danger Environment Hall & Weiler (1992) Specific outdoor setting Motivations Iso-Ahola (1980) An attempt to achieve something, an attempt to avoid something Manning (1986) A desire for achievement, affiliation, control, escape, self-awareness Ewert (1989) Risk-taking Hall (1992) Risk-seeking, self-discovery, self- actualization, contact with nature, social contact Risk & Competence Ewert (1989) The deliberate pursuit of risk and uncertainty of outcome Hall (1992) Increasing levels of risk or personal threat Priest (1992) Five concepts - fear, eustress, distress, abilities, and attitudes Performance Martin & Priest (1986) Positive relationship with skill level Ewert (1989) Accomplishment of self-imposed, more abstract, personal goals It is also noticeable that some of the physical, natural world such as hills, other definitions of adventure travel often air current, and waves (Progen, propose to integrate the major components 1979). such as activities (or 'pursuits' in many traditional leisure or recreation studies), Outdoor activity involving the environment, and experience. These example natural environment where the adventure travel definitions are: outcome perceived by the participants All pursuits that provide an is unknown (Yerkes, 1985). inherently meaningful human experience that is related directly to a particular Apart from the six major components outdoor environment - air, water, hills, of adventure travel discussed earlier, the mountains,...(Darst and Armstrong, fundamental framework to compose 1980). adventure travel must consist of the constructs 'adventure' and 'travel.1 A comprehensive Activities which involve human definition of adventure travel must contain a participation as a response to the reasonable balance between these two challenge offered primarily by the 52
    • Asia Pacific Journal of Tourism Research Volume 1 Issue 2 Downloaded By: [Morrison, Alastair M.] At: 04:13 11 April 2008 constructs. Johnston (1992) considered H2. There are no differences in the levels adventure travel to be: of industry support among the Travel for the specific purpose of alternative definitions. pursuing adventurous recreation (Johnston, 1992). As a framework for a comprehensive definition, this study adopts the definition of It can be argued that many travelers tourism by Mclntosh, Goeldner, and Ritchie might be seeking experiences in addition to (1995). The framework combines 'travel' as a adventure recreation, particularly if their trips foundation with the notion of 'adventure' are extended ones and associated with other which is composed of the six components from elements such as risk or performance. leisure or recreation theories. Based on Considering the fact that there has been much Hypothesis 2, and assuming that this confusion and overlap in the boundaries of hypothesis would be supported, this study leisure, recreation, and tourism, care must be also proposes a new definition of adventure taken in adopting any definition without travel as: adequate verification. The sum of the phenomena and Hypotheses relationships arising from the interactions of adventure touristic As a result of qualitative research through the activities with the natural preceding literature review, this study environment away from the identifies six major components - activity, participant's usual residence area motivation, risk, performance, experience, and and containing elements of risk in environment - as key variables to define which the outcome is influenced by adventure travel. Significant variations among the participation, setting, and the these six components in terms of levels of organizer of the tourist's experience importance are also observed. As the industry (Sung, 1996). is known to package adventure travel with numerous adventure travel activities, it seems METHODS reasonable to hypothesize that activity is the most important component in defining Research Procedure adventure travel. The International Adventure Travel and Adventure travel is not just about Outdoor Show held on February 16-18,1996 at activities. This study argues that adventure the Rosemont Convention Center in travel should be defined on the basis of two Rosemont, Illinois was chosen as the study site coexisting constructs: 'adventure' and 'travel.' to administer survey questionnaires. Unlike The above six components with their levels of other visitor studies with problems in importance should also be integrated in the sampling participants scattered over a wide definition. None of the alternative definitions range of sites, this study was set within a previously listed can be used as an confined, specific location and given time appropriate and comprehensive definition of period. This provided access to large numbers adventure travel. To address this situation, of people who are actively involved in the this study examines the following two adventure travel industry. Secondly, this is hypotheses: one of the major trade shows of its kind in the world, as such the sample population HI. There are significant differences surveyed can be assumed to be representative among activity, motivation, risk, of the adventure travel providers. performance, experience, and Since the purpose of this study is to environment in terms of their degree search for a comprehensive definition of of importance in defining adventure adventure travel in order to find a conceptual travel, with activity being the most framework for empirical application from the important providers' perspective, the exhibitors and observers at this show could be considered the 53
    • Asia Pacific Journal of Tourism Research Volume 1 Issue 2 Downloaded By: [Morrison, Alastair M.] At: 04:13 11 April 2008 most appropriate and representative comprehensive definition among the eight population for this study. Each participant alternatives. was contacted by the researcher through a Demographic profiles on the business brief introductory interview explaining the of the participants were included in order to purpose of the study and was provided with examine the empirical application of the an eight-page, self-administered definition of adventure travel. Key variables questionnaire. Some 194 people from among used were: (1) Business category of the the 273 exhibitors were interviewed. organization; (2) key products or specialties of The survey was conducted on-site adventure travel; and (3)proportions of over a four-day period from February 15 to 18, adventure travel in business - domestic, 1996. The participants were clearly identified international, and overall market by the booth number where they exhibited, To add some explanatory power to the which enabled the researcher to continue major component and definition variables, an follow-up visits in order to encourage them to open-ended question to describe adventure complete the questionnaires. Those who were travel was also included. As an attempt to unable to complete the questionnaires at the gain insight about adventure travel, the most show were provided with self-addressed, important benefits of adventure travel were postage-paid envelopes for return mailing. As asked from two separate perspectives: (i) a result, a total of 178 questionnaires were benefits to the travelers, and (ii) benefits to the completed. 165 were collected during the providing organizations. Finally, to identify show period and 13 were received via mail. the current recognition or status of the The response rate was 91.8% (178 responded adventure travel segment within the travel out of 194 distributed). and tourism industry, the participants were asked to select one of five descriptive Measures statements. An eight-page self-administered questionnaire was used for the survey. Key variables RESULTS AND DISCUSSION examined were: (1) The six major components; (2) seven alternative definitions of adventure Major Components travel and a new proposed definition; (3) All six components are clearly found to be demographic variables of the participants; and highly important characteristics of adventure (4) other descriptive variables to add to the travel. The mean scores of each component explanatory power of the analysis. range from 1.32 (activity) to 2.23 The six major components were (performance) with an overall average at 1.70 examined as explanatory variables: (i) (score 1 being most important and 5 being Activity; (ii)motivation; (iii) risk; (iv) least important) (Table 4). As hypothesized, performance; (v) experience; and (vi) significant variations in terms of the degree of environment. The response variables were importance assigned by the survey scored on a five-point scale for the level of respondents are observed among the six importance of the six components. components. At the 'Most important1 level, Seven alternative definitions from past activity attained the greatest response (71.3%, leisure or recreation studies [definitions (a), 127) closely followed by experience (68.5%, (b), (c), (d), (e), (f), and (g)], and a new 122) and environment (65.7%, 117), while both proposed definition of adventure travel risk (26.4%, 47) and performance (23.6%, 42) [definition (h)] were examined. The response are at relatively low levels. Motivation (38.8%, variables were the scores on a five-point scale 69) is in the middle. At the 'Somewhat in terms of level of agreement with each important' level, motivation (52.8%, 94) and definition. To test the possibility if any of the risk (52.2%, 93) have the greatest response alternative definitions could be directly followed by performance (47.8%, 85). adopted for adventure travel, respondents A one-way ANOVA uncovers were asked to select the most appropriate, significant differences among the six components in terms of the degree of importance [F(5,1062) = 43.40, P < 0.0001]. To 54
    • Asia Pacific Journal of Tourism Research Volume 1 Issue 2 Downloaded By: [Morrison, Alastair M.] At: 04:13 11 April 2008 further explore these individual differences, a 43.3% (77) of the respondents strongly subsequent multiple comparison test using agreed and another 43.3% (77) agreed that Tukey's studentized method (a = 0.05 level) this alternative definition describes was performed and delivered almost the same adventure travel. Definition (e) has a result as prior tests. Three groups were similar response with a total of 87.6% of the identified by Tukey's method: Activity, the respondents either strongly agreeing most important, accompanied by experience (34.8%, 62) or agreeing (52.8%, 94) with this and environment (Group A); motivation definition. A similar result is found for (Group B); and risk accompanied by definition (c) with a total of 78.7% for performance is of the lowest importance strongly agree (29.8%, 53) and agree (Group C). Following this, several tests of (48.9%, 87) (Table 6). All of the eight contrasts were undertaken to measure the alternative definitions are listed in Table 5. differences within and/or among the groups It is hard to draw the conclusion that and verify that the variances among the any of the alternative definitions legitimately groups are all significant while none of the describes adventure travel since none has variations within a group had any significance received over 50% of the responses at the at all. 'Strongly agree1 level. As hypothesized, no As hypothesized, activity is strong evidence is found to support any of the significantly different from the other five alternative definitions as an appropriate and components in defining adventure travel [T = - comprehensive definition of adventure travel. 6.99, P < 0.0001] and has the greatest level of Without modification, none of the alternative importance. Within Group A, however, no definitions could serve as the definition of significant variance in terms of the level of adventure travel. importance between activity and the average Definitions (d), (f), and (g) appear to be of the other two variables (experience and questionable. For definition (f), the greatest environment) is identified [T = -1.20, response was at the 'Disagree' (33.1%, 59) level P<0.2309], and little difference is found and the remaining 16.9% (30) at the between experience and environment [T = - 'Undecided' level. This is similar to the case of 0.47, P<0.6393]. definition (d), where 27.0% (48) disagreed and Motivation (Group B) is significantly 22.5% (40) were undecided. Definition (g) with different from both Group C (risk and fewer negative responses of 20.2% (36) performance) and Group A (environment and disagreed and 15.7% (28) undecided, shares a experience) |T = 6.19, P < 0.0001 and T = 4.29, similar response as definitions (d) and (f). P < 0.0001, respectively], and the variance Definition (a), with 78.1% of the respondents between Groups B and C is greater than that providing negative responses (disagree: 51.1%, between Groups A and B. Performance and 91 and strongly disagree: 27.0%, 48), is risk both belong to Group C, the least apparently not commonly used in describing important group. However, they still deserve adventure travel. a 'somewhat important* level with an average The new proposed definition (h) is not mean score of 2.19. No significant variance is strongly supported by the survey results. Only measured in the contrast test between risk and 21.3% (38) of the respondents strongly agreed performance [T = -1.47, P < 0.1409]. with this definition while 43.8% (78) agreed.' Alternative definition (b) seems to Another 34.3% of the respondents were either have the greatest overall response in terms undecided (20.2%, 36) or disagreed (14.0%, 25) of the level of agreement (1 being strongly with this definition. agree to 5 being strongly disagree). Some 55
    • Asia Pacific Journal of Tourism Research Volume 1 Issue 2 Downloaded By: [Morrison, Alastair M.] At: 04:13 11 April 2008 Table 4 Major Components to Define Adventure Travel Component Level of Importance* Mean SD Tukey's Score Grouping Most Least 1 2 3 4 5 Activity 127 48 0 3 0 178 1.3202 0.5662 A 71.3% 27.0% 0.0% 1.7% 0.0% 100% Experience 122 47 5 4 0 178 1.3876 0.6563 A 68.5% 26.4% 2.8% 2.2% 0.0% 100% Environment 117 53 3 3 2 178 1.4269 0.7192 A 65.7% 29.8% 1.7% 1.7% 1.1% 100% Motivation 69 94 12 2 1 178 1.7181 0.6887 B 38.8% 52.8% 6.7% 1.1% 0.6% 100% Risk 47 93 14 20 4 178 2.1067 0.9942 C 26.4% 52.2% 7.9% 11.2% 2.3% 100% Performance 42 85 20 30 1 178 2.2303 1.0128 C 23.6% 47.8% 11.2% 16.9% 0.6% 100% Total 524 420 54 62 a 1068 49.1% 39.3% 5.1% 5.8% 0.7% 100% * The level of importance is ranked as 1 being 'Most important1 to 5 being 'Least important.' Considering the overall frequencies related directly to a particular outdoor shown in Table 4, the proportion of 20.2% environment - air, water, hills, being undecided is relatively high and thus mountains,... (Darst and Armstrong, makes this definition questionable. Looking 1980). back at the literature review, the basis for constructing and proposing this definition is The respondents were then asked to integrating two coexisting frames: 'adventure' select the most appropriate of the eight and 'travel,' with the six components and the alternative definitions of adventure travel. definition for tourism. As a consequence, one Definition (b) is again supported by the might argue that the presentation of this greatest number of responses (27.2%, 47) proposed definition might have seemed too among the eight proposed definitions (Table theoretical for the surveyed population to 7). When selecting the most appropriate and interpret comprehensive definition of adventure travel, Alternative Definition (b) the argument is whether it is legitimate to All pursuits that provide an inherently accept it by only 27.2% of the responses. One meaningful human experience that is general assumption for the legitimacy of a 56
    • Asia Pacific Journal of Tourism Research Volume I Issue 2 Downloaded By: [Morrison, Alastair M.] At: 04:13 11 April 2008 definition is that the selection has to be made However, as hypothesized, no by more than 50% of the respondents. None of significant difference is found in the levels of the alternative definitions including our new support by industry providers for alternative proposed definition is able to attain such definitions as appropriate and comprehensive popularity. definitions of adventure travel. Table 5 List of Alternative Definitions (a) Any number of leisure pursuits which provide exposure to physical danger (Meier, 1978). (b) All pursuits that provide an inherently meaningful human experience that is related directly to a particular outdoor environment - air, water, hills, mountains,... (Darst and Armstrong, 1980). (c) Activities which involve human participation as a response to the challenge offered primarily by the physical, natural world such as hills, air current, and waves (Progen, 1979). (d) Outdoor activity involving the natural environment where the outcome perceived by the participants is unknown (Yerkes, 1985). (e) Travel for the specific purpose of pursuing adventurous recreation (Johnston, 1992). (f) A variety of self-initiated activities utilizing an interaction with the natural environment, that contain elements of real or apparent danger, in which the outcome, while uncertain, can be influenced by the participant and circumstance (Ewert, 1989). (g) A broad spectrum of outdoor touristic activities, often commercialized and involving an interaction with the natural environment away from the participant's home range and containing elements of risks in which the outcome is influenced by the participant, setting, and management of the tourists' experience (Hall, 1989). (h) The sum of the phenomena and relationships arising from the interactions of adventure touristic activities with the natural environment away from the participant's usual residence area and containing elements of risk in which the outcome is influenced by the participation, setting, and the organizer of the tourist's experience (Sung, 1996). 57
    • Asia Pacific Journal of Tourism Research Volume 1 Issue 2 Downloaded By: [Morrison, Alastair M.] At: 04:13 11 April 2008 Table 6 Opinions of the Alternative Definitions of Adventure Travel Frequency by level of agreement Alternative Definition Level of agreement* - 1 2 3 4 5 (a) 5 22 12 91 48 178 2.8% 12.4% 6.7% 51.1% 27.0% 100% (b) 77 77 10 12 2 178 43.3% 43.3% 5.6% 6.7% 1.1% 100% (c) 53 87 20 18 0 178 29.8% 48.9% 11.2% 10.1% 0.0% 100% (d) 26 55 40 48 9 178 14.6% 30.9% 22.5% 27.0% 5.1% 100% (e) 62 94 14 8 0 178 34.8% 52.8% 7.9% 4.5% 0.0% 100% (0 21 57 30 59 11 178 11.8% 32.0% 16.9% 33.1% 6.2% 100% (g) 33 79 28 36 2 178 18.5% 44.4% 15.7% 20.2% 1.1% 100% (h) 38 78 36 25 1 178 New, proposed definition 21.3% 43.8% 20.2% 14.0% 0.6% 100% ' The level of agreement is ranked from 1 being 'Strongly agree' to 5 being 'Strongly disagree.1 Demographics of the Participants The population also included accommodation The highest proportion of the participants operators (7.9%, 14) who own ranches or (64.0%, 114) were tour operators/wholesalers cabins which operate horseback riding, who develop, organize, and distribute hunting, fishing, or snow activities. Due to the commercialized adventure travel packages. involvement of elements of risk or physical Not surprisingly, 27.5% (49) were from DMOs participation, some adventure travel activities (Destination Marketing Organizations) or do require specific equipment or supplies and, NTOs (National Tourism Organizations), since of course, considerable expertise to organize many adventure activities can be offered in a and guide trips. The survey population also specific environmental setting, typically represented and included manufacturers associated with particular natural resources in (7.3%, 13) of equipment or supplies and underdeveloped, remote areas. organizations (5.6%, 10) providing instructional or guide services (Figure 2). 58
    • Asia Pacific Journal of Tourism Research Volume 1 Issue 2 Downloaded By: [Morrison, Alastair M.] At: 04:13 11 April 2008 Table 7 The Most Appropriate and Comprehensive Definition of Adventure Travel Definition Choice b c g h e f a d (N=173) Frequency 47 30 30 28 18 11 6 3 Percent 27.2% 17.3% 17.3% 16.2% 10.4% 6.4% 3.5% 1.7% Mean Score* 1.7921 1.7921 1.7921 1.7921 1.7921 1.7921 1.7921 SD 0.9061 0.9049 1.0443 0.9754 0.7601 1.1697 1.0362 1.1487 * The mean scores were coded from 1 being 'Strongly agree' to 5 being 'Strongly disagree.' Considering the wide range of 8.4%) (Table 8). 'Multi-activity travel packages business categories employed in the adventure in exotic destinations1 is reported as the most travel industry, the analyses of the key popular service-oriented adventure travel products or specialties of adventure travel are product Almost one fourth (23.6%, 42) of the examined separately: (a) Products associated participants offered this response either with with adventure travel activities; and (b) or without combining specific adventure services associated with adventure travel activities. The popularity of such packages specialties. A total of 518 multiple responses could be better understood if we recall the was collected, then the analysis separated 385 primary trip motive (activity and/or (74.3%) adventure travel products on the basis destination) from Hall and Weiler's (1992) of activities from 133 (25.7%) services or segmentation theory (activity-driven or adventure travel specialties. destination-driven). Other popular services The most popular adventure travel included expertise leadership (11.2%, 20), activities based on the survey responses are customized trips for small groups (7.3%, 13), traditional outdoor adventure activities such and general information about the destination as rafting (21.3%, 38), kayaking (17.4%, 31), area (6.7%, 12) (Table 9). hiking (15.2%, 27), or trekking (14.0%, 25), As for the proportion of adventure and, interestingly, ecotours (12.4%, 22). It is travelers for each market - domestic, true that both ecotravel and adventure travel international, and overall - 47.2% (84) replied share commonalties particularly associated that adventure travelers compose with natural resources, so that there might approximately 80% or a higher proportion of have been some confusion and overlap their international business. On the other between the two areas. This distinction could hand, the proportion of domestic travelers is be a possible extension of this study by using a considerably lower at 36.5% (65). Overall, standard definition of adventure travel. Other 43.8% (78) of the participants stated that popular activities included safaris (19,10.7%), approximately 80% or more of their business canoeing (18,10.1%), and wilderness trips (15, is generated by adventure travelers (Figure 3). 59
    • Asia Pacific Journal of Tourism Research Volume 1 Issue 2 Downloaded By: [Morrison, Alastair M.] At: 04:13 11 April 2008 Figure 2 Business Categories of the Participants 64.00% • T o u r operaror/Wbolesaler (n=114) ODMOs/KTOs(n=49) •Accommodation operator (n=14) • Equipment Supplier (n=13) • Guide service (n=10) D Retail agency {n=6) n Carrier (n=6) D Others (n=S) D Publisher (n=4) D Consulting/Management (n=S) Table 8 Adventure Travel Products: Activity-Based* Top 15 Popular Adventure Travel Products Frequency Percent Ratting 38 21.3% Kayaking 31 17.4% Hiking 27 15.2% Trekking 25 14.0% Ecotour (cultural & environmental) 22 12.4% Safaris 19 10.7% Canoeing 18 10.1% Wilderness trips 15 8.4% Scuba Diving 15 8.4% Bicycling 14 7.9% Mountain biking 12 6.7% Horseback riding 12 6.7% Camping 11 6.2% Mountain climbing 11 6.2% Nature trips 10 5.6% 1 N=385 [74.3% of the gross total (N=518) from multiple responses] 60
    • Asia Pacific Journal of Tourism Research Volume I Issue 2 Downloaded By: [Morrison, Alastair M.] At: 04:13 11 April 2008 Table 9 Adventure Travel Products: Service/Specialty-Based4 Top 10 Popular Adventure Travel Services/Specialties Frequency Percent Multi activity travel packages in exotic destinations 42 23.6% Expertise leadership 20 11.2% Customized trips for small groups 13 7.3% General information about the destination area 12 6.7% Private cottages/Bed & Breakfast 11 6.2% Equipment manufacturing, rental & outfitting 7 3.9% New ideas, destinations, & challenges 5 2.8% Special purpose cruises 4 2.2% Fine dining in remote areas 4 2.2% Strategic marketing of the destination 3 1.7% * N=133 [25.68% of the gross total (N=518) from multiple responses] Figure 3 Proportions of Adventure Travelers *»rt©A CU /»• B<10% 25% 24% 25%. sm • 10% 21% m m _ H n • 20% 20%. i l l 1 1 1 • 30% D40% 15%- m 50% 1 mm ^m 060% 10%. E°/4siI 111 mm e70% 5%. • 1 §L II m i IB • 80% 090% Mm i 1HI • 100% 0%- flUl mWxJM Domestic International Overall • N/A B Dont Know Other Descriptive Statistics important component to describe adventure Besides the major components and alternative travel (Table 10). Other popular descriptions definitions, the most popular words to of adventure travel included (a) Out of the describe adventure travel are 'Participation in ordinary (37.1%, 66); (b) fun and excitement physical activities1 (44.9%, 80). This again (32.0%, 57); (c) natural environment and confirms that activity is the most resources (30.9%, 55); and (d) outdoors and wilderness (27.0%, 48). 61
    • Asia Pacific Journal of Tourism Research Volume 1 Issue 2 Downloaded By: [Morrison, Alastair M.] At: 04:13 11 April 2008 Table 10 Description of Adventure Travel Description of Adventure Travel from an Open ended Question Characteristics Frequency Percent Participation in physical activities 80 44.9% Out of ordinary 66 37.1% Excitement, Fun 57 32.0% Natural environment & resources 55 30.9% Outdoors & wilderness 48 27.0% Challenging 45 25.3% New experience 41 23.0% Interaction with environment/people 41 23.0% Enhance personal growth 35 19.7% Controlled danger or perceived risk 30 16.9% Variety 4 2.2% Total 502* *From multiple responses Separate analyses were conducted to clear that activity, environment, and identify benefits of participating in adventure experience, besides their significance as travel: (1) To the providing organizations; and important components of adventure travel, are (2) to the travelers, and show different perceived as the most important benefits of perspectives for the two groups. To travelers, adventure travel (Table 11). the greatest benefit of adventure travel is The analysis of the benefits to the identified as 'discovering new experiences' organizations indicates a different, more (26.4%, 47). It is noticeable that most of the business-oriented perspective (Table 12). 'An benefits are largely associated with the six increased business opportunity with growing major components of adventure travel. market potential' (11.8%, 21) providing 'Increased sense of personal growth (25.3%, 'profitability' (9.6%, 17) best represented the 45)' might be the integration of motivation, adventure market. Pursuing this opportunity risk, and perhaps performance. Activity again results in 'satisfied, repeat customers' (6.2%, appears to correspond with 'fun and 11) through 'providing adventure expertise' excitement (16.3%, 29)', 'integrated, better (20.8%, 37). Those who engage in providing travel opportunities (15.7%, 28),' and 'outdoor expertise or services in the adventure travel adventure activity participation (7.3%, 13).' industry are 'satisfied with their job' (13.5%, Other benefits associated with the 24) presumably because they have better environment are: (1) Improved interpretation opportunities for 'self actualization1 (6.2%, 11)' of the environment and nature (16.9%, 30); (2) through their 'extended experiences' (6.2%, return to nature (7.3%, 13); and (3) carefree, 11), providing 'educational rewards'(11.8%, 'blown- away' setting (6.7%, 12). Overall, it is 21) or 'interacting with people'(11.8%, 21). 62
    • Asia Pacific Journal of Tourism Research Volume 1 Issue 2 Downloaded By: [Morrison, Alastair M.] At: 04:13 11 April 2008 Table 11 Benefits of Adventure Travel - Travelers Benefits of Adventure Travel - To Travelers Frequency Percent Sub total Experience Discovering new experiences 47 26.4% Increased sense of personal growth 45 25.3% Educationalopportuniti.es 13 7.3% 59.0% Activity Fun & excitement 29 16.3% Integrated, better travel opportunities 28 15.7% Outdoor adventure activity participation 13 7.3% Recreational opportunity 5 2.8% 42.1% Environment Improved interpretation of the environment & 30 16.9% culture Return to nature 13 7.3% Carefree, "blown away" setting 12 6.7% Interaction with environment/people 8 4.5% 35.4% Misc Improved awareness of physical fitness & 5 2.8% health Mental, physical stimulation 4 2.2% Do not know 26 14.6% 19.6% Total 278* * From multiple responses Finally the respondents were asked to travel is regarded as 'a newly emerging identify their overall position and stage of segment1 (50.6%, 90), 'gaming recognition and development of adventure travel segment in popularity' (28.7%, 51) and presenting greater the travel and tourism industry. Adventure variety and availability of products (Figure 4). 63
    • Asia Pacific Journal of Tourism Research Volume 1 Issue 2 Downloaded By: [Morrison, Alastair M.] At: 04:13 11 April 2008 Table 12 Benefits of Adventure Travel to Providing Organizations Benefits of Adventure Travel - To the provider organizations Frequency Percent Sub total Experience Providing adventure expertise with an integrated itinerary 37 20.8% Interaction with people 21 11.8% Job satisfaction 24 13.5% Extended experience 11 6.2% Self actualization 11 6.2% 58.5% Education Promote tourism to remote destinations 34 19.1% Educational rewards 21 11.8% Supporting the culture & environment 9 5.1% Enhance local benefits 4 2.2% 38.2% Business Increased business opportunity with growing market 21 11.8% potential Profitability 17 9.6% Satisfied, repeat customers 11 6.2% 27.6% Do not know 32 18.0% 18.0% Total 253* From multiple responses Figure 4 Adventure Travel Segment Welt-recognized w/sorae popularity Highly-developed 28.7% highly popular 13.5% None of these 1.7% A newly-eraerging Little current activity tourism segment butw/grcwth potential 50.5% 5.5% 64
    • Asia Pacific Journal of Tourism Research Volume 1 Issue 2 Downloaded By: [Morrison, Alastair M.] At: 04:13 11 April 2008 CONCLUSION adventure travel segment in terms of structural differences between the two fields. Summary of Findings The limitations in methodology included The hypothesis that the major components (1) The limited size and distribution of the sample including activity, motivation, risk, performance, population (178 exhibitors at the International experience, and environment should be used to Adventure Travel and Outdoor Show); and (2) the define adventure travel is supported by this study's limited physical efforts to conduct the survey only results. All six components are considered to be by one researcher within a short period of time highly important in adventure travel. Some (four days). In addition, it should be noted that the variation in terms of the level of importance is distribution of the survey population was heavily found, with activity at the highest level, and concentrated in the North American market. The performance at the lowest level. A subsequent extension or generalization of North American multiple comparison test grouped six components profiles to other nations and cultures should be into three by levels of importance: Activity with treated with a degree of caution. experience and environment; motivation by itself; and risk with performance. Implications Tests of alternative definitions show The results of this study clearly provide some significant differences in terms of level of insights for the adventure travel industry. It can be agreement. The most acceptable definition is suggested that adventure travel products or services strongly associated with experience and should be developed. The major components environment, whereas the least acceptable one is including activity, environment, experience, risk, associated with physical danger. Although the new motivation, and performance should be integrated proposed definition is not strongly supported, the to reflect their relative levels of importance. For results confirm that activities, experience, and tour operators and wholesalers, the active, environment are the most important components experiential nature of adventure travel presents that should be used to define adventure travel. relatively specific target markets represented by Profiles of the participants' business were highly activity-oriented travelers expecting more analyzed to examine the empirical application of sophisticated levels of experience and expertise. the definition. Tour operators/wholesalers and Unlike traditional leisure or recreation DMOs/NTOs were the two major groups. The studies, within adventure travel, the nature of the respondents represented a wide range of business risk element has to be carefully attached to the categories in the adventure travel segment. Rafting, notion of "perceived" risk rather than to just the kayaking, hiking, trekking, and ecotour trips were provision of a "dangerous, risky" setting. As such, the most popular adventure travel activities cited by adventure travel experiences could be managed by the respondents. operators at their greatest effectiveness with an Analyses of several open-ended questions appropriate balance between the ;performance show that the most popular words to describe skills to participate in specific activities and the adventure travel are 'participation in physical real and perceived risk in a secure, safe activities.' This confirms that activity is the most environmental setting. important component in describing adventure Segmenting the market wit a standard travel. Tests of the benefits of adventure travel definition should help management identify some deliver similar results in that activity, environment, of the major trends and management issues that and experience are also the most important benefits arise in the adventure travel segment. It is also of adventure travel. expected that future studies and practices may depend to a certain extent on how this definition is Limitations of Study used to explore its empirical applications. For The structural limitations of study included (1) The future marketing research, a pre-test to examine the limited amount of literature directly associated with proposed definition by consumers may increase its adventure travel; and as a consequence, (2) some creditability and validity. probable misunderstanding or misinterpretation in Conclusion importing past leisure or recreation theories to the The purpose of this study is to develop a comprehensive definition of adventure travel to 65
    • Asia Pacific Journal of Tourism Research Volume 1 Issue 2 Downloaded By: [Morrison, Alastair M.] At: 04:13 11 April 2008 build a conceptual framework for the interpretation and presentation of the definition. It is assumed that Cater, E., & Lowman, G. (1994). Ecotourism: the notion of 'adventure' had its origin in past Sustainable option? New York, NY: John leisure or recreation studies and that the volumes of Wiley & Sons, Inc. literature generated in the past 25 years could provide a framework for constructing further theory Chon, K. S., & Singh, A. (1995). Marketing resorts and conceptualizations extended to the adventure to 2000: Review of trends in the USA Tourism travel industry for empirical application. Management, 16(6), 463-469. Activity, environment, and experience have been identified as key variables to compose a Darst, P., & Armstrong, G. (1980). Outdoor definition of adventure travel and should be adventure activities for school and recreation integrated with other components such as risk, programs. Minneapolis, MN: Burgess. motivation, and performance. The hypothesized definition proposed and examined in mis study Edgell, D. L. Sr. (1996). Preface - The year 2000: needs additional thought and development, and Issues and challenges. Journal of Travel & Tourism could be improved with greater reflection on the Marketing. 5(1/2), xiii-xvii. survey findings. It is still recommended that an integrated approach be adopted to both the Ewert, A. (1987). Recreation in the outdoor setting; constructs, 'adventure' and 'travel.' However, care A focus on adventure-based recreational should be taken since this is a case of a highly experiences. Leisure Information Quarterly, 14(1), activity-oriented segment emphasizing 5-7. sophisticated levels of experience and expertise rather than traditional risk and motivation theories. Ewert, A., & Hollenhorst, S. (1989). Testing the As a result, a new definition of adventure adventure model: Empirical support for a model of travel is proposed as: risk Recreation participation. Journal of Leisure Research, 21(2), 124-139. A trip or travel with the specific purpose of activity participation to explore a new Ewert, A. (1989). Outdoor Adventure Pursuits: experience, often involving perceived risk or Foundation, Models and Theories. Columbus, OH: controlled danger associated with personal Publishing Horizons. challenges, in a natural environment or exotic outdoor setting. (Sung, etal, 1997) Ewert, A., & Hollenhorst, S. (1994). Individual and setting attributes of the adventure recreation This definition, if it is articulated and experience. Leisure Sciences, 16, 177-191. operationalized in a consistent manner, should have important implications for both future studies and Hall, C.M. (1989). Special interest travel: A prime management. By using a standard definition, this force in the expansion of tourism? In R. study can contribute to future marketing research as Welch.(Ed.). 81-89. Geography in Action. a stepping stone for segmenting the adventure Dunedin: University of Otago. travel market. Time are changing and so will the definition of 'adventure.' The definition of Hall, C.M. (1992). Adventure, sport and health adventure travel proposed by this study has tourism. In B. Weiler & C.M. Hall, (Eds.), 141- presented a challenge, particularly when relatively 158. Special Interest Tourism. London: Belhaven little systematic research has previously been Press. conducted on the subject to date. The growth of adventure travel not only has implications for the Hall, C.M., & Weiler, B. (1992). What's special way in which travel is perceived, but also in the about special interest tourism? In B. Weiler & way in which it will develop in the future. C.M. Hall, (Eds.), 1-14. Special Interest Tourism. London: Belhaven Press. REFERENCES Henderson, K.A. (1994). Theory application and Black, N., & Rutledge, J. (eds.). (1995). Outback development in recreation, parks, and leisure tourism: The authentic Australian adventure. research. Journal of Park and Recreation North Quensland, Australia: James Cook Administration, 12(1), 51-64. University. 66
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