The South American Tomato Pin WormTuta absolutaA new challengeSuggestions for a control strategy                Ing. Paco ...
Tuta absuluta:                                                          overviewPest               Cultural               ...
Tuta absoluta                                                                pest profile     Taxonomy:     Class: Insecta...
Tuta absoluta                                                         pest profile     Host plats:     •   Solanacea famil...
Tuta absoluta                                                             pest profile     Origin & geographical distribut...
Tuta absoluta                                               pest profile        Origin & geographical distribution17 Octob...
Tuta absoluta                                              pest profile     Morphology:     Adults:     • Longitude: 6-7 m...
Tuta absoluta                                                 pest profile     Morphology:     Egg:     • Shape: small, cy...
Tuta absoluta                    pest profile17 October 2012
Tuta absoluta                                                          pest profile     Morphology:     Larva:     • 4 lar...
Tuta absoluta                    pest profile17 October 2012
Tuta absoluta                                               pest profile     Morphology:     Pupa:     • Shape: cylindrica...
Tuta absoluta                                                             pest profile     Damages:     Leaves:     • blad...
Tuta absoluta                                  pest profile                                  Lyriomyza                  T....
Tuta absoluta  pest profile      17 October 2012
Tuta absoluta                    pest profile17 October 2012
Tuta absoluta                                                pest profile     Damages:     Stems:     • Boreholes in young...
Tuta absoluta                    pest profile17 October 2012
Tuta absoluta                    pest profile17 October 2012
Tuta absoluta                                                          pest profile     Life cycle:     •   min. activity ...
Tuta absoluta                                               cultural intervention     Clean start:     End of crop:     • ...
17 oktober 2012
Tuta absoluta                                           preventive intervention     Clean start     Hygiene:     • Remove ...
Tuta absoluta                                          preventive intervention     Hermiticity                            ...
Tuta absoluta                                                    preventive intervention     Hermiticity     Mesh: min. 9 ...
Tuta absoluta                    preventive intervention     Hermiticity     Dobble doors17 October 2012
Tuta absoluta                            preventive intervention     Hermiticity     Seal crack and holes17 October 2012
Tuta absoluta                                                cultural intervention     Physical control     Trapping:     ...
Tuta absoluta                          cultural intervention     Physical control     Remove and destroy     • infested ti...
Tuta absoluta                                                 cultural intervention     Monitoring     What?     • Detecti...
Tuta absoluta                                                      cultural intervention     Monitoring     Correlation ca...
Tuta absoluta                                                             cultural intervention     Monitoring            ...
Tuta absoluta                  cultural intervention     Monitoring17 October 2012
Tuta absoluta                                   cultural intervention     Monitoring     4-6 delta traps / ha     Replace ...
Tuta absoluta                                                 curative strategies        Mass trapping:        Water traps...
Tuta absoluta                                                         curative strategies     Intervention                ...
Tuta absoluta                  curative strategies17 October 2012
Tuta absoluta                                                         curative strategies        Intervention:        Prev...
Tuta absoluta                                                  curative strategies       Biological control:       Biopest...
Tuta absoluta                                                        curative strategies                                  ...
Tuta absoluta                                                                       curative strategies                   ...
Tuta absoluta                                                    curative strategies      Some considerations on mirids:  ...
Tuta absoluta                                                   curative strategies     Recommendation on release of Nesid...
Tuta absoluta                                                       curative strategies      Trichogramma achaeae      Dos...
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The South American Tomato Pin Worm Tuta absoluta A new challenge Suggestions for a control strategy

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The South American Tomato Pin Worm Tuta absoluta A new challenge Suggestions for a control strategy

  1. 1. The South American Tomato Pin WormTuta absolutaA new challengeSuggestions for a control strategy Ing. Paco Lozano Rubio Our advice, your growth!
  2. 2. Tuta absuluta: overviewPest Cultural CurrativeProfile: Interventions: Interventions:• Taxonomy • Clean start • Mass trapping• Host • Hermiticity • Biological Control• Origin • Hygiene • Chemical• Distribution • Fysical control Corrections• Morfology • Monitoring• Damages• Life cycle Our advice, your growth!
  3. 3. Tuta absoluta pest profile Taxonomy: Class: Insecta (insects) Order: Lepidoptera (moths & butterflies) Family: Gelechiidae (curved-horn moths) Genus: Tuta Specie: T. absoluta (Povolny, 1994) Synonyms: • Scrobipalpula absoluta (Povolny, 1964) • Gnorimoschema absoluta (Clarke, 1962) • Phthorimaea absoluta (Meyrick, 1917) Common name: • South American tomato pinworm • Tomato borer17 October 2012
  4. 4. Tuta absoluta pest profile Host plats: • Solanacea family • Main target crops: Tomato, eggplant, potato • Other crops: tabaco, sweet pepper • Weeds: Solanum nigrum, Datura stramonium17 October 2012
  5. 5. Tuta absoluta pest profile Origin & geographical distribution: South America: • Argentina, Chile, Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Paraguay, Peru, Uruguay, Venezuela. • Not present in Andean regions (> 1000 m), as low temperature is a limiting factor (Notz, 1992) Asia: • There is an old record of T. Absoluta attacking Solanum lyratum in Japan (Clarke, 1962) but no recent records Europe: • Invasive specie in Europe since 200617 October 2012
  6. 6. Tuta absoluta pest profile Origin & geographical distribution17 October 2012
  7. 7. Tuta absoluta pest profile Morphology: Adults: • Longitude: 6-7 mm • Wingspan: 10 - 11 mm. • Wings: gray brown, with dark spots • Antenna: large, filiform, twirled • Lifespan: 10-15 days , 6-7 days • Activity time: night & twilight, hided in daytime. • Fecundity: 180 – 260 eggs /17 October 2012
  8. 8. Tuta absoluta pest profile Morphology: Egg: • Shape: small, cylindrical • Color: creamy white (recently laid) yellow-orange (before hedging) • Size: 0.36 mm long, 0.22 mm wide • Location : individual or small groups 73% on leaves 21% on stems 5% on sepals 1% on green fruits (source: Estay, 2000)17 October 2012
  9. 9. Tuta absoluta pest profile17 October 2012
  10. 10. Tuta absoluta pest profile Morphology: Larva: • 4 larval stages, each of different sizes and color. • L1: 0.5 – 0.8 mm long cream-coloured young larvae mine the leave and feed on mesophyle tissue • L2: 2.8 mm long as they feed and grow, they turn yellowish-green black stripe at the back of their head • L3: 4.5 mm long. maintain the yellow-green colour • L4: about 7.5 mm. Full-grown larvae are greenish pink before pupating, stop feeding17 October 2012
  11. 11. Tuta absoluta pest profile17 October 2012
  12. 12. Tuta absoluta pest profile Morphology: Pupa: • Shape: cylindrical • Colour: light brown • Size: 4-5 mm long, 1.1 mm Ø • Pupation in a silk cocoon • Location: on crop or drops on floor17 October 2012
  13. 13. Tuta absoluta pest profile Damages: Leaves: • bladder-shaped mines >< leafminer • Excrements at the end of the mines • Mines turn brow and necrotic • Larvae leave mines to penetrate other leaves, stems or fruits17 October 2012
  14. 14. Tuta absoluta pest profile Lyriomyza T. absoluta17 October 2012
  15. 15. Tuta absoluta pest profile 17 October 2012
  16. 16. Tuta absoluta pest profile17 October 2012
  17. 17. Tuta absoluta pest profile Damages: Stems: • Boreholes in young stems • Heaps of dark granular excrements Fruits: • boreholes under and around the sepal • Heaps of dark granular excrements • unsuitable for sale and consumption.17 October 2012
  18. 18. Tuta absoluta pest profile17 October 2012
  19. 19. Tuta absoluta pest profile17 October 2012
  20. 20. Tuta absoluta pest profile Life cycle: • min. activity T : 9 C 15 20 25 30 • Overwinter: Egg 10 7 4 3 egg, pupa or adult not in the Mediterranean Larva 36 23 15 11 • Diapause: Pupa 21 12 7 6 no food available 4-6 weeks Total 67 42 26 20 • 10 – 12 generations / year Life span 23 17 13 917 October 2012
  21. 21. Tuta absoluta cultural intervention Clean start: End of crop: • Treat crop and soil; i.e. chlorpyrifos-methyl + spinosad) • Dispose and destroy all crop remains and weeds; i.e. burning Disinfection: • Greenhouse structure • Focus on entre gates and windows17 October 2012
  22. 22. 17 oktober 2012
  23. 23. Tuta absoluta preventive intervention Clean start Hygiene: • Remove and destroy all weeds (potential host plants) , also around the greenhouse • Plantlets free of pest (eggs, larvae, adults) • Tools and crates free pest (eggs, larvae, adults) Soil treatment: • Plowing • (Bio) solarization • Min. 5-6 weeks fallowing17 October 2012
  24. 24. Tuta absoluta preventive intervention Hermiticity Ventilation Insect screen Insect proof netting17 October 2012
  25. 25. Tuta absoluta preventive intervention Hermiticity Mesh: min. 9 x 6 / cm² Permeability 180 160 140 120 N adulten 100 4x2 80 6x6 9x6 60 40 20 0 1 2 3 4 5 617 October 2012
  26. 26. Tuta absoluta preventive intervention Hermiticity Dobble doors17 October 2012
  27. 27. Tuta absoluta preventive intervention Hermiticity Seal crack and holes17 October 2012
  28. 28. Tuta absoluta cultural intervention Physical control Trapping: • For hedged adults from the soil • 10 – 15 days prior to planting • 15 – 30 watertraps / ha + pheromones (or yellow sticky traps) • Remore sticky traps before introductions of beneficials17 October 2012
  29. 29. Tuta absoluta cultural intervention Physical control Remove and destroy • infested tissue • weeds17 October 2012
  30. 30. Tuta absoluta cultural intervention Monitoring What? • Detection presence of pest • Follow up population development Why? • first damages observable after 2-3 weeks after first captures • Threshold level • Moment of intervention How? • Captures on traps (n adults) • Observation of pest symptoms (% of damage)17 October 2012
  31. 31. Tuta absoluta cultural intervention Monitoring Correlation captures and risk level Correlation % symptomatic plants and risk level N of captured adults % of symptomatic Plants Risk Level 0 - Non 1 5% Very Low 2-3 5 - 25% Low 4 - 30 25 - 50% Middle 30 - 100 > 50% High > 50%, > 100 Extreme all larval stages17 October 2012
  32. 32. Tuta absoluta cultural intervention Monitoring type of trap 350 300 250 N Adults per trap 200 Funnelval Deltaval 150 Waterval 100 50 0 1 2 3 4 5 617 October 2012
  33. 33. Tuta absoluta cultural intervention Monitoring17 October 2012
  34. 34. Tuta absoluta cultural intervention Monitoring 4-6 delta traps / ha Replace pheromone every 4-6 weeks 0.4-1.2 m height17 October 2012
  35. 35. Tuta absoluta curative strategies Mass trapping: Water traps • 15 - 30 water traps / ha • 40 cm height • Oil layer • Pheromone Note: • Captures • No correlation N captures with % infested plants17 octobre 2012
  36. 36. Tuta absoluta curative strategies Intervention Risk Level Recommended intervention Non Monitoring on traps Very Low Monitoring on traps and crops Low Monitoring on traps and crops Intensify monitoring Middle Preventive application of biological products Intensify monitoring High Intensify bio treatments Extreme Corrective treatments17 October 2012
  37. 37. Tuta absoluta curative strategies17 October 2012
  38. 38. Tuta absoluta curative strategies Intervention: Preventive application of biological products: • every 10-15 days • Bacillus thuringiensis, azadirachtine Curative treatments: • Spinosad : 3x / cyclus • Indoxacarb: 6x / cyclus • New Tuta chemicals available17 octobre 2012
  39. 39. Tuta absoluta curative strategies Biological control: Biopesticides: • Bt Mirids: • Macrolophus caliginosus • Nesidiocoris tenuis Parasitoids: • Trichogramma achaea • Others in research: egg and larva parasitoid17 October 2012
  40. 40. Tuta absoluta curative strategies Macrolophus NesidiocorisUrbaneja et al. 2009 Urbaneja et al. 2009Trial conditions: 24 h; 25ºC; 16:8 (L:D) Trial conditions: 5 larvae; 24 h. 25ºC; 16:8 (L:D)17 October 2012 40
  41. 41. Tuta absoluta curative strategies 4.5 mirids /plant 3,0 2,5Damaged fruits / 5 fruits 2,0 1,5 1,0 0.2 damaged fruits / 5 fruits = 4% 0,5 0,0 0 5 10 15 20 25 Mirids Judit Arnó, IRTA 2009 17 October 2012
  42. 42. Tuta absoluta curative strategies Some considerations on mirids: Predation by adults of eggs and early stage larval stages. Contained Threshold at high mirid population levels > 4.5 / plant Slow population development Phytophagy – risk of feeding damage Advance population development: • Earlier releases (propagation area, 3-4 weeks after planting) • Introduction of adults • Increase dosage (1,5 /m²) • External food source (Ephestia eggs)17 October 2012
  43. 43. Tuta absoluta curative strategies Recommendation on release of Nesidiocoris tenuis: Dosage: 0.5 – 1 /m²/ release, total 1.5-2 / m² Moment of introduction Planting August, 3 weeks later, in 2 releases Planting September, as soon as possible, in 1 release (+ephestia) Introduction method: On plants or Biobox Feed with ephestia eggs Treatments: Avoid extensive chemical treatments during build-up face (3-4 weeks)17 October 2012
  44. 44. Tuta absoluta curative strategies Trichogramma achaeae Dosage: 50-100 /m²/w, total: 250-500 / m² Moment of introduction: first sign of galaries or adults catched on traps in spring time Introduction method: Low volume card, lower part of plants, good distributed over the crop Treatments: compatible products Note: in research17 October 2012

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