4. Mass media
The means of communication to a large population — a mass of people.
These generally include newspapers, magazines, radio, or television.
mass culture - the popular culture that is widely disseminated via the
One of the most influential art movements (1907- c1920) of the twentieth
century, Cubism was begun by Pablo Picasso (Spanish, 1882-1973) and
Georges Braque (French, 1882-1963) in 1907. They were greatly inspired
by African sculpture, by painters Paul Cézanne (French, 1839-1906) and
Georges Seurat (French, 1859-1891), and by Fauvism.In Cubism the
subject matter is broken up, analyzed and reassembled in an abstracted
Picasso, collage 1912
collage– an artwork made by sticking various
different materials such as photographs, magazine and
newspaper clippings, ribbons, paint, bits of colored
paper or fabric onto a flat surface.
Futurism or futurism – A movement originating among Italian
artists in 1909, when the poet Filippo Marinetti's first manifesto of
futurism appeared, and lasting into the 1920’s. It was a celebration of
the machine age, glorifying war, and later supporting the growth of
fascism. Futurist works were especially concerned with expressing
movement and the dynamics of natural and man-made forms.
Important artist include GiacomoBalla (Italian, 1871-1958), Carlo
Carrà (Italian, 1881-1966), Umberto Boccioni (Italian, 1882-1916
deform– To distort, corrupt or change form. ‘In Cubism images appear to be deformed.’
distort, distortion – To change the way something looks. His portrait of X was very
distorted, showed great distortion; to give a false or misleading account of; misrepresent.
form - In its widest sense means total structure; a unity of all the visible aspects of that
structure and of the manner in which they are united to create distinctive character. The
form of a work is that which enables us to perceive it.
formal - Relating to the outward form or structure of a work; not to be confused with
"ceremonial" or "stately," since formal elements can be quite informal in character.
ambiguity- A condition when something which can have to two or more possible meanings.
Many works of art are characterized by a strong sense of ambiguity.
ambiguous – open to having two or more possible meanings. ‘It was difficult to clearly
describe the work because of its ambiguous character.’
‘Anything new, anything worth doing, can’t be recognized.’
‘There is only one valuable thing in art: the thing you can’t recognized.’
‘The goal I proposed myself in making cubism? To paint and nothing
more... with a method linked only to my thought... Neither the good nor
the true; neither the useful nor the useless.’