Chapter 18RADIOPHARMACEUTICALSAsst. Prof. MA. LOURDES LICSI – MOJARES, R. Ph. Faculty CEU School of Pharmacy
RADIOPHARMACEUTICALS Used for diagnostic or therapeutic procedures Frequently prepared as parenteral dosage form
RADIOPHARMACEUTICALS:composition DRUG COMPONENT RADIAOCTIVE COMPONENT Mostly “radionuclides” that emit gamma radiation.
DRUG PRIMARY USES111 In capromab pendetide Monoclonal antibody f or imaging prostate cancer(ProstaScint) I, sodium iodide and 131I,123 Thyroid imaging and uptakesodium iodide99m T pertechnetate c Imaging of thyroid, salivary glands, ectopic gastric mucosa, parathyroid glands, dacryocystography, cystography99m T red blood cells (Ultratag) c Imaging of GI bleeding, cardiac chambers, cardiac f irst- pass99m T sulfur colloid c Imaging of reticuloendothelial system, bone marrow, gastric emptying, GI bleeding, lymphoscintigraphy, arthrograms133 Xe Pulmonary ventilation imaging Y microspheres (T90 heraSphere) Therapy f or biopsy- proven, unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma166 Ho-DOT P and 186Re-H DP M E Bone cancer therapy
Positron Emission Tomograpy (PET) Radiopharmaceuticals - Used for imaging proceduresPET Pharmaceuticals include :1. Carbon-11 As a tracer, used to study myocardial metabolism 11 C glucose is use for cerebral glucose metabolism2. Nitrogen-13 Used as tracer for cerebral and myocardial blood flow
PET Radiopharmaceuticals3. Oxygen-15Four 15 O are available for clinical use: 15 OO (oxygen gas) - used in the study of oxygen metabolism C 15 O (carbon monoxide) – administered via inhalation; serves as tracer for RBC volume CO 15 O (carbon dioxide) H 2 15 O (water) – commonly used as tracer of cerebral and myocardial perfusion Flourine-18 For cerebral glucose metabolism, myocardial glucose metabolism and tumor glucose metabolism Gallium-68 Binds with transferrin forming 68 Ga-transferrin 68 Ga-transferrin is employed in pulmonary studies of vascular permeability
Drug antidote for radiation exposurePRUSSIAN BLUE Ferric hexacyanoferrate Radiogardase capsule