Presented by:Asst. Prof. Ma. Lourdes L. Mojares, R. Ph.CEU School of PharmacyManila
SOLUTIONS: DEFINITION   Liquid preparations that contain    one or more chemical substances    dissolved in a suitable so...
SOLUBILITYFACTORS AFFECTING SOLUBILITY1.   Temperature2.   Chemical and physical properties of the     solute and the solv...
1. Effect of Temperature   Chemicals with Positive Heat of    Solution    The kind that absorbs heat when    dissolved.  ...
1. Effect of Temperature   Chemicals with Negative Heat of    Solution    The kind that releases heat when    dissolved. ...
2. Effect of PhysicochemicalProperties (pressure, temperature)                of the         solute and solvent   The sol...
3. State of subdivision of the solute             (particle size)   The “finer” the powder, the greater    the surface ar...
4. Physical Agitation Applied to       the Solution As It Dissolves   The greater the agitation, the more    unsaturated ...
5. Effect of pH of the Solution   Many important organic medicinal    agents are either “weak acids” or    “weak bases.”...
5. Effect of pH of the Solution   Drugs as weak acids form water-    soluble salts in basic solutions.   These drugs may...
Techniques to hasten dissolution   Application of heat   Reduction of particle size of the    solute   Use a solubilizi...
Some solvents for liquid            preparations   ALCOHOL, USP   DILUTED ALCOHOL, NF   RUBBING ALCOHOL   GLYCERIN, US...
1. ALCOHOL, USP   The most useful solvent, next to    water.   94.9% to 96% C2H5OH (v/v)   Miscible with water and has ...
2. DILUTED ALCOHOL, NF   Contains equal volumes of Alcohol,    USP and Purified Water, USP.   49% concentration   A use...
3. RUBBING ALCOHOL   Contains about 70% Ethanol v/v.   Volatile and Flammable, should be    stored in tight containers, ...
4. GLYCERIN, USP   Glycerol , CH2-OH-CHOH-CH2OH   Clear, viscous syrupy liquid with sweet    taste   Miscible to both w...
4. GLYCERIN, USP   Comparable to alcohol, as solvent.   Solutes are slowly soluble (requires    heating)   Preservative...
5. ISOPROPYL RUBBING             ALCOHOL   70% v/v isopropyl alcohol.   Commercially available as 91%   External Uses: ...
5. ISOPROPYL RUBBING             ALCOHOL   Commonly employed by diabetic    patients in preparing needles and    syringes...
6. PROPYLENE GLYCOL, USP         CH3CH(OH)CH2OH   Viscous liquid, miscible with water    and alcohol.   Useful solvent w...
6. PURIFIED WATER, USP   For preparation of aqueous dosage    forms, except those intended for    parenteral administrati...
TYPES OF SOLUTIONSAs to its use:            As to composition1.   Oral solutions          Aromatic waters2.   Topical sol...
1. ORAL SOLUTIONSCOMPONENTS   Medicinal agents   Flavorants, Colorants and Sweetening    agents   Stabilizers (glycerin...
ORAL SOLUTIONSADVANTAGES                    DISADVANTAGES1.   Homogenous               1.   Bulky2.   Easier to swallow th...
   DRY POWDER FOR SOLUTIONDry powder for reconstitution prior to useExamples: Cloxacillin Na, Oxacillin Na and  Penicil...
PEDIALYTE ORS
GlucolyteOral Rehydration Solution
Magnesium citrate Oral Solution
2. TOPICAL SOLUTIONS    Employed an aqueous vehicle    Should be labeled “FOR EXTERNAL USE ONLY”Examples:1.   Aluminum A...
TOPICAL SOLUTIONS
3. OTIC SOLUTIONS   Ear or aural solutionsUSES:   For the removal of excessive cerumen    Examples: Cerumenex Ear drop, ...
CERUMENEX and DEBROX   OTIC SOLUTIONS
AURALGAN OTIC SOLUTION
VOSOL andHYDROCORTISONE OTIC SOLUTIONS
VoSoL OTIC SOLUTION     LABELLING
METHODS OF PREPARATION         of SOLUTIONS   SIMPLE SOLUTION METHODExample: Strong Iodine (Lugol’s) Solution   SOLUTION...
PHARMACEUTICAL       SOLVENT WATERS   PURIFIED WATER, USP   WATER FOR INJECTION, USP   STERILE WATER FOR INJECTION, USP...
PURIFIED WATER, USP   Obtained by: distillation, reverse osmosis or    by ion exchange treatment   pH 5 to 7   Contains...
WATER FOR INJECTION, USP   Conforms with the standards of Purified    Water, USP but is also pyrogen-free.   Intended to...
STERILE WATER        FOR INJECTION, USP   WFI that has been sterilized   Packaged in single-dose containers of    type I...
BACTERIOSTATIC WATER FOR     INJECTION, USP   SWFI that contains one or more suitable    bacteriostatic agents   Package...
STERILE WATER FOR         IRRIGATION, USP   Same requirements as SWFI except in    container design, particulate matter a...
AROMATIC WATERS   Are clear, saturated aqueous solutions of    volatile oils or other aromatic or volatile    substances...
AROMATIC WATERS   Addition of electrolytes may result to    “salting-out” of the volatile ingredient   Must be free from...
Methods of Preparation                    of             Aromatic Waters   DISTILLATIONCOHOBATION – the process of redist...
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Chap 13 part 1 solutions

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Chapter 13 Solutions

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  • THESE DRUGS REACT TO STRONG ACIDS TO ALKALIS TO FORM WATER-SOLUBLE SALTS.WEAK BASES – ALKALOIDS (MORPHINE ATROPINE, CODEINE). ANTIHISTAMINES ( DIPHENHYDRAMINE, PROMETHAZINE). LOCAL ANESTHETICS (COCAINE, PROCAINE, TETRACAINE)
  • DRUGS AS WEAK ACIDS – BARBITURATES (PHENOBARBITAL). SULFONAMIDES ( SULFADIAZINE, SULFACETAMIDE).
  • Obtained by Distillation; Ion exchange treatment; Reverse Osmosis
  • ALUMINUM ACETATE (BURROW’S SOLUTION)–ASTRINGENT WASH AND WET DRESSINGCALCIUM HYDROXIDE LIQUOR CALCIS) – TOPICAL ASTRINGENT IN CALAMINE LOTIONHYDROGEN PEROXIDE – LOCAL ANTI-INFECTIVE CHLORHEXIDINE GLUCONATE – ANTIMICROBIAL FOR DENTAL PLAQUE AND GINGIVITISPOVIDONE IODINE – SURGICAL SCRUBSTRONG IODINE (LUGOL’S) – ANTI- INFECTIVE
  • Transcript of "Chap 13 part 1 solutions"

    1. 1. Presented by:Asst. Prof. Ma. Lourdes L. Mojares, R. Ph.CEU School of PharmacyManila
    2. 2. SOLUTIONS: DEFINITION Liquid preparations that contain one or more chemical substances dissolved in a suitable solvent or mixture of (mutually miscible) solvents. It may be oral, otic, opthalmic or topical.
    3. 3. SOLUBILITYFACTORS AFFECTING SOLUBILITY1. Temperature2. Chemical and physical properties of the solute and the solvent3. Pressure4. pH of the solution5. State of subdivision of the solute6. Physical agitation applied to the solution as it dissolves
    4. 4. 1. Effect of Temperature Chemicals with Positive Heat of Solution The kind that absorbs heat when dissolved. It results to an increased solubility with an increase in temperature.
    5. 5. 1. Effect of Temperature Chemicals with Negative Heat of Solution The kind that releases heat when dissolved. It results to an decreased solubility with an increase in temperature.
    6. 6. 2. Effect of PhysicochemicalProperties (pressure, temperature) of the solute and solvent The solubility of a “pure” chemical substance at a given temperature and pressure is constant.
    7. 7. 3. State of subdivision of the solute (particle size) The “finer” the powder, the greater the surface area that comes in contact with the solvent. Therefore, the more rapid the dissolving process.
    8. 8. 4. Physical Agitation Applied to the Solution As It Dissolves The greater the agitation, the more unsaturated solvent passes over the drug. Therefore, the faster the formation of a solution.
    9. 9. 5. Effect of pH of the Solution Many important organic medicinal agents are either “weak acids” or “weak bases.” Drugs as weak bases are not very water-soluble, but are soluble in dilute solutions of acids.
    10. 10. 5. Effect of pH of the Solution Drugs as weak acids form water- soluble salts in basic solutions. These drugs may separate from the solution by lowering the pH of the solvent system.
    11. 11. Techniques to hasten dissolution Application of heat Reduction of particle size of the solute Use a solubilizingagent Subject the ingredients to vigorous agitation
    12. 12. Some solvents for liquid preparations ALCOHOL, USP DILUTED ALCOHOL, NF RUBBING ALCOHOL GLYCERIN, USP ISOPROPYL RUBBING ALCOHOL PROPYLENE GLYCOL, USP PURIFIED WATER, USP
    13. 13. 1. ALCOHOL, USP The most useful solvent, next to water. 94.9% to 96% C2H5OH (v/v) Miscible with water and has the ability to dissolve many water- insoluble ingredients (flavorants, preservatives). With preservative effect
    14. 14. 2. DILUTED ALCOHOL, NF Contains equal volumes of Alcohol, USP and Purified Water, USP. 49% concentration A useful hydroalcoholic solvent.
    15. 15. 3. RUBBING ALCOHOL Contains about 70% Ethanol v/v. Volatile and Flammable, should be stored in tight containers, remote from fire. Used externally as rubefacient, soothing rub, germicide (for instruments), skin cleanser (prior to injection), vehicle in topical preparations.
    16. 16. 4. GLYCERIN, USP Glycerol , CH2-OH-CHOH-CH2OH Clear, viscous syrupy liquid with sweet taste Miscible to both water and alcohol
    17. 17. 4. GLYCERIN, USP Comparable to alcohol, as solvent. Solutes are slowly soluble (requires heating) Preservative, stabilizer, auxilliary solvent with water and alcohol Used extensively in internal preparations.
    18. 18. 5. ISOPROPYL RUBBING ALCOHOL 70% v/v isopropyl alcohol. Commercially available as 91% External Uses: rubefacient, soothing rub, vehicle for topical products.
    19. 19. 5. ISOPROPYL RUBBING ALCOHOL Commonly employed by diabetic patients in preparing needles and syringes for hypodermic injections of insulin. Skin disinfection of diabetic patients.
    20. 20. 6. PROPYLENE GLYCOL, USP CH3CH(OH)CH2OH Viscous liquid, miscible with water and alcohol. Useful solvent with a wide range of applications. Substitute for glycerin
    21. 21. 6. PURIFIED WATER, USP For preparation of aqueous dosage forms, except those intended for parenteral administration. Contains 1% as much dissolved solids as tap water
    22. 22. TYPES OF SOLUTIONSAs to its use: As to composition1. Oral solutions  Aromatic waters2. Topical solutions  Syrups3. Ophthalmic  Elixirs solutions  Spirits4. Nasal and Otic solutions  Tinctures and fluidextracts  Douches, Enemas and* 3 and 4 are discussed gargles in Chapter 17  Liniments, collodions, and others
    23. 23. 1. ORAL SOLUTIONSCOMPONENTS Medicinal agents Flavorants, Colorants and Sweetening agents Stabilizers (glycerin or sorbitol) – used to inhibit crystallization and to modify solubility Preservatives (parabens) Vehicles
    24. 24. ORAL SOLUTIONSADVANTAGES DISADVANTAGES1. Homogenous 1. Bulky2. Easier to swallow than 2. Degrade more the solid dosage forms rapidly3. Onset of action and 3. More likely to bioavailability of interact with other drugs that have slow constituents dissolution rate are improved
    25. 25.  DRY POWDER FOR SOLUTIONDry powder for reconstitution prior to useExamples: Cloxacillin Na, Oxacillin Na and Penicillin VK for oral solution (antibiotics) ORAL REHYDRATION SOLUTIONAvailable in liquid or packet of powder for reconstitutionExamples: Pedialyte and Rehydrate solution, Glucolyte, Oresol ORAL COLONIC LAVAGE SOLUTION OTHERS – Magnesium citrate solution
    26. 26. PEDIALYTE ORS
    27. 27. GlucolyteOral Rehydration Solution
    28. 28. Magnesium citrate Oral Solution
    29. 29. 2. TOPICAL SOLUTIONS Employed an aqueous vehicle Should be labeled “FOR EXTERNAL USE ONLY”Examples:1. Aluminum Acetate Solution2. Calcium Hydroxide Topical Solution3. Hydrogen Peroxide Topical Solution4. ChlorhexidineGluconate Solution5. Povidone Iodine Solution6. Strong Iodine Solution
    30. 30. TOPICAL SOLUTIONS
    31. 31. 3. OTIC SOLUTIONS Ear or aural solutionsUSES: For the removal of excessive cerumen Examples: Cerumenex Ear drop, Debrox Drops For the treatment of ear infections, inflammation, or pain Examples: AuralganOtic Solution, AmericaineOtic, ChloromycetinOtic, CorticosporinOtic, Otobiotic solution, VoSolOtic Solution
    32. 32. CERUMENEX and DEBROX OTIC SOLUTIONS
    33. 33. AURALGAN OTIC SOLUTION
    34. 34. VOSOL andHYDROCORTISONE OTIC SOLUTIONS
    35. 35. VoSoL OTIC SOLUTION LABELLING
    36. 36. METHODS OF PREPARATION of SOLUTIONS SIMPLE SOLUTION METHODExample: Strong Iodine (Lugol’s) Solution SOLUTION BY CHEMICAL REACTIONExample: Magnesium Citrate Solution SOLUTION BY EXTRACTION
    37. 37. PHARMACEUTICAL SOLVENT WATERS PURIFIED WATER, USP WATER FOR INJECTION, USP STERILE WATER FOR INJECTION, USP BACTERIOSTATIC WATER FOR INJECTION, USP STERILE WATER FOR INHALATION, USP STERILE WATER FOR IRRIGATION, USP* WFI, SWFI and BWFI are discussed in Chapter 15
    38. 38. PURIFIED WATER, USP Obtained by: distillation, reverse osmosis or by ion exchange treatment pH 5 to 7 Contains NMT 10 ppm of total solids Used in preparations and in finished and manufactured products, except for the preparation of parenterals and ophthalmic products
    39. 39. WATER FOR INJECTION, USP Conforms with the standards of Purified Water, USP but is also pyrogen-free. Intended to be used in the manufacture of injectable products which are to be sterilized after their preparation. Intended to be used for 24-hours after its collection.
    40. 40. STERILE WATER FOR INJECTION, USP WFI that has been sterilized Packaged in single-dose containers of type I or type II glass that do not exceed the capacity of 1 liter Intended to be used as a solvent, vehicle or diluent for already-sterilized and packaged injectable medications
    41. 41. BACTERIOSTATIC WATER FOR INJECTION, USP SWFI that contains one or more suitable bacteriostatic agents Packaged in pre-filled syringes or in vials containing NMT 30 mL Employed as a sterile vehicle in the preparation of small volumes of injectable preparations (in multiple-dose vials) To be labeled “NOT FOR USE IN NEWBORNS”
    42. 42. STERILE WATER FOR IRRIGATION, USP Same requirements as SWFI except in container design, particulate matter and labeling LabelingRequirements: “ For Irrigation Only ” “ Not for Injection ”
    43. 43. AROMATIC WATERS Are clear, saturated aqueous solutions of volatile oils or other aromatic or volatile substances A pleasantly flavored vehicle for water soluble drugs or an aqueous phase in an emulsion or suspension
    44. 44. AROMATIC WATERS Addition of electrolytes may result to “salting-out” of the volatile ingredient Must be free from empyreumatic (smoke-like) odors. Stored in a tightly closed, light-resistant containers Protect from excessive heat
    45. 45. Methods of Preparation of Aromatic Waters DISTILLATIONCOHOBATION – the process of redistillation two or more times until the distillate becomes clear SOLUTION METHOD – the volatile, or aromatic substance is admixed with water, with or without the use of a dispersant (e.g. talc) A. Simple Solution B. Alternate Solution

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