Common Cell Traits
1. Cells come in different sizes and shapes.
2. All cells have a cell membrane which is an outer covering that controls what comes into and out of a
3. All cells have cytoplasm which is a gelatinlike material.
4. Only plants, algae, fungi, and bacteria have cell walls.
5. Cell walls are tough, rigid outer coverings that protect the cell and give it shape
Nucleus of a Cell
6. The nucleus is the control center of the cell because it holds all the genetic material which tells the cell
what to do.
7. It is protected by a membrane called the nuclear membrane.
8. The nucleolus is inside the nucleus and this is where ribosomes are made.
Organelles in the Cytoplasm
9. Organelles are tiny cell structures which carry out specific functions within the cell.
10. Examples include the mitochondria,, ribosomes, endoplasmic reticulum, golgi bodies, chloroplasts,
11. Mitochondria are rod-shaped organelles known as the “powerhouses” of the cell.
They convert energy in food molecules to energy the cell can use to carry out its
12. Ribosomes are very small grainlike structures that function as factories to produce proteins.
13. They may be attached to the endoplasmic reticulum or they may float in the cytoplasm.
14. The endoplasmic reticulum(ER) is a series of folded membranes or passageways that carry proteins and
other materials from one part of the cell to another.
15. It may be rough or smooth. The smooth ER has no attached ribosomes. The rough ER has attached
16. The Golgi bodies are stacked, flattened membranes which receive proteins and other newly formed
materials from the ER, package them, and distribute them to other parts of the cell.
17. Golgi bodies are like the UPS
18. Plant cells have chloroplasts which are green organelles that capture the energy
from sunlight and use it to make food.
19. Chloroplasts make leaves green.
20. Vacuoles are the storage areas of cells.
21. Most plants have one large vacuole while animal cells may have one, more than
one or no vacuoles.
22. Vacuoles stores food and other materials needed by the cell.
23. They also store waste.
24. Lysosomes are small, round structures containing chemicals that break down certain materials in the cell.
25. Lysosomes are the cell’s cleanup crew
26. Microtubules and Microfilament both make up the cytoskeleton framework. They
both support the cell.
Levels of Organization