Chapter 13         SOLUTIONS             part 2    SYRUPS, ELIXIRS, SPIRITSPrepared by:Asst. Prof. Ma. Lourdes L. Mojares,...
SYRUPSConcentrated, aqueous preparations,intended for oral use, containing;1. Sugar or Sugar substitutes2. Flavoring agent...
CLASSIFICATION of SYRUPSI. M DICINAL CL    E          ASSIFICATIONA.    Medicated SyrupsB.    Non-Medicated Syrups or Flav...
NON-MEDICATED / FLAVORED SYRUPS1.   Cherry and Orange Syrups – good vehicle for     drugs requiring acid medium2.   Cocoa ...
ORANGE and CHERRY SYRUPS
ORA-SWEET SF brand
NON – MEDICATED / FLAVORED SYRUPS4. Raspberry Syrup – used to disguise salty or     sour taste of drugs5. Syrup, NF or Syr...
CLASSIFICATION of SYRUPSII. NON - MEDICINAL CLASSIFICATIONA. SUGAR-BASED SYRUP   Contains Sucrose / Cane Sugar   Imparts...
SYRUP, NF (SIMPLE SYRUP) A concentrated or nearly saturated aqueous  solution of sugar (85% w/v, 65% w/w) Specific gravi...
SYRUP, NF (SIMPLE SYRUP) Self-preserving, however diluted syrups  are prone to microbial contamination thus  require addi...
B. NON SUGAR-BASED SYRUPS (NONNUTRITIVE SYRUPS)   Formulated with;    1. artificial sweeteners    2. viscosity builders ...
COM ONE S OF SYRUP        P   NT         S1. Sugars, or sugar substitutes2. Antimicrobial preservatives3. Flavorants4. Col...
METHODS OF PREPARATION             of SYRUPSI.     SOLUTION WITH THE AID OF HEAT        Excessive heating tends to cause ...
METHODS OF PREPARING           SYRUPSI.   PERCOLATION     An extraction method utilizing a glass     percolator.     May ...
ELIXIRSAre clear, sweetened, hydroalcoholicsolutions intended for oral use, and areusually flavored for palatability.Its A...
2 TYPES OF ELIXIRS1. HIGH ALCOHOLIC ELIXIR (HAE) –   75% to 78% alcohol2. LOW ALCOHOLIC ELIXIR (LAE) –   8% to 10 % alcoho...
COMPONENTS OF ELIXIR           FORMULATION   Alcohol and Water – primary solvents   Glycerin and Propylene Glycol-    ad...
Advantages and Disadvantages     of Syrups as Dosage Form Maintain both          Less effective in  water-soluble and   ...
CLASSES OF ELIXIRSI.               NON-                 MEDICATED                 ELIXIRS                Employed as     ...
CLASSES OF ELIXIRSII.   MEDICATED ELIXIRSExamples:      Diphenhydramine Elixir      Phenobarbital Elixir      Digoxin Elixir
Preparation of Elixirs By simple solution method By admixture of two or more liquids
STORAGE and PRESERVATION       of ELIXIRSStored in a tightly closed, light-resistant  containersProtected from excessive h...
SPIRITS / ESSENCES Alcoholic or hydroalcoholic  solutions of volatile substances. Usual alcohol content is 60%. When mi...
Uses of SpiritsA. MEDICINAL SPIRITS  AROMATIC SPIRIT OF AMMONIA – reflex / respiratory stimulant ( by inhalation)B. FLAVOR...
ROUTES of ADMINISTRATION        of SPIRITS Taken orally  Brandy and Whisky  Mixed with a portion of water to reduce  pu...
METHODS of PREPARATION       of SPIRITS Distillation  Brandy (48 % – 54 % alcohol)   Distilled from red grapes  Whisky (4...
 Solution with Maceration  – Peppermint Spirit (maceration of peppermint  leaves) Solution by Chemical Reaction  – Ethyl...
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Ch.13 part 2 syrups, elixirs, spirits

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Chapter 13 Solutions
Part 2 of 5 Syrups, Elixirs and Enemas

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Ch.13 part 2 syrups, elixirs, spirits

  1. 1. Chapter 13 SOLUTIONS part 2 SYRUPS, ELIXIRS, SPIRITSPrepared by:Asst. Prof. Ma. Lourdes L. Mojares, R. Ph.CEU School of PharmacyManila
  2. 2. SYRUPSConcentrated, aqueous preparations,intended for oral use, containing;1. Sugar or Sugar substitutes2. Flavoring agent3. Medicinal agent
  3. 3. CLASSIFICATION of SYRUPSI. M DICINAL CL E ASSIFICATIONA. Medicated SyrupsB. Non-Medicated Syrups or Flavored vehicles Examples: (Refer to Table 13.6 p.352)
  4. 4. NON-MEDICATED / FLAVORED SYRUPS1. Cherry and Orange Syrups – good vehicle for drugs requiring acid medium2. Cocoa Syrup – effectively masks bitter tasting drugs3. Ora-Sweet and Ora-Sweet SF – alcohol free vehicle for extemporaneous compounding of syrup
  5. 5. ORANGE and CHERRY SYRUPS
  6. 6. ORA-SWEET SF brand
  7. 7. NON – MEDICATED / FLAVORED SYRUPS4. Raspberry Syrup – used to disguise salty or sour taste of drugs5. Syrup, NF or Syrup, USP - with 85% w/v concentration
  8. 8. CLASSIFICATION of SYRUPSII. NON - MEDICINAL CLASSIFICATIONA. SUGAR-BASED SYRUP Contains Sucrose / Cane Sugar Imparts a characteristic “body” to the preparation Glycogenetic Sorbitol or Glycerin may be added to prevent crystallization of sucrose
  9. 9. SYRUP, NF (SIMPLE SYRUP) A concentrated or nearly saturated aqueous solution of sugar (85% w/v, 65% w/w) Specific gravity = 1.313 Have low solvent capacity for water-soluble drugs
  10. 10. SYRUP, NF (SIMPLE SYRUP) Self-preserving, however diluted syrups are prone to microbial contamination thus require additional preservative (i.e. parabens) Saturated solutions tend to undergo crystallization (Syrup, USP – minimal tendency to undergo crystallization)
  11. 11. B. NON SUGAR-BASED SYRUPS (NONNUTRITIVE SYRUPS) Formulated with; 1. artificial sweeteners 2. viscosity builders Non glycogenetic
  12. 12. COM ONE S OF SYRUP P NT S1. Sugars, or sugar substitutes2. Antimicrobial preservatives3. Flavorants4. Colorants5. Special solvents, stabilizers, solubilizing agents and thickeners
  13. 13. METHODS OF PREPARATION of SYRUPSI. SOLUTION WITH THE AID OF HEAT  Excessive heating tends to cause inversion / caramelization of sucroseII. SOLUTION BY AGITATION WITHOUT THE AID OF HEATIII. ADDITION OF SUCROSE TO A MEDICATED LIQUID OR TO A FLAVORED LIQUID
  14. 14. METHODS OF PREPARING SYRUPSI. PERCOLATION An extraction method utilizing a glass percolator. May be used to prepare; Simple Syrup Ipecac syrup (Cephael i s i pec ac uanha)
  15. 15. ELIXIRSAre clear, sweetened, hydroalcoholicsolutions intended for oral use, and areusually flavored for palatability.Its Alcohol Content mayvary from as low as 5% toas high as 40%.
  16. 16. 2 TYPES OF ELIXIRS1. HIGH ALCOHOLIC ELIXIR (HAE) – 75% to 78% alcohol2. LOW ALCOHOLIC ELIXIR (LAE) – 8% to 10 % alcoholNOTE: Elixirs containing at least 10% to 12% alcohol are already “self-preserving”
  17. 17. COMPONENTS OF ELIXIR FORMULATION Alcohol and Water – primary solvents Glycerin and Propylene Glycol- adjuncts (viscosity builders and stabilizers) Sweeteners Flavorants and Colorants Medicinal substances
  18. 18. Advantages and Disadvantages of Syrups as Dosage Form Maintain both  Less effective in water-soluble and masking the taste alcohol-soluble of drugs because components in elixirs are less solution sweet and less Stable viscous  Not recommended Easy to prepare (by for children due to simple solution their alcohol method) content
  19. 19. CLASSES OF ELIXIRSI. NON- MEDICATED ELIXIRS Employed as vehicles Examples: Aromatic Elixir, NF Isoalcoholic Elixir
  20. 20. CLASSES OF ELIXIRSII. MEDICATED ELIXIRSExamples: Diphenhydramine Elixir Phenobarbital Elixir Digoxin Elixir
  21. 21. Preparation of Elixirs By simple solution method By admixture of two or more liquids
  22. 22. STORAGE and PRESERVATION of ELIXIRSStored in a tightly closed, light-resistant containersProtected from excessive heat (do not store above 400C)
  23. 23. SPIRITS / ESSENCES Alcoholic or hydroalcoholic solutions of volatile substances. Usual alcohol content is 60%. When mixed with water, the volatile material separates and forms a milky solution.
  24. 24. Uses of SpiritsA. MEDICINAL SPIRITS AROMATIC SPIRIT OF AMMONIA – reflex / respiratory stimulant ( by inhalation)B. FLAVORING SPIRITS - Compound Orange Spirit - Compound Cardamom Spirit
  25. 25. ROUTES of ADMINISTRATION of SPIRITS Taken orally Brandy and Whisky Mixed with a portion of water to reduce pungency of the spirit Applied externally Used by inhalation  Aromatic spirit of ammonia
  26. 26. METHODS of PREPARATION of SPIRITS Distillation Brandy (48 % – 54 % alcohol) Distilled from red grapes Whisky (47 % – 53% alcohol) Distilled from hops, barley and other grains
  27. 27.  Solution with Maceration – Peppermint Spirit (maceration of peppermint leaves) Solution by Chemical Reaction – Ethyl Nitrite Spirit Simple Solution – Aromatic Spirit of Ammonia (Spirit of Sal Volatile)

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