F-MARC Nutrition for Football A practical guide to eating and drinking for health and performance100 YEARS FIFA 1904 - 2004 Sven Müller DesignFédération Internationale de Football Association Based on an International Consensus?FIFA-Strasse 20 P.O. Box 8044 Zurich SwitzerlandTel: +41-(0)43-222 7777 Fax: +41-(0)43-222 7878 Conference held at FIFA House in Zurichwww.FIFA.com September 2005
F-MARC Nutrition for FootballFédération Internationale de Football AssociationPresident Joseph S. BlatterGeneral Secretary Urs LinsiAddress FIFA-Strasse 20 P.O. Box 8044 Zurich Switzerland Tel: +41-(0)43-222 7777 Fax: +41-(0)43-222 7878 www.FIFA.com
2 FOREWORD | NUTRITION FOR FOOTBALL NUTRITION FOR FOOTBALL | FOREWORD 3 All players should choose food wisely to help achieve their goals in sport. Joseph S. Blatter, FIFA President The food and drink that players choose to The Coca-Cola Company, via the POWERADE consume can affect how they perform in sport brand, has formed a very successful partnership and help them to stay fit and healthy. All players with FIFA and the FIFA Medical Assessment and should choose food wisely to help achieve their Research Centre (F-MARC). This partnership has goals in sport. created this nutrition brochure which we hope will provide you with practical information in We must also remember the important social advance of the 2006 FIFA World Cup™. and cultural aspects of eating and the pleasure that we gain from food. A healthy diet that is We are delighted to support athletes as they good for performance can also be a source of pursue their personal goals. One way we do enjoyment. this is through the POWERADE sports drink brand. It was developed to help athletes FIFA is committed to helping all players to perform at their best, thanks to its formulation, achieve their goals. This booklet is part of which can help delay the onset of fatigue that commitment. during exercise and prevent dehydration. This brochure recognizes the importance of diet as a crucial part of sporting performance and we hope you find the information useful. Joseph S. Blatter FIFA President Neville Isdell Chairman of the Board & CEO The Coca-Cola Company
4 KEY MESSAGES | NUTRITION FOR FOOTBALL NUTRITION FOR FOOTBALL | KEY MESSAGES 5 Key messages Whenever highly talented, motivated and well trained players meet in competition, the margin Foods rich in protein are important for building and repairing muscles, but a varied diet between victory and defeat is small. Attention to detail can make that vital difference. containing everyday foods will generally supply more than enough protein. Diet affects performance, and the food that we choose in training and competition will Wellchosen vegetarian diets can easily meet protein needs. affect how well we train and play. All players need to be aware of their personal nutritional goals and of how they can select an eating strategy to meet those goals. A varied diet that meets energy needs and is based largely on nutrient-rich choices such as vegetables, fruits, beans, legumes, cereals, lean meats, fish and dairy Every player is different, and there is no single diet that meets the needs of all players at all foods should ensure an adequate intake of vitamins and minerals. Excluding any times. Individual needs also change across the season and players must be flexible to of these food groups means that more careful food choices must be made. accommodate this. Maintaining hydration is important for performance. Fluid intake Diet may have its biggest impact on training, and a good diet will help support consistent before, during (where appropriate) and after exercise is important, especially intensive training while limiting the risks of illness or injury. Good food choices can also in hot climates. When sweat losses are high, food and drink consumed promote adaptations to the training stimulus. must contain sufficient salt to replace these losses. Getting the right amount of energy to stay healthy and to perform well is key. Players are cautioned against the indiscriminate use of Too much and body fat increases: too little – and performance falls, injuries occur dietary supplements. and illness – results. Carbohydrate supplies the muscles and brain with the fuels they need to meet the stress of This booklet contains information that will help players at all levels of competition training and competition. Players must be aware of what foods they should choose to make informed choices to meet their nutritional needs in different situations. to meet their carbohydrate needs, how much should be eaten, and when these foods This booklet tries to give practical information that will be of use to the serious should be eaten. player, but is not a substitute for individual advice from a qualified professional.
6 INTRODUCTION | NUTRITION FOR FOOTBALL NUTRITION FOR FOOTBALL | INTRODUCTION 7 The benefits of eating well A well-chosen diet offers many benefits to The information in this booklet is designed to provide every sportsman and woman players and coaches with an overview of the latest guidelines in sports nutrition. While there is no such thing as a magic diet or food, there are many ways in which • Optimal gains from the training programme eating and drinking well can allow players at all levels of • Enhanced recovery within and between workouts performance to achieve the special goals of their training and events and competition programmes. It makes no sense to train • Achievement and maintenance of an ideal body hard and ignore the benefits that follow from good food weight and physique choices. • A reduced risk of injury and illness Nutrition for Football is based on the conclusions • Confidence in being well-prepared for match play of the FIFA/F-MARC Consensus Conference on • Consistency in achieving high level performances Nutrition for Sport, held in Zurich in September in matches 2005. We gratefully acknowledge the contribution • Enjoyment of food and social eating occasions of the conference participants as the expert scientific sources for this booklet. Despite these advantages, many players do not meet their nutrition goals. Common problems and challenges include • Poor knowledge of food and drink and inadequate cooking skills • Poor choices when shopping or dining out This booket was prepared for the • Poor or outdated knowledge of sports nutrition FIFA Sports Medical Committee by Professor Ron Maughan, UK • Inadequate finances Professor Louise Burke, Australia • Busy lifestyle leading to inadequate time to obtain Dr Donald T. Kirkendall, USA or consume appropriate foods We thank all the participants in the FIFA/F-MARC • Poor availability of good food and drink choices International Consensus Conference for their insight • Frequent travel and comments in the preparation of this booklet. • Indiscriminate use of supplements and sports foods
8 ENERGY DEMANDS | NUTRITION FOR FOOTBALL NUTRITION FOR FOOTBALL | ENERGY DEMANDS 9 Energy demands of training and match play Most serious football players play in one or more The total distance run by a player during a game depends Energy demands of training Energy demands in a training session focused on fitness competitive games per week for a large part of the year on many different factors, including the level of may reach those of a hard game. In sessions where the and will train most days of the week, sometimes twice a competition, the player’s position, and the playing style emphasis is on recovery and regeneration or on skill, the day, throughout this time. The energy demands of and fitness level of the individual. At the elite level, male The energy demands of training will vary depending energy cost will be much less. training must be met to maintain performance capacity outfield players typically cover about 10-13 km, making on the intensity, frequency and duration of the training and prevent the development of chronic fatigue. football an endurance sport. The demands are increased, sessions, but they will also change over the course of the however, by the fact that more than 600 m are covered at season. Most players will follow a weekly cycle that Energy needs sprinting speed and about 2.4 km at high intensity. involves a reduced training load to allow recovery from Energy for match play Over the whole duration of the game, heart rate is about the previous game, days of harder training, and a 85% of the maximum rate and the oxygen demand is reduction in training load in preparation for the next The foods we eat and the fluids we drink provide for the about 70% of the maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max). game. immediate energy needs of the body as well as influencing Soccer is a game of intermittent work. Players generally These values suggest that the total energy cost of a game body energy stores. Energy stores play a number of perform low intensity activities for more than 70% of the for a typical player weighing about 75 kg would be about In pre-season, the training load is important roles related to exercise performance, since they game, but heart rate and body temperature measurements 1600 kcal (about 6.5 MJ). The value for players at lower usually at its greatest as players contribute to suggest that the total energy demand is high. The high levels of the game is somewhat less than this; because the strive to reach full fitness for the energy demand may be partly explained by the repeated VO2max is also lower, the total energy expended will be opening games of the season. • size and physique (e.g. body fat and muscle mass) high intensity efforts that players are called upon to less. Of course, energy needs will vary greatly • function (e.g. muscle mass) perform. A top class player performs about 150-250 brief between individuals. • fuel for exercise (e.g. muscle and liver carbohydrate) intense actions during a game. These efforts place high demands on the anaerobic energy systems, so the rates of creatine phosphate (CP) utilisation and glycolysis are The energy needed for training and match play must be high during the course of a game. added to the energy required for normal daily activities. As outlined above, the energy demands of training will Carbohydrate, which is stored in the muscles and in depend on the intensity and duration of the training the liver as glycogen, is probably the most important session. These will vary across the season and at different substrate for energy production, and fatigue towards the levels of competition. end of a game may be related to depletion of glycogen in some of the individual muscle fibres. If even a few of How much food a player needs will depend largely on these are unable to contract, then sprinting ability is energy needs, and there is no simple formula to predict reduced, and skill may also be impaired. Free fatty acid this. Energy needs depend not only on the demands of (FFA) levels in blood increase progressively during a training and match play, but also on activities outside game, partially compensating for the progressive lowering the game. For those who train infrequently, or where of muscle glycogen. training sessions are short or easy, the energy demands will not be high. Similarly, energy needs are lower during There are major individual differences in the physical periods of inactivity such as the off-season or while a demands on a player during a game related to physical player is injured, and players should adapt their food capacity and tactical role in the team. Fatigue also occurs intake accordingly. temporarily during a game, but it is still unclear what causes the reduced ability to perform maximally. These differences should be taken into account in the training and nutritional strategies for a top class player.
10 B O D Y FAT | N U T R I T I O N F O R F O O T B A L L N U T R I T I O N F O R F O O T B A L L | B O D Y FAT 11 Body Fat An individual’s body fat stores represent a lifetime history Body weight is not a reliable or accurate indicator of If a reduction in body fat content is necessary, this should Example of low energy availability of the balance between energy intake and energy energy balance. Monitoring body weight can be misleading, be achieved gradually. Players can avoid potential expenditure. Fat is the major energy store in the body, and the information can be misinterpreted. problems by taking care to avoid excess weight gain in the 60 kg female with 20 % body fat = 48 kg FFM and is an efficient way to store excess energy for use in off-season. Careful management of both diet and activity Daily energy intake is 1800 kcal (7560 kJ) times of need. Monitoring of skinfold fat thicknesses across the season, levels in the off-season and in the pre-season can help the Cost of daily exercise (1 h/d) = 500 kcal (2100 kJ) especially when undertaken by a trained kinanthropo- player to reach his of her ideal weight and body fat level Energy availability = 1800-500 = 1300 kcal (5460 kJ) A player will perform best when the amount of body fat metrist, can provide useful information about changes in with minimal impact on health or performance. Energy availability = 1300/48 or 27 kcal/kg is within his or her individual optimum range. This will body fat stores. FFM (113 kJ per kg FFM) vary between individuals, and will also vary across a To avoid irreversible skeletal damage, any female player player’s career, so there is no single value that is ideal. If Urinary ketones can provide a marker of inadequate with disruption of normal menstrual function should be the body fat stores fall too low, health will suffer. If body carbohydrate intake. referred without delay to a medical expert for investigation. fat stores are too high, the player will be slowed down by having to carry unnecessary additional weight. It is Measurements of changes in muscle strength and endurance important, therefore that players manage their food provide a useful biomarker of muscle development. intake and energy output to achieve an optimum body size and body composition. Special concerns about restricting energy intake Strategies for managing energy intake and energy balance Although many players reduce their energy intake at times to assist with the loss of body weight and body fat, it is harmful to restrict energy intake below levels that Players should individually manage their energy stores of interfere with healthy body function. body fat, carbohydrate (muscle fuel) and protein (muscle mass) by managing intake and expenditure of these Energy availability = total dietary energy intake – nutrients separately. These issues will be discussed in energy used in daily activity/exercise separate parts of this booklet. There is evidence from recent research that when Players should follow an eating plan that achieves their energy availability drops below a daily intake of 30 kcal specific goals rather than relying on appetite to guide (135 kJ) per kg fat-free mass (FFM), there are substantial energy intake. Advice from a sports nutrition expert is impairments of metabolic and hormonal function, often required to develop this plan. which affect performance, growth and health. Players should have a number of In females, one outcome of low energy availability is a separate bio-markers to monitor disturbance of reproductive function and menstrual their progress in achieving each of regularity. Other problems are likely to occur in their energy-related goals. male players. Players requiring advice for weight loss or fat loss should seek guidance from a qualified sports nutrition expert such as a sports dietitian.
12 C A R B O H Y D R AT E S | N U T R I T I O N F O R F O O T B A L L N U T R I T I O N F O R F O O T B A L L | C A R B O H Y D R AT E S 13 Carbohydrates in the diet Carbohydrate provides an important, but relatively short- Targets for carbohydrate intake Special comments lived, supply of fuel for exercise that must be refilled each Immediate recovery after exercise (0-4 hours): about day from carbohydrate foods in the diet. The players’ 1 g per kg of the player’s body weight per hour, everyday eating and drinking plan needs to provide consumed at frequent intervals Guidelines for carbohydrate should not be provided enough carbohydrate to fuel their training programme Daily recovery from a moderate duration/low intensity in terms of percentage contributions to total dietary and to optimise the recovery of muscle glycogen stores training session: 5-7 g per kg body weight per day energy intake. Such recommendations are neither user- between workouts. General targets can be provided for friendly nor strongly related to the muscle’s absolute Recovery from moderate-heavy endurance training carbohydrate needs, based on the player’s size and the (such as pre-season) or fuelling up for a match: needs for fuel. demands of the training programme (see table below). 7-10 g per kg body weight per day However, actual needs are specific to the individual and need to be fine-tuned with consideration of the total Examples of carbohydrate foods with energy needs and specific training goals. It is important to moderate-high Glycaemic Index get feedback from performance in training and match play Most breakfast cereals to assess whether there is a problem with fuel availability. There is no difference in glycogen synthesis when carbohydrate is consumed in liquid form or as solid foods. Most forms of rice Given the amount of carbohydrate to be consumed, high White and brown breads Strategies for choosing carbohydrate foods and carbohydrates foods will need to be spread out over the Sports drinks and soft drinks drinks and for optimising glycogen recovery full 24 hours. Sugar, jam and honey Potatoes It is valuable to choose nutrient-rich carbohydrates and Tropical fruits and juices When the period between training sessions is less than to add other foods to recovery meals and snacks to 8 hours (as in pre-season for elite players), carbohydrate provide a good source of protein and other nutrients. intake, in the form of solids or liquids, should start as These nutrients may assist in other recovery processes, soon as practicable after the first session to maximise the and in the case of protein, may promote additional Examples of nutrient-rich carbohydrate effective recovery time. There may be some advantages in glycogen recovery when carbohydrate intake is below foods and meal combinations meeting carbohydrate targets through a series of snacks target or when frequent snacking is not possible. Breakfast cereal with milk during the early recovery phase. Carbohydrate-rich foods and drinks with a moderate to Flavoured yoghurt During longer recovery periods (24 hours), the pattern high glycaemic index (GI) provide a readily available Fruit smoothie or liquid meal supplement and timing of carbohydrate-rich meals and snacks does source of carbohydrate for glycogen synthesis. These foods Sandwich with meat and salad filling not appear to be critical, and can be organised according should form the major part of recovery meals. Stir-fry with rice or noodles to what is practical and comfortable for each player. Adequate energy intake is also important for optimum glycogen recovery; the restrained eating practices of some players, particularly females, make it difficult to meet carbohydrate intake targets and to optimise glycogen storage from this intake.
14 PROTEIN NEEDS | NUTRITION FOR FOOTBALL NUTRITION FOR FOOTBALL | PROTEIN NEEDS 15 Protein needs for training and bulking up Protein has been considered a key nutrient for sporting Players most at risk of failing to meet their protein needs Further work is required to fine-tune guidelines for the success by athletes of all eras and in all sports. Whereas are those who severely restrict their energy intake or dietary optimum amount, type and timing of intake of these ancient Olympians were reported to eat unusually large variety. An adequate energy intake is also important in nutrients, and to confirm that these eating strategies lead amounts of meat, today’s players are provided with a vast promoting protein balance or increasing protein retention. to an enhancement of the goals of training. array of protein and amino acid supplements to increase their protein intakes. Although some resistance-trained athletes and body In the light of this information, it appears sensible to builders consume protein intake in excess of 2-3 g/kg focus on the total balance of the diet and the timing of Protein plays an important role in the response to body weight, there is no evidence that such dietary protein-carbohydrate meals and snacks in relation to exercise. Amino acids from proteins form building blocks patterns enhance the response to training or increase the training, rather than high protein intakes per se. for the manufacture of new tissue including muscle, and gains in muscle mass and strength. While such diets are the repair of old tissue. They are also the building blocks not necessarily harmful, they are expensive and can fail to Special sports foods such as sports bars and liquid meal for hormones and enzymes that regulate metabolism and meet other nutritional goals, such as providing the fuel supplements can provide a compact and convenient other body functions. Protein provides a small source of needed to optimise training and performance. way to consume carbohydrate and protein when fuel for the exercising muscle. everyday foods are unavailable or are too bulky and Recent studies have focused on the acute response to impractical to consume. However, the additional Some scientists have suggested that endurance and workouts of both endurance and resistance training. cost of these products, and the fact that they resistance-training exercise may increase daily protein Enhanced protein balance is a desirable goal of the contain only a limited range of nutrients, needs up to a maximum of 1.2-1.6 g per kg (body weight), recovery phase – to overturn the increased rates of protein must be taken into account. There is little compared to the recommended intake of 0.8 g/kg body breakdown that occur during exercise, and to promote justification for using very expensive protein-only weight for a sedentary person. However, the evidence for muscle growth, repair and adaptation following the powders or amino acid supplements. Everyday foods this increase in protein needs is not clear or universal. Part exercise stimulus. These studies have found that the are likely to be just as effective. of the confusion is caused by problems involved in scien- intake of protein, combined with carbohydrate, enhances tific techniques used to measure protein requirements. protein synthesis during the recovery period. There is some evidence that the response is enhanced when these The debate over the precise protein needs of players is nutrients are provided soon after exercise, or in the case Protein rich foods – 10 g protein is provided largely unnecessary. Dietary surveys show that most of a resistance workout, perhaps immediately before by any of the following players already consume diets providing protein intakes training. above 1.2-1.6 g/kg/d, even without the use of protein 2 small eggs supplements. Therefore, most players do not need to be 300 ml cow’s milk encouraged or educated to increase their protein intakes. 20 g skim milk powder Rather, anyone who consumes adequate energy intake 30 g cheese from a variety of nutrient-rich foods should be confident 200 g yoghurt of meeting his or her protein 35-50 g meat, fish or chicken needs, including any increases that could 4 slices bread arise from high-level 90 g breakfast cereal training. 2 cups cooked pasta or 3 cups rice 400 ml soy milk 60 g nuts or seeds 120 g tofu or soy meat 150 g legumes or lentils 200 g baked beans 150 ml fruit smoothie or liquid meal supplement
16 V I TA M I N S , M I N E R A L S A N D A N T I - O X I D A N T S | N U T R I T I O N F O R F O O T B A L L N U T R I T I O N F O R F O O T B A L L | V I TA M I N S , M I N E R A L S A N D A N T I - O X I D A N T S 17 Vitamins, minerals and anti-oxidants for training and staying healthy Strenuous bouts of prolonged exercise and heavy The best way to correct this situation is to seek advice Ideas for promoting dietary variety and Special concerns training, particularly aerobic exercise, stress the body. from a qualified sports nutrition expert such as a sports nutrient-rich eating Adequate intakes of energy, protein, iron, copper, dietitian. When food intake cannot be adequately Iron. Iron deficiency is the most common nutrient manganese, magnesium, selenium, sodium, zinc, and improved – for example, when the player is travelling in Be open to trying new foods and new recipes deficiency in the world. It may occur in athletes, vitamins A, C, E, B6 and B12 are particularly important a country with a limited food supply – or if an individual Make the most of foods in season including football players, and can impair training and to health and performance. These nutrients, as well as is found to be suffering from a lack of a particular vitamin match performance. Unexplained fatigue, especially Explore all the varieties of different foods others, are best when obtained from a varied diet based or mineral, then supplementation can be warranted. This in vegetarian eaters should be explored with a sports Mix and match foods at meals physician and sports nutrition expert. Routine use of largely on nutrient-rich foods such as vegetables, fruits, should be undertaken with the advice of a qualified sports Think carefully before banishing a food or iron supplements is not wise: too much is just as beans, legumes, grains, lean meats, fish, dairy products nutrition expert. In general, a broad-range multivitamin/ group of foods from your eating plans harmful as too little. Self-medication with iron and unsaturated oils. Dietary surveys show that most mineral supplement is the best choice to support a Include fruits and vegetables at every meal. The strong supplements may not address the real problem that is football players are able to meet the recommended intakes restricted food intake, although targeted nutrient colours of many fruits and vegetables are a sign of a causing fatigue, or solve the cause of poor iron status. for vitamins and minerals by eating everyday foods. Those at supplements may be necessary to correct an established risk of sub-optimum intakes of these micronutrients include: nutrient deficiency (e.g. iron deficiency). high content of various vitamins and other food anti- Calcium. Calcium is important for healthy bones. The oxidants. Aim to fill your plate with highly coloured best sources are dairy foods, including low fat varieties. • players who restrict their energy intake, especially foods to ensure a good intake of the range of these Fortified soy foods may provide a useful substitute over long periods, to meet weight loss goals health-promoting dietary compounds. It is good to where players cannot consume dairy foods.Three Anti-oxidant nutrients ensure that you “eat rainbow“ each day by choosing servings a day are required by adults, with an increased • players who follow eating patterns with restricted fruits and vegetables from each of the following requirement during growth spurts in childhood and food variety and reliance on foods Anti-oxidant nutrients are important in helping protect schemes: adolescence, and for pregnancy and lactation. with a poor nutrient- density the body’s tissues against the stresses of hard exercise. It is White – e.g. cauliflowers, bananas, onions, not known whether hard training increases the need potatoes for dietary antioxidants, as the body naturally Green – e.g. broccoli, lettuce, green apples develops an effective defence with a balanced and grapes diet. Supplementation with antioxidants Blue/purple – e.g blueberries, plums, purple cannot be recommended because there is grapes, raisins little evidence of benefit while it is known Orange/Yellow – e.g. carrots, apricots, peaches, that over-supplementation can diminish oranges, cantaloupe, mangoes the bodys natural defence system. Red – e.g. tomatoes, watermelon, cherries, berries, red apples, red peppers
18 P R E P E R AT I O N F O R C O M P E T I T I O N | N U T R I T I O N F O R F O O T B A L L N U T R I T I O N F O R F O O T B A L L | P R E P E R AT I O N F O R C O M P E T I T I O N 19 Preparation for competition Most players appreciate the need to rest and eat well during day; see below) at the same time that training intensity is Fluid intake prior to competition These volumes should be scaled down for female and the days prior to an important match, but questions arise reduced to no more than easy levels of short duration. It youth players with a smaller body size. regarding how much to eat, what type of food and when is is assumed that a moderate to hard bout of fatiguing the best time. This includes what to eat during the few exercise is performed in normal training sometime earlier Players should drink sufficient fluid with meals on the hours immediately before competition or intense training. in the week prior to competition. day before competition to ensure they are well-hydrated Five different examples of foods that each on the morning of competition. Players should not provide 140 g carbohydrate in a pre-competition Carbohydrate is the key energy-providing nutrient that refrain from drinking water or carbohydrate-containing meal* (2 g/kg for a 70 kg player) are must be optimised during the days leading up to and Carbohydrate in the 6-h period before playing fluids during the hours leading up to competition. 2.5 cups breakfast cereal + milk + large banana including the day of competition. Attention should also be given to optimising water and salt levels in the body. In hot weather, it is recommended that approximately Large bread roll or 3 thick slices bread + thick spread honey However, during the 2-4 days prior to a competition, a Players sometimes find a favourite pre-competition meal 500 ml be ingested during the 60-90 minute period player’s need for protein and fat, as well as most other that not only provides extra energy during the match, but before the start of the game. This will allow sufficient 2 cups boiled rice + 2 slices bread nutrients, typically does not increase above the levels that also feels “right” in terms of curbing hunger, quieting their time for urination of excess fluid before the game begins. 4 stack pancakes + 0.5 cups syrup are recommended for normal, moderate level training. stomach and being convenient and practical. In low key In training or competitions that cause heavy sweating 60 g sports bar + 500 ml liquid meal supplement or competition, or for some players who do little running in without sufficient opportunity for fluid intake, players fruit smoothie a game, the pre-match meal need not be predominantly often benefit by drinking 300-600 ml of fluid during the (* Note that other foods may be eaten at the meal.) Carbo-loading carbohydrate. However, in intense competitions players 15-minute period immediately are generally advised to: before the start of the event. Players who compete intensely may benefit from Eat 1-4 g/ kg body weight of carbohydrate during the 6-h “carbohydrate-loading” for a few days. This loading of period before exercise. muscle glycogen to super-compensated levels can be achieved within 2-3 days by consuming a large amount of The main “mistake” players might make is to eat too carbohydrate (about 8-10 g per kg of body weight per little carbohydrate (less than 1 g per kg body weight) during the 1-6 h period before exercise and then not take in carbohydrate during exercise. This small carbohydrate Example of one day of a carbohydrate loading meal “primes” the body to rely more heavily on blood diet providing 630 g of carbohydrate* (i.e. to glucose, but it does not provide enough carbohydrate to provide 9 g/kg carbohydrate for a player sustain the player throughout the subsequent exercise. weighing 70 kg) Early morning – 150 g = 2 cups cereal with milk + 250 ml fruit juice + 1 banana + 2 thick slices toast + thick spread of jam Late morning – 50 g = 500 ml soft drink or 750 ml sports drink Mid-day – 150 g = 1 large bread roll + 1 medium muffin + fruit smoothie Snack – 50 g = 200 g flavoured yoghurt + 250 ml fruit juice Dinner – 200 g = 3 cups cooked pasta + 2 cups fruit salad + 2 scoops ice cream + 500 ml sports drink Snack – 30 g = 50 g chocolate (* Foods added to balance a meal, such as sauce on the pasta, can meet needs for energy and other nutrients.)
20 H Y D R AT I O N S T R AT E G I E S | N U T R I T I O N F O R F O O T B A L L N U T R I T I O N F O R F O O T B A L L | H Y D R AT I O N S T R AT E G I E S 21 Hydration strategies No other dietary strategies enjoy the reputation of proven When do you need more than water? How to estimate sweating rate Rehydration after exercise performance enhancers as do the consumption of water and carbohydrate during exercise. Players can turn this Measure body weight (kg) both before and after at least one hour of exercise under conditions science into optimum performance and well-being by Depletion of fuel stores can be an issue for soccer Recovery after exercise is part of the preparation for the similar to competition or a hard practice. learning the practical aspects of: a) how much, b) what matches, especially for players in mobile positions or with next exercise session, and replacement of sweat losses is an type of foods and drinks, c) when during exercise, and d) a running game style. High carbohydrate strategies – Measure body weight wearing minimal clothing essential part of this process. Both water and salts lost in what modifications should be made in hot or cold fuelling up for the game and consuming extra and while bare footed. Dry with a towel after exercise sweat must be replaced. Aim to drink about 1.2-1.5 litres environments. Just as general training and competition carbohydrate during the match – have been shown to and obtain body weight as soon as is practical after of fluid for each kg of weight lost in training or matches. exercise (i.e. less than 10 min). strategies should be tailored for individual athletes in enhance performance in such players. Drinks should contain sodium (the main salt lost in accordance with their unique needs and preferences, so Note volume of fluid consumed during exercise (litres) sweat) if no food is eaten at this time. Sports drinks that should their drinking and eating choices during exercise. Better match intake of fluid and fuel may not only keep Sweat loss (litres) = body weight before exercise contain electrolytes are helpful, but many foods can also Players, coaches and trainers should “fine-tune” these players running further and faster in the second half of a (kg) – body weight after exercise (kg) + fluid supply the salt that is needed. A little extra salt may be recommendations to identify their own winning formula. match, but may help to maintain skills and judgement consumed during exercise (litre) added to meals when sweat losses are high, but salt tablets when players would otherwise become fatigued. Games To convert to a sweat rate per hour, divide by should be used with caution. are often won and lost in the last minutes of the match, the exercise time in minutes and multiply by 60 How much and when to drink? and fatigued players are at increased risk of injury. Just like new boots, do not try out new plans (Note: 2.2 pounds equals 1 kg and converts to a The use of commercial sports drinks with a carbo- for fluid and fuel intake during important volume of 1 litre or 1,000 ml or 34 ounces of water.) Limit dehydration during training and matches by drinking hydrate content of about 4-8% (4-8 g/100 ml) allows competitions. Do it in practice and find out water or a sports drink. Obvious opportunities to drink carbohydrate and fluid needs to be met simultaneously what fits you best. during a match include warm-up and at half time. During in most events. The intake of carbohydrate that is generally training, the coach or manager should organise drink breaks associated with performance benefits is ~ 20-60 g per hour. according to the weather and intensity of exercise. Sodium should be included in fluids consumed during Get a feel for sweat rates during exercise so that drink exercise lasting longer than 1-2 hours or by individuals practices can be adjusted accordingly (see box). It is during any event that stimulates heavy sodium loss (i.e., not necessary to drink enough to prevent loss of more than 3-4 grams of sodium). body weight, but the amount of dehydration should normally be limited to a loss of less Caffeine is present in many commonly than 2% of body weight (i.e., 1 kg for 50 kg available beverages and foods, and can person, 1.5 kg for a 75 kg person, and 2 kg enhance endurance during prolonged for a 100 kg person). exercise. This benefit can be obtained with the relatively small doses of caffeine that Since the negative effects of dehydration on are commonly consumed by people of high-intensity performance are greater in various cultures (e.g. about 1.5 mg/kg warm environments, upgrade drinking bodyweight as found in a small cup of practices in these conditions to minimise the brewed coffee or 500-750 ml of a cola overall fluid deficit. This may include beverage). drinking at the side-line when match play is interrupted, or having extra drink breaks during training sessions. Don’t drink at rates that are greater than sweat losses so that you actually gain weight during exercise.
22 SUPPLEMENTS | NUTRITION FOR FOOTBALL NUTRITION FOR FOOTBALL | SUPPLEMENTS 23 Supplements and sports foods The use of dietary supplements is widespread in football, Fat reduction and muscle building Supplements for bone and joint health coffee or 750 ml of a cola drink. Larger doses of caffeine but players should not expect benefits from most of these do not seem to be more effective, and may have negative supplements. outcomes such as over-arousal and poor sleep patterns A huge array of supplements is on sale with claims that Hard training puts extra wear and tear on the bones, joints after an event. Players look to nutritional supplements for many benefits, they can reduce body fat levels and build bigger and and associated structures, and numerous supplements are including: stronger muscles – claims that appeal to athletes and non- claimed to look after these tissues. Healthy bones need a Bicarbonate. In very hard exercise, the muscles produce athletes alike. good supply of calcium and Vitamin D. In most cases lactic acid. This is both good (giving energy to allow hard • promoting adaptations to training these nutrients can be supplied by the diet. Players who efforts) and bad (causing pain and interfering with • increasing energy supply The reality is that many of the products that are effective suffer from problems related to sub-optimum bone density muscle function). In the same way that excess stomach in doing this are either on the banned list or are should seek professional advice and supervised treatment acidity can be neutralised by taking bicarbonate, so • allowing more consistent and intensive training by associated with serious health risks (or both). from a sports physician. sodium bicarbonate (in a dose of about 0.3 g per kg body promoting recovery between training sessions weight) before an event can counter the negative effects • maintaining good health and reducing interruptions Compounds in the muscle building category include Glucosamine, chondroitin, methylsulphonylmethane of lactic acid. Bicarbonate supplements are widely used to training due to chronic fatigue, illness or injury chromium, boron, hydroxymethylbutyrate, colostrum (MSM) and other products are promoted for joint by athletes in events that cause fatigue within a few • enhancing competitive performance. and others. Based on current research, none of these has health. Long-term (2-6 months) glucosamine treatment minutes, and there is now evidence of possible benefits anything worthwhile to offer the player. may provide subjective relief in elderly individuals from studies designed to simulate the activity patterns of Few of the products used by athletes are supported by a suffering from osteoarthritis, but there is little or no football players. There is a real risk of gastrointestinal sound research base and some may even be harmful to the evidence of benefit for otherwise healthy players. problems and players should experiment in training. player. All players should look carefully at the risks and Increasing energy supply rewards of individual supplements before trying them. Supplements that might work A number of sports foods have been developed to Where there is a demonstrated deficiency of an essential Supplements in this category include carnitine, pyruvate supply a specific formulation of energy and nutrients in a vitamin or mineral, and an increased intake from food is and ribose as well as some more exotic herbal form that is easy to consume. These can be valuable in not possible, a supplement may be helpful. The use of preparations. None of these is likely to improve Some supplements do offer the prospect of improved allowing players to meet their special nutrition needs supplements, however, does not compensate for poor performance and, in spite of advertising claims, none is performance: these include creatine, caffeine, bicarbonate, when everyday foods are unavailable or impractical to food choices and an inadequate diet. Many players ignore supported by good independent evidence. and perhaps a very few others. eat. This is most often the case just prior to, during, or the need for caution in supplement use, and take after an exercise session. Examples of useful sports foods supplements in doses that are not necessary, and may Creatine. Creatine supplements can increase the amount include: even be harmful. Nutrition and the immune system of high energy creatine phosphate stored in the muscles, • sports drinks (providing fluid and carbohydrate and may improve performance in single or multiple during exercise) sprints. It may also lead to a gain in muscle mass, which There is some evidence that players who are training hard is helpful for some players but harmful for others. As with • sports gels (additional carbohydrate intake, Protein powders and supplements may be at increased risk of minor illnesses and infections. all supplements, exceeding the maximum effective dose is especially during exercise) These are generally trivial, but they can interrupt training not helpful. Creatine is normally found in meat and fish, • liquid meals (carbohydrate, protein, vitamins Protein supplements, high protein bars and amino acid or cause a player to miss important competitions. Hard but the doses used in supplementation protocols (10-20 and minerals for a pre-event meal, post-exercise preparations are among the biggest selling sports nutrition training may compromise the body’s immune system, g per day for 4-5 days to load, and 2-3 g per day for recovery or a high-energy diet) products. Although an adequate intake of protein is and high levels of stress hormones reduce its ability to maintenance) are more than is found in normal foods. • sports bars (carbohydrate, protein, vitamins and essential for muscle growth and repair, this can easily be fight these infections. Creatine supplementation appears not to be harmful to minerals – often a solid form of the liquid meal) achieved from everyday foods and extra protein is seldom health. Of course, the cost of these sports foods must be taken required. Many nutrition supplements, including glutamine, zinc, into account when deciding to use them. Echinacea, colostrum and others, are on sale with claims Caffeine. A small amount of caffeine (1-3 mg/kg) can Protein-carbohydrate supplements may have a role as part that they can boost the immune system, but there is no help performance in prolonged exercise and may also be of a post-exercise recovery plan, but the whole proteins strong evidence that any of these is effective. The best helpful in exercise of shorter duration. Such moderate that are found in foods generally have advantages over evidence supports the use of a high carbohydrate diet, doses can be found in everyday amounts of coffee, cola individual amino acids. which lowers stress hormone levels, and appropriate rest drinks and some sports products (e.g. gels). For example, periods. 100 mg of caffeine is supplied by a small cup of brewed
24 DOPING ISSUES | NUTRITION FOR FOOTBALL NUTRITION FOR FOOTBALL | ALCOHOL 25 Supplements and doping issues Alcohol The use of alcohol is often intimately associated with The most important problem associated with the excessive Players who are liable for drug testing under national or There is no evidence that prohormones such as an- sport, and the association is particularly strong in consumption of alcohol after exercise is that it may international programmes should be especially cautious drostenedione and norandrostenedione are effective in football. As well as providing a source of energy, alcohol distract the player from making good choices. Alcohol about supplement use. enhancing muscle mass or strength. These prohormones (ethanol) has metabolic, cardiovascular, thermoregula- intoxication may make the player forget about following are promoted for use by players and are readily available in tory and neuromuscular actions that may affect exercise sound recovery practices such as appropriate treatment for Some supplements are prepared in unhygienic conditions shops and via the internet, but they will result in negative performance. injuries, adequate sleep or optimal eating and drinking. and contain toxins that may cause gastrointestinal health consequences as well as positive drug tests. Alcohol may displace carbohydrate from the diet at a time problems. Others do not contain ingredients – especially when restoration of glycogen stores should be a priority. the expensive ones – that are listed on the label. Conta- Many herbal supplements are claimed to increase Sensible drinking guidelines for the community The need for other important nutrients may be neglected mination of dietary supplements with substances that may testosterone levels and hence have an anabolic action: such while the player is consuming large amounts of alcohol, or cause a player to fail a doping test is widespread – some supplements include Tribulus Terrestris, Chrysin, Indole- sleeping off the hangover next day. An intoxicated athlete surveys have suggested that as many as one in four 3-Carbinol, Saw Palmetto, Gamma-oryzanol, Smilax and Alcohol intake may be measured in grams or ml of often succumbs to high-risk activities leading to accidents, supplements may result in a positive test. These prohi- Mummio. These claims are based on experiments carried ethanol, or in units of alcohol: each unit of alcohol in the violence or other anti-social behaviour. Negative bited compounds have not been declared on the label, out in test tubes, and none has been shown to work in UK contains approximately 8 grams (10 ml) of ethanol. outcomes range from the tarnishing of a reputation to so there is no way for the player to know that they are humans. All players are cautioned against the use of these The UK Department of Health recommends that adult serious (often fatal) injury. present. supplements. men should not consume more than 3-4 units of alcohol per day and women should not consume more than 2-3 Alcohol is not an essential component of a diet. It is a At present, there is no guarantee of the purity of any units daily. In the US, however, a standard drink delivers personal choice whether an adult player consumes alcohol commercial supplement. The only way to be sure is to avoid Players must be aware of the strict liability principle about 12-14 grams of alcohol, and the US Department of at all. However, there is no evidence of impairments to supplements altogether, but many players are unwilling to that makes them responsible for everything they eat Agriculture recommends that men should not drink health and performance when alcohol is used sensibly. accept this advice. The sensible player will want to see very and drink. more than 1-2 drinks per day and that women should not Alcohol is a high-energy (and nutrient-poor) food and good reasons for using a supplement and a very low risk of Ignorance is not an acceptable excuse for a positive exceed 1 drink per day. should be restricted when the player is attempting to an adverse test before deciding to use it. doping result. reduce body fat. Although these recommendations provide a guide to the Check all supplements with a medical officer. everyday use of alcohol, the problems associated with The player should avoid a heavy intake of alcohol on the If there is any doubt at all, do not take it. alcohol in football generally arise from “binge” drinking night before a match. It appears unlikely that the intake on specific occasions – especially in the post-match of 1-2 standard drinks will have negative effects in most period. This type of drinking has implications for the people. Before consuming any alcohol after a match, the players’ recovery, their well-being and their reputation. player should consume a meal or snack to replace carbohydrate, fluid and perhaps protein. This snack or meal will start the recovery process. Food intake will also Alcohol metabolism help to reduce the rate of alcohol absorption and thus reduce the rate of intoxication. Alcohol is metabolised primarily in the liver, and the rate Once post-exercise recovery priorities have been addressed, of metabolism varies greatly between individuals. the player who chooses to drink is encouraged to do so “in Alcohol can be oxidised at a rate of about 100 mg/kg moderation”. Drink-driving education messages in various body mass per hour – equivalent to – one serve or unit of countries may provide a guide to sensible and well-paced alcohol per hour for most people. Despite old wives’ tales, drinking. the clearance of alcohol from the system cannot be enhanced by having showers, drinking coffee or other The player who drinks heavily after a match, or at other practices believed to help an intoxicated person “sober up”. times, should avoid driving and other hazardous activities. The actions of alcohol on the central nervous system result in decrements in skill and behavioural changes that Examples of one unit (~ 10 g) alcohol may have adverse effects on performance. There is also 250 ml standard beer (4% alcohol) evidence of dose-dependent decrements in aerobic 500 ml standard low alcohol beer (2% alcohol) capacity. Although the mechanisms are not well 250 ml wine coolers or alcoholic soft drinks understood, the aftermath of alcohol use (hangover) may 100 ml wine or champagne also adversely affect performance for many hours after 60 ml fortified wines, port intoxication. 25 ml (one nip) spirits