Technological universities as source of innovation seeram ramakrishna
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Technological universities as source of innovation seeram ramakrishna



Presentación apoyo - "Technological Universities as Source of Innovation, Research, Knowledge Transfer and Entrepreneurship to Generate Competitive Advantages for their Territories", por el profesor ...

Presentación apoyo - "Technological Universities as Source of Innovation, Research, Knowledge Transfer and Entrepreneurship to Generate Competitive Advantages for their Territories", por el profesor Seeram Ramakrishna en el marco del "I encuentro Internacional de universidades tecnológicas" y "V Encuentro Universidad Empresa Estado" realizado en Cartagena de Indias 2011.



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Technological universities as source of innovation seeram ramakrishna Technological universities as source of innovation seeram ramakrishna Presentation Transcript

  • Technological Universities as Source of Innovation, Research, Knowledge Transfer and Entrepreneurship to Generate Competitive Advantages for their Territories Professor Seeram Ramakrishna, FREng, FNAE, FAAAS Conference on University‐Business‐Government Interaction,  Universidad Technoloigca de Bolivar, Colombia, August 22 to 24, 2011 
  • Half Way Around the World! (16,000 km) Colombia Singapore ~ 1,038,700 sq km ~ 687 sq km ~ 44 m ~5m ~ $285.5 billion GDP ~ $222.7 billion GDP
  • OUTLINEGlobal LandscapeSingaporeNational University of SingaporeSummary
  • Breakdown of Global R& D Spending In 2010, Asia surpassed  40,0% US in having the highest  global share of spending  35,0% in  R&D % of Global R&D Spending Asia 30,0% 25,0% USA 20,0% Europe 15,0% Rest of the World 10,0% 5,0% 0,0% 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 Year 4Source: Battelle, R&D Magazine, Global R&D Funding Forecast, editions:– Dec 2008 , Dec 2009 and Dec 2010 Changing Face of Innovation : Is it Shifting to Asia? Seeram & Daniel
  • Global Increases in ResearchersTotal number of researchers: ~ 5 m (year 2000); ~ 10 m (year 2010) US US 1426 1342
  • Growing Importance of Universities to the Nations in Scientific Research, Innovation & Economic Growth Research Statistics - 2007 Gross Domestic Expenditure on R&D (GERD) as percent of GDP Higher Education Expenditure on R&D (HERD) as percent of GDPSource: OECD Factbook 2009: Economic, Environmental and Social Statistics - ISBN 92-64-05604-1 - © OECD 2009; A*STAR Singapore; MainScience and Technology Indicators, OECD, Paris, 2009; Brazil: Ministry of Science and Technology (MCT); India: National Science &Technology Management Information System, Department of Science & Technology.
  • UniversitiesLandscape –University Trends Knowledge Generation and Knowledge Absorption are Global * Introduction of Science and Technology * New universities across Europe * Trained workforce for Industry * Scholarship funded by self, wealthy and  crowns 2000 & Beyond * Enabling role of print media 1900 – 2000 * More than 15,000*  1600 ‐ 1900 universities worldwide * Education + Scientific  * Education + Research +  Research Economic Impact * Massive expansion of  * Global mobility of talent university sector in Pre‐1600 Europe and America * Ubiquitous information  and enabling role of ICT* Few Institutions of Higher Learning * After WWII Nation * Theology, Philosophy, Medicine, Law states funding research * Nation states funding  research for competitive * Scholarship funded by self, wealthy and crown advantage* Educated people for religious institutions and courts of crowns 7 Changing Face of Innovation : Is it Shifting to Asia? Seeram & Daniel, 2011, World Scientific Publishers
  • Importance of Universities to the Nations in a competitive global world Social mobility  Rich source of research, analysis, commentary & thought  leadership Globally competitive human capital Impactful new knowledge generation and innovations to support  economy Magnet for investments resulting in wealth creation & job  creation Global reputation and visibility 8
  • Meeting the Expectations
  • OUTLINEGlobal LandscapeSingaporeNational University of SingaporeSummary
  • “What is interesting from a British perspective is thatthere is a sense of ambition here which is hugelyimpressive and when we consider our ownchallenges, generating growth in the economy, thereis a lot we need to look at here at how they havedone it”“….Interesting to see the evolution of educationsystem, language, legal system, civil service, in wayswe can learn from and we can hopefully share theirexperience” Antony Phillipson British High Commissioner to Singapore Monday August 8, 2011
  • Evolution of the Singapore Economy From 1960 to 2010 Singapore’s GDP increased by ~40-fold Per CapitaGDP US$B US$K 200 100 2000- 180 Knowledge/ 90 Innovation 160 80 Economy 140 70 1990 - 1999 120 60 Technology 100 Intensive 50 80 40 1980 - 1989 60 Capital 30 intensive 40 1970 – 1979 20 1960 - 1969 Skill 20 Labour intensive 10 intensive 0 0 1960 1963 1966 1969 1972 1975 1978 1981 1984 1987 1990 1993 1996 1999 2002 2005 2008 Asian Financial 9-11 / Dot-Com Global Financial Periods of Economic Contraction : Crisis 97-98 Burst 2001 Crisis 2009
  • Singapore  A small island city state with no natural resources  Highly industrialized, developed & urbanized  Best place to do business & live in AsiaRanked 2nd most innovative vountry – by BCG world’s second‐busiest container port and fourth‐largest  financial centre – Bloomberg  A global hub for a range of industries, from financial services  to transportation, to pharmaceuticals Most U.S. dollar‐millionaire households per capitaGDP (2010)  $222.7 billionPer capita GDP $62,100 (PPP)
  • Singapore Education has been high priority since independence Singapore Budget by Sector Government Administration,  3.4% - % of 2010 Budget Economic  Development,  Education – 20.8% of  21.1 % Social  2010 Government  Development ,  43 % Budget Security and  External  Sufficient resources to support Relations,  quality mass education 32.5%  Attract the best and brightest to teaching and research  Social mobility
  • Singapore High Priority - Education of People Singapore Government Budget 2010 Total Expenditure by 46.37 bi Government Projected GDP 277.67 bi Total Expenditure on Education 9.66 bi Education Expenditure as % of 20.83% Budget 2010 Total Expenditure on 2.52 bi Universities University Expenditure as % of 26.09% Education BudgetSource :; Singapore Government Budget 2010 & Statistics Singapore
  • Singapore Public Universities  Source for best ideas globally Customize to local system and culture Year  University Name Distinguishing FeaturesFounded1905 National University of Singapore (NUS) Leading comprehensive University Engineering, Business, Sciences + 1991 Nanyang Technological University (NTU) Medicine Singapore Management University  Business (strong link with Wharton 2000 (SMU) School) Singapore University of Technology &  Engineering (strong link with MIT & 2010 Design (SUTD) Zhejiang University) University Cohort Participation Rate in Singapore Year 1980 Year 2010 5% 26% (50,000 students)Drop out rate of tertiary education students: OECD ~ 30%; Singapore ~ 5%
  • Singapore Government’s Goal: To transform Singapore into one of themost research‐intensive, innovative and entrepreneurial economies in the worldin order to create high‐value add jobs and prosperity for Singaporeans Higher Education + S&T Innovation + Enterprises Driven Economy Technology Intensive Capital Intensive Skills Intensive Labour Intensive 1960 1980 2000 2020 18
  • Singapore’s Spending on R&D Gross Expenditure on R&D (GERD)Singapore R&D Spending as % of GDP 3.5% Business Expenditure on R&D (BERD) 3.5% BERD/GDP GERD/GDP 3.0% 3.0% 2.7% 2.5% 2.5% 2.5% 2.3% 2.3% 2.2% 2.2% 2.1% 2.1% 1.9% 1.9% 2.0% 2.0% {Public expenditure on scientific research: UK ~ 0.55%GDP 1.7% 1.5% Germany ~ 0.71% 1.5% 1.5% USA ~ 0.77% 1.4% France ~ 0.81% 1.3% 1.3% 1.3% 1.2% Singapore ~ 1%} 1.0% 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2010 2015 5-year S&T Plan National National Science & Science & Science, Technology & Technology Science & Technology Technology Enterprise Plan 2015 Plan Technology Plan Plan 2005 Plan 2010 (2011-2015) (1991-1995) (1996-2000) (2001-2005) (2006-2010) S$2 billion S$4 billion S$6 billion S$13.9 billion S$ 16.1 billion
  • Singapore’s Spending on R&D1991‐1995:  $ 2 billion ~3,000 researchers, scientists & engineers, RSEs in 19901996‐2000:  $ 4 billion2001‐2005:  $ 6 billion2006‐2010:  $ 13.55 billion ~12,000 RSEs in 20102011‐2015:  $ 16.1 billion
  • Singapore High Priority - Innovation Global Averages: R&D expend ~1.7% of total world GDP; 1544 researchers per million people Singapore –3.5% GDP by 2015Researchers / Million People R&D Expend as % of GDP Reference: R&D Magazine, Dec 2009 : 2010 Global Funding Forecast
  • Singapore’s output of papers, representing all fields
  • Key Features of R&D Management in Singapore Combination of top‐down and bottom‐up International bench‐marking/ peer review Industry inputs in shaping R&D thrusts Attract the best and brightest to the teaching and research           (pay scales pegged to the global bench‐marks; world‐ class infrastructure; culture of excellence) More local competition  Meaningful global partnerships Co‐branding with the best in league Industry alignment fund
  • Ministry of Education’s Academic Research Council  Robert Brown, Boston University  Nicholas P Bigelow, University of Rochester   Randal Bryant, Carnegie Mellon University   Jean‐Lou Chameau, California Institute of Technology   Mogens Flensted‐Jensen, University of Copenhagen   Alice Gast, Lehigh University   Philip Khoury, Massachusetts Institute of Technology   Sir George Radda, University of Oxford   Judith Swain, University of California, San Diego   Axel Ullrich, Max Planck Institute of Biochemistry  Zhu Zuoyan, Peking University 
  • Increasing Competition Locally SUTD Singapore Public Universities (2010) SMU (2000) NTU NUS (1991) Global Players in Singapore (1980)  MIT, USA  UC Berkeley, USA  ETH, Switzerland  Technion, BU & HUJ, Israel  Peking University, China  Imperial College, UK Singapore’s Public Research Institutes  ASTAR’s 15 institutes Private Sector Industry
  • University Town Global Partnerships Singapore National Research Foundation’s CREATE Campus for Research Excellence And Technological Enterprise (CREATE) co- located at University Town 650,000 sq ft scientific research centerlocated at the National University of Singapore’s new 7 acre University Town campus.
  • Global Partnerships Singapore‐MIT Alliance for Research and  Technology 1. Infectious Diseases 2. Environmental Sensing & Modeling 3. Bio‐Systems and Micromechanics    4. Future Urban Mobility
  • Global Partnerships SINGAPORE‐ETH, Switzerland: Future  Cities Laboratory
  • Global Partnerships Singapore-Berkeley Research Institute for Sustainable Energy (SINBERISE)
  • Industry Alignment Fund $1.35bn (~ 10% of national R&D budget) is provisioned as Industry Alignment Fund (IAF) IAF will be used to develop a portfolio of R&D programs and capabilities that are aligned with the needs of industry over the next 5‐10 years; as well as attract and stimulate a higher level of industry R&D spending in Singapore
  • OUTLINEGlobal LandscapeSingaporeNational University of SingaporeSummary
  • Rooting Culture of Excellence @ Universities- Ministry of Education, Singapore Three-step Approach Institutional  Feedback  External  Self‐ and  Validation Assessment DevelopmentSource : MOE, Singapore Take Action 33
  • Rooting Culture of Excellence @ Universities- Ministry of Education, Singapore • Leadership,  • Resources &         strategies &  operations that  policies that   turn intentions  direct the  How are we  into action university What are   trying            we trying    to achieve  to do? this?   Virtuous  Quality  Spiral How  are   What are   we assessing  we learning? our success? • Indicators   &  • Feedback &  measures that  Learning signal and quantify  success 34Source : MOE, Singapore
  • National University of Singapore (NUS) in Nation’s Progress in a Globalized World Human Capital • Differentiated learning • Internationalization Development • Global learning • World class research infrastructureCapacity Building in • Powerhouse for new knowledgeResearch Excellence • Knowledge transfer and entrepreneurship • Attraction of top talent (Local and International)Global Partnerships • Test bedding innovative ideas for global challenges Magnet for • Talents (Local and International) Investments & • Academic-Private-Government Partnerships Economic Growth • Academic leadership Global Reputation • Academic innovations
  • Internationalization of University NUS excels by providing differentiated learning experience with ~ 50% faculty members, ~ 30% of undergraduates, and ~ 75% of graduates ~ 75% of researchers from over 100 nations
  • Global Learning Take NUS students to the world 50% undergraduates go overseas; 20% for > 6 months > 60 joint- & double-degree programmes with top universities around the world 180 partner universities for student exchange 6 NUS Overseas Colleges across the US, Europe, China and India
  • Global Education PartnershipsDuke‐NUS Graduate Medical  School Singapore Duke Singapore‐MIT Alliance (SMA) MITThe Logistics Institute‐Asia Pacific Georgia TechMasters in Public Policy HarvardExecutive Development Program StanfordDesign Technology Institute T/u Eindhoven German Institute of Science & Technology  T U MunichFrench‐NUS Double Degree Program 6 Grandes EcolesInternational MBA Program PekingNYU@NUS Law Program New YorkJDP in Actuarial Studies & Economics Australian NationalJoint PhD  Program  Indian Institute of Technology  Bombay 
  • NUS-Government-Private Partnerships Campus for Research Excellence And Technological Enterprise (C.R.E.A.T.E.)UNIVERSITY TOWN BIOPOLIS FUSIONOPOLIS National University of  Singapore part of National  Research Ecosystem Within 7 KM radius SCIENCE  PARK
  • Example S$150 million investment by GE and NUS (2008) 2,700 sq metres of new R&D laboratory on NUS Campus NUS – GE Singapore Water Technology Centre World – Class Collaborative Centre with Industry for advancing water technologies  Self‐sufficiency in meeting national water needs  Solutions for other nations
  • Example$120m SOLAR ENERGY RESEARCH INSTITUTE OF SINGAPORE (2008) Solar panels  World´s best person to lead it  Clean energy technology solutions for Singapore and the world
  • ~ 92% of NUS’s Research Funds come from External Competitive Grants Others (Other Min/Stat NUS-funded Research Boards/Industry/ Foundations/ Programmes Individuals) 4% RCEs (Cancer, CQT, MOE Block Grant for Others (Other Min/Stat Mechanobiology) Research (Tier 1) Boards/Industry/ 4% Foundations/ Individuals) MOH 28% NRF (Projects) A*STAR 9% MOE Competitive Grants (Tier 2)MOE Competitive Grants (Tier 2) 7% NRF (other than RCE funding) RCEs (Cancer, CQT, Mechanobiology) MOE Block Grant for A*STAR Research (Tier 1) 18% 15% MOH 15% NUS-funded Research
  • RESEARCH: Inputs and Outputs/Outcomes Research  Trained  Quality?  manpower  Skilled  employment Research  Grant  O O Prizes Social policy  U U Awards  change Ideas:  T T proposals,  Research Journals C INPUTS P Books Citations and  black box U Conf papers  O partnerships  Patents  M T Key notes  Licenses E Numbers – S Spin‐offs Op’ed Industrial  of researchers,  S facilities,  Academies  Investments; contracts collaboration Editorial  Revenue  Boards
  • External Research Grants Awarded to NUS Total Project Value Awarded by External Funding Agencies (FY2002 - FY2009) $400 369 $350 Project Value S$million $300 263 $250 223 $200 162 $150 110 $100 88 $50 $0 FY04 FY05 FY06 FY07 FY08 FY09 Financial Year
  • New Knowledge Generation Share of Publications in Journals Others 3% Ranking of Share of Publications A*STAR by Higher Education 14% 1 National University of Singapore (NUS) 2 Nanyang Technological NUS University (NTU) 52% 3 Agency for Science, NTU Technology and 31% Research (A*STAR) 4 Others Period from Year 2000 to 31 Aug 2010 Source : Accessed Thomson Reuters -Web of Science data on 1 Sep 2010; Journal Publications with Impact Factor
  • 2010-11 THE World University Rankings for NUS World rank: 34th Asia rank: 4th Contribute to 52% of Singapore’s total research output of about 60,000 journal articles for the past decade Materials Science is the BEST performance for NUS with its papers cited at more than twice the world average. Other fields in the physical sciences with substantial output and high relative impact by NUS researchers were Mathematics, Engineering and Chemistry.Source:
  • Wise Expectations are Function of Nature and Degree Universities Trendsof Evolution of a University * Peaks of excellence‐ national & global visibility * Membership of prestigious academies * International awards & prizes# * Peer partnerships * Plenary lectures* Journal & conference papers * Thought leadership & * Pockets of research influence* Research income * Transformative ideas & * Conferences * High research averages  across the university impact* Consultancy *  High impact factor journal papers * Value to the respective eco‐* Books *  Citations, citations per paper, highly cited  system papers, h‐index, g‐index, etc * National and global  * Editorial boards, patents, copy rights,  reputation licenses, start‐ups, spin‐offs, industry income * Advisory boards, high level committeesThere is no common definition of a world class university but most can point to its aspectsBy and large universities operate within the realm of local and national dynamicsIndividual academics can create impact without resorting to the above step-wise approach 47
  • OUTLINEGlobal LandscapeSingaporeNational University of SingaporeSummary
  • More such information can be found in this book …..
  • National Level• Clear vision for higher education• Commitment of adequate resources (recurrent and fixed)• Competitive research funds• Autonomy to the universities• Framework for Accountability and Quality Assurance  • International Academic Advisory Panel/ External Review PanelUniversity Level• Overseers of the university to comprise successful  business leaders,   entrepreneurs, scholars, policy makers, philanthropists• Shared strategies, goals and plans• Aligned governance structures and processes• Self‐assessment and plans for improvement• Celebrate excellence 51
  • College/Faculty/School Level• Visiting committees• Performance based rewards and resource allocation• Celebrate excellenceDepartment Level• Visiting committees• Accreditations, where applicable• Performance based promotion and tenure• Bench‐marking with peer groups• Celebrate excellence 52
  • Individual Academics• Teaching quality and effectiveness• Relative research excellence in niche area(s)• Leadership and visibility• (Globally) competitive remuneration packages• Ethics & integrityStudents and Staff• Merit based admission of students• Source globally for graduate students and researchers• Competitive remuneration 53
  • 21st CenturyExcellent Universities and Nodes of Scientific Research &Innovation in Specific Areas are Globally Dispersed 54
  • THANK YOU ! 55