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Ch.13   part 5 tinctures,  extracts
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Ch.13 part 5 tinctures, extracts

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  • THE ALCOHOL CONTENT KEEPS THE ALCOHOL SOLUBLE EXTRACTIVES IN SOLUTION, PROTECTS IT FROM MICROBIAL GROWTH
  • MACERATION (MACERARE – TO SOAK) - CONDUCTED AT 15 TO 20 CELSIUS FOR 3 DAYS PERCOLATION (PERCOLARE – STRAIN THROUGH)
  • Transcript

    • 1. Chapter 13 SOLUTIONS part 5 TINCTURES EXTRACTS andPLANT EXUDATES
    • 2. TINCTURESAlcoholic or hydroalcoholicsolutions prepared from;1.Vegetable materials2.Chemical substancesAlcohol content varies from aslow as 15% to as high as 80%
    • 3. VARIATIONS OF OFFICIAL TINCTURESA. As to the method of preparation:I.By Extraction methodMaceration method Compound Benzoin TincturePercolation method Belladonna Tincture Vanilla Tincture
    • 4. VARIATIONS OF OFFICIAL TINCTURESII. By Simple Solution method Employed for tinctures of chemical substances Iodine Tincture Thimerosal Tincture
    • 5. VARIATIONS of OFFICIAL TINCTURESB. As to strength of their active ingredient: 1. Tinctures potent drugs – 10 % in strength Belladonna Tincture
    • 6. VARIATIONS IN OFFICIAL TINCTURES2. Tinctures prepared from non potent drugs - 20 % in strength Tolu Balsam Tincture3. Tinctures prepared from undried fresh fruit peel - 50 % in strength Sweet Orange Peel Tincture
    • 7. VARIATIONS IN TINCTURESC. As to their intended use in Pharmacy and Medicine: MEDICATED TINCTURES 1. ORAL TINCTURES Disadvantages: Unpleasant tasting High alcohol content
    • 8. VARIATIONS IN TINCTURESExamples:1. Paregoric Tincture Synonym: Camphorated Opium Tincture Use: Antiperistalsis1. Belladona Tincture - Anticholinergic
    • 9. 2. TOPICAL TINCTURES Can cause stinging sensation when applied to abraded or broken skinExamples: 1. Compound Benzoin Tincture –topical protectant 2. Iodine Tincture –germicide 3. Thimerosal – antiseptic
    • 10. VARIATIONS IN TINCTURESNON MEDICATED TINCTURES– used as flavoring agentsExamples:1. Vanilla Tincture2. Sweet Orange Peel Tincture3. Tolu Balsam Tincture
    • 11. VARIATIONS IN TINCTURESAs to alcohol content: Contains approximate range is 15% to 80% alcohol.Examples: Opium Tincture – 17 to 21 % Compound Benzoin Tincture – 74% to 80% Iodine Tincture – 44 to 50% Thimerosal Tincture – about 50%
    • 12. AGEING can cause the precipitation of the inactive constituents in tinctures.Glycerin may be added toincrease the solubility of the activeconstituents and reduce precipitationduring storage.Stored in a light-resistant containers
    • 13. EXTRACTIVES Obtained from plants and are commonly called GALENICALSTINCTURESFLUIDEXTRACTSEXTRACTSRESINS
    • 14. METHODS OF EXTRACTION MACERATION PERCOLATION INFUSION DIGESTION DECOCTION
    • 15. FLUIDEXTRACTSLiquid extracts of vegetable drugs that contain alcohol as a solvent, preservative, or both.Prepared by Percolation (Process P)
    • 16. FLUIDEXTRACTSReferred to as “100% tinctures”Are considered too potent for self administration, and too bitterUsed today as flavoring agents
    • 17. EXTRACTSConcentrated preparations of vegetable or animal drugs obtained by removal of the active constituents of the respective drugs with suitable menstrua, evaporation of all or nearly all of the solvent, and adjustment of the residual masses or powders to the prescribed standards.
    • 18. THREE FORMS OF EXTRACTSSEMI-LIQUID EXTRACTS- syrupy consistencyPILULAR OR SOLID EXTRACTS plastic consistency preferred in compoundingointments or pastes
    • 19. THREE FORMS OF EXTRACTSPOWDERED EXTRACTS dry preferred in compoundingpowders, tablets, and capsules

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