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The most common greenhouse pests and their natural ennemies
The most common greenhouse pests and their natural ennemies
The most common greenhouse pests and their natural ennemies
The most common greenhouse pests and their natural ennemies
The most common greenhouse pests and their natural ennemies
The most common greenhouse pests and their natural ennemies
The most common greenhouse pests and their natural ennemies
The most common greenhouse pests and their natural ennemies
The most common greenhouse pests and their natural ennemies
The most common greenhouse pests and their natural ennemies
The most common greenhouse pests and their natural ennemies
The most common greenhouse pests and their natural ennemies
The most common greenhouse pests and their natural ennemies
The most common greenhouse pests and their natural ennemies
The most common greenhouse pests and their natural ennemies
The most common greenhouse pests and their natural ennemies
The most common greenhouse pests and their natural ennemies
The most common greenhouse pests and their natural ennemies
The most common greenhouse pests and their natural ennemies
The most common greenhouse pests and their natural ennemies
The most common greenhouse pests and their natural ennemies
The most common greenhouse pests and their natural ennemies
The most common greenhouse pests and their natural ennemies
The most common greenhouse pests and their natural ennemies
The most common greenhouse pests and their natural ennemies
The most common greenhouse pests and their natural ennemies
The most common greenhouse pests and their natural ennemies
The most common greenhouse pests and their natural ennemies
The most common greenhouse pests and their natural ennemies
The most common greenhouse pests and their natural ennemies
The most common greenhouse pests and their natural ennemies
The most common greenhouse pests and their natural ennemies
The most common greenhouse pests and their natural ennemies
The most common greenhouse pests and their natural ennemies
The most common greenhouse pests and their natural ennemies
The most common greenhouse pests and their natural ennemies
The most common greenhouse pests and their natural ennemies
The most common greenhouse pests and their natural ennemies
The most common greenhouse pests and their natural ennemies
The most common greenhouse pests and their natural ennemies
The most common greenhouse pests and their natural ennemies
The most common greenhouse pests and their natural ennemies
The most common greenhouse pests and their natural ennemies
The most common greenhouse pests and their natural ennemies
The most common greenhouse pests and their natural ennemies
The most common greenhouse pests and their natural ennemies
The most common greenhouse pests and their natural ennemies
The most common greenhouse pests and their natural ennemies
The most common greenhouse pests and their natural ennemies
The most common greenhouse pests and their natural ennemies
The most common greenhouse pests and their natural ennemies
The most common greenhouse pests and their natural ennemies
The most common greenhouse pests and their natural ennemies
The most common greenhouse pests and their natural ennemies
The most common greenhouse pests and their natural ennemies
The most common greenhouse pests and their natural ennemies
The most common greenhouse pests and their natural ennemies
The most common greenhouse pests and their natural ennemies
The most common greenhouse pests and their natural ennemies
The most common greenhouse pests and their natural ennemies
The most common greenhouse pests and their natural ennemies
The most common greenhouse pests and their natural ennemies
The most common greenhouse pests and their natural ennemies
The most common greenhouse pests and their natural ennemies
The most common greenhouse pests and their natural ennemies
The most common greenhouse pests and their natural ennemies
The most common greenhouse pests and their natural ennemies
The most common greenhouse pests and their natural ennemies
The most common greenhouse pests and their natural ennemies
The most common greenhouse pests and their natural ennemies
The most common greenhouse pests and their natural ennemies
The most common greenhouse pests and their natural ennemies
The most common greenhouse pests and their natural ennemies
The most common greenhouse pests and their natural ennemies
The most common greenhouse pests and their natural ennemies
The most common greenhouse pests and their natural ennemies
The most common greenhouse pests and their natural ennemies
The most common greenhouse pests and their natural ennemies
The most common greenhouse pests and their natural ennemies
The most common greenhouse pests and their natural ennemies
The most common greenhouse pests and their natural ennemies
The most common greenhouse pests and their natural ennemies
The most common greenhouse pests and their natural ennemies
The most common greenhouse pests and their natural ennemies
The most common greenhouse pests and their natural ennemies
The most common greenhouse pests and their natural ennemies
The most common greenhouse pests and their natural ennemies
The most common greenhouse pests and their natural ennemies
The most common greenhouse pests and their natural ennemies
The most common greenhouse pests and their natural ennemies
The most common greenhouse pests and their natural ennemies
The most common greenhouse pests and their natural ennemies
The most common greenhouse pests and their natural ennemies
The most common greenhouse pests and their natural ennemies
The most common greenhouse pests and their natural ennemies
The most common greenhouse pests and their natural ennemies
The most common greenhouse pests and their natural ennemies
The most common greenhouse pests and their natural ennemies
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The most common greenhouse pests and their natural ennemies

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IPM control in general

IPM control in general

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  • Hosta with ArMV
  • Bean Lf Line Pat
  • CbMV
  • PFBV/ToRSV in Geranium
  • Transcript

    • 1. The most common pests and their natural enemies Ing. Paco Lozano Rubio Int’l Technical Advisor17 oktober 2012
    • 2. Biological Control • Leafminer • Whitefly • Aphids • Spider mite • Thrips17 oktober 2012
    • 3. Leafminer Liriomyza Liriomyza Liriomyza bryoniae trifolii huidobrensisAdults Size 1.5-2.3 mm 1.5 -2.3 mm 1.7-2.5 mm Color black – yellow, grey – yellow, black - yellow, bright, matt, bright, yellow dorsal dot yellow dorsal dot yellow dorsal dotLarvae transparent, ochre, yellowish, intestinal channel visible, not transparent not transparent white with yellow headPupae yellow – dark brown, black yellow – brown yellow – redGalleries all the surface of the leaf, around the points of beside the nerve of the leaf, upperside nutrition, underside upperside 17 oktober 2012
    • 4. Leafminer egg 2 4 larve adult 14 9 pupa 20°c17 oktober 2012
    • 5. Leafminer 145 160 90 Fecundity (Total) 15 23 7 Fecundity (eegs / day) 2.5 1.5 2 Pre-oviposition 40 27 17 Total Pupa 22 14 9 Larva 12 9 5 6 4 3 Egg 15 20 25 Temperature (°C) 17 oktober 2012
    • 6. Leafminer17 oktober 2012
    • 7. Leafminer • Damage: • Galleries in the leaves •  decrease of photosynthesis •  decrease of yield • Entrance for bacteria and fungi.17 oktober 2012
    • 8. Feeding • Nectar • Honeydew • Plant saps • Males completely depend on females (no ovipositor)17 oktober 2012
    • 9. Pupa • Larva exits the leaf and drops on the ground or stays on the leaf for pupation • Hibernation as a pupa17 oktober 2012
    • 10. Leafminer Beneficial insects: Dacnusa sibirica Diglyphus isaea17 oktober 2012
    • 11. Leafminer Dacnusa sibirica: • Good capacity to search • Endo-parasite, the leafminer is not paralyzed and continues making galleries to the pupation. • Level of parasitism is difficult to control.17 oktober 2012
    • 12. LeafminerDiglyphus isaea:• Ecto-parasite.• Leafminer is paralyzed, the larva of the parasite devours the leafminer larva.• Average capacity to search: introduce at the moment that there are sufficient galleries present.• Very fast development: 15°C: 33 days 20°C: 17 days 25°C: 13 days Pre-oviposition: 1-2 days Fecundity: 20/day Host feeding: 70 larva (L1-L2)17 oktober 2012
    • 13. • Unlike Dacnusa host feeding of L1 + L2 and is necessary for oviposition (already in production) • Minimal density of leafminer is necessary for Dyg. • Recognition stinged larvae • Shorter galleries with paralyzed larvae • Excrements next to larva • Larva dies when the egg hatches • Larva not completely at the end of the gallery • Late 2nd and 3rd stage for parasitism • Pupation not next to the larva • Pupa between upper and under epidermis • 6 shafts for strength17 oktober 2012
    • 14. • Evaluation of the balance in the greenhouse is hard to check by means of the adults • Take samples or check the degree of parasitism • Evaluate the damage17 oktober 2012
    • 15. Leafminer ControlBeneficial Dosage RemarksOrganismDacnusa sibirica Preventive: 0.25/m²/w Introduction by low infestation(Dacnusa-System) Curative: 0.5-2/m²/w x3Diglyphus isaea Preventive: / Introduction by decreasing(Diglyphus-System Curative: 0.1-1/m²/w infestation, x3 17 oktober 2012
    • 16. Trialeurodes vaporariorum : Life cycle T. vaporariorum 16°C 26°C Egg 16.0 6.9 L1 8.2 3.6 L2 5.0 2.2 L3 5.2 2.3 Pupa 15.0 6.5 Total 49.4 21.517 oktober 2012
    • 17. Trialeurodes vaporariorum: Egg stage - In circles - Pyriform (oval shaped) - Pedicel: anchor; to fix egg on the leaf epidermis. - 0.25 mm - White, after 1 - 2 days turn into brownish - black - Covered with a white powder17 oktober 2012
    • 18. Trialeurodes vaporariorum: Larval stage L1: - Crawler - Oval, 0.3 mm L2: -Transparent, 0.3 – 0.4 mm L3: - = L2, 0.5 mm L4/pupa: - white, oval, 0.7 mm - Corona of wax-like hears - Morphological transform. ≈ pupa Empty pupa:17 oktober 2012 - T-shaped insertion
    • 19. Trialeurodes vaporariorum: Adult stage - ♀: 1.1 mm ♂: 0.9 mm - Just after hatching: white, transparent wings - After some hours: covered with white wax powder - pre-oviposition period = 1 - 2 days - Number of eggs each day = 5 – 10 (*) - Life span ♀ = 5 – 50 days (*) (*) depend on climate and crop conditions17 oktober 2012
    • 20. Bemisia tabaci : Life cycle B. tabaci 16 °C 26 °C Egg 21.0 6.7 L1 11.8 3.7 L2 9.0 2.9 L3 10.4 3.3 Pupa 18.1 5.7 Total 70.3 22.317 oktober 2012
    • 21. Bemisia tabaci: Egg-stage - In circles - Pyriform (oval shaped) - Pedicel: anchor; fix the egg on the leaf epidermis - 0.18 mm - Yellowish-green, after 1 - 2 days turn into brownish - Sometimes covered with white powder17 oktober 2012
    • 22. Bemisia tabaci: Larval stage L1: - Crawler - Oval, 0.25 mm L2: -Transparent, 0.3 mm L3: - = L2, 0.5 mm L4/pop: - yellowish, irregulary shaped -length: 0.8 mm – width: 0.6 mm - no corona - Morphological transform. ≈ pupa (wings primordial + red eyes) Empty pupa: - T-shape insertion17 oktober 2012
    • 23. Bemisia tabaci: Adult stage - ♀: ≥ 1 mm ♂: ≤ 1 mm - Just after hatching: transparent wings + yellowish body - After some hours: poor covered with white wax powder; yellow to cream colored body - pre-oviposition period = 1 - 5 days - Eggs each day = 10 (25°C) - Life span ♀ = 15 – 50 days (*) (*) depend on climate and crop condiction17 oktober 2012
    • 24. Differentiations T. vaporariorum & B. tabaci T. vaporariorum B. tabaciEgg First 1 – 2 days white First yellowish green Afterwards brownish - Afterwards brownish blackL13 Very difficult to differentiatePupa Irregularly shaped Oval shaped White, transparent, box Flattened, yellowish, transparent, shaped with corona no corona17 oktober 2012
    • 25. Differentiations T. vaporariorum & B. tabaci T. vaporariorum B. tabaci Adult > B. tabaci < T. vaporariorum More white wax powder Less white wax powder production  white aspect production  yellowish aspect17 oktober 2012
    • 26. Host plant and development Host plant Development (egg-adult) at 24°C Eggplant 21.5 Cucumber 23 Tomato 24 Sweet pepper 2717 oktober 2012
    • 27. Host plant and survival percentage Host plant Number of eggs per female Eggplant 364 Cucumber 158 Tomato 47 Sweet pepper 2.317 oktober 2012
    • 28. White Fly Location Apex 1 cluster 2-3 cluster 4-6 cluster17 oktober 2012
    • 29. White Fly: Direct Damage • Suction of plant juices by adult and larva: Excretion of honeydew Sooty mould development (Capnodium spp.) Reduction of photosynthesis and evapo-transpiration Debilitation and growth inhibition Esthetic damage17 oktober 2012
    • 30. White Fly: Direct Damage • Physiological disorders: Silver leaf symptom: Silver discoloration of leaf, due to suction of palisade cells of the upper epidermis. Tomato Irregular Ripening (TIR): Star shaped yellowish-gold discoloration on the lower side of the fruit, afterward red and yellow stripes. Local whitening (immature) of the pulp.17 oktober 2012
    • 31. White Fly: Indirect DamageVirus transmission:Tomato Yellow Leaf Curl Virus (TYLCV)Tomato Chlorosis Virus (ToCV), TYLCVTomato Infectious Chlorosis Virus (TICV),Cucumber Yellow Stunting Disorder Virus (CYSDV),Cucumber Vein Yellowing Virus (CVYV),Beet Pseudo Yellow Virus (BPYV)Potato Yellow Mosaic Virus (PYMV) 17 oktober 2012 TICV / ToCV
    • 32. White Fly: Natural EnemiesEncarsia formosa Eretmocerus eremicus Macrolophus caliginosus 17 oktober 2012Eretmocerus mundus PreFeRal
    • 33. White Fly: Natural EnemiesEncarsia formosa:• Parasitic wasp, specific against T. vaporariorum• Endo-parasite, prefers larvae of the 3rd and 4th stages.• After +/- 2 weeks of parasitism, the larva obtains an obscure colour.• After +/- 3-4 weeks of parasitism, a new E. formosa hatches.• Fecundity: 8-12/day• Life cycle (egg  adult): 15°C: 52 days 18°C: 34 days 21°C: 26 days 24°C: 17 days 17 oktober 2012
    • 34. White Fly: Natural EnemiesEretmocerus sp.:• Parasitic wasp• E. eremicus, against T. vaporariorum and B. tabaci• E. mundus, specific against B. tabaci• Ecto-parasites, prefer larvae of the 2nd and 3rd stages• After +/- 2 weeks of parasitism, the larva obtains a yellow – beige color.•Fecundity: 10/day (E.e. T.v.) 5/day (E.e.  B.t.) 10-15/day (E.m  B.t.)• Life cycle (egg  adult): 22°C: 20 days 17 oktober 2012
    • 35. Parasitism by EretmocerusMesitomes asymmetric Lateral, empty spaces Grayish eyes17 oktober 2012
    • 36. Differenciations Encarsia formosa & Eretmocerus spp. Encarsia formosa Eretmocerus spp.Sex – ratio 100 % females 50 % females 50 % malesAdult Black Thorax Yellowish Yellow AbdomenParasitism Endoparasite ectoparasite (L3 – L4) (L2 – L3)Parasitized Pupa Black Yellowish-brownChemical residu’s sensible Less sensibleHost Trialeurodes vaporariorum E.e.: Trialeurodes vaporariorum E.m.:Bemisia tabaciTemperature Resists better higher17 oktober 2012 temperatures (30°C – 40°C)
    • 37. White Fly: Natural EnemiesMacrolophus caliginosusNesidiocoris tenuis•Predatory Mirid•Polyphague, preference on whitefly eggs and larvae, less on adults. Nymphs are used also as a spider mite predator•Macrolophus devours per day: 30-40 eggs, 15-20 pupae or 2-5 adults•Survive also on plant sap 17 oktober 2012
    • 38. White Fly: Natural Enemies Macrolophus caliginosus Egg Nymp Total Fecundit h y 20 °C 18 29 47 270 25 °C 11 19 30 120 30 °C 10 18 28 90 Pre-oviposition = 3 days Longitivity = 40-110 days17 oktober 2012
    • 39. Additional feeding • Females can deposit eggs when on a diet of only plant saps, but less • Nymphs die without food of animal origin. • After introduction give additional food for 2 weeks. • 1 tube a week per ha • 2 x a week additional feeding • For approximately 6 weeks (presence whitefly)17 oktober 2012
    • 40. Leaf picking • Leaf picking has also a negative effect on Macrolophus (in particular in gutters) • Eggs are deposited on older leaves • Long egg stage • Slow development to the adult stage • Solution: locally no leaf picking17 oktober 2012
    • 41. Whitefly ControlBeneficial Organism Dosage RemarksEncarsia formosa Preventive: 1.5/m²/2w(Encarsia-System) Curative: 5-10/m²/w x5Eretmocerus eremicus Preventive: 1.5/m²/2w(Eretmocerus-System) Curative: 5-10/m²/w x5Eretmocerus mundus Preventive: 1.5/m²/2w Specific for B. tabaci(Mundus-System) Curative: 5-10/m²/w x5Macrolophus Preventive: 0.5/m²/2w x2 Additional food sourcecaliginosus Curative: 1-5/m²/2w x2 In hot spots(Macrolophus-System) 17 oktober 2012
    • 42. Aphids17 oktober 2012
    • 43. AphidsAphis gossypii Macrosyphum euphorbiae Myzus persicae 17 oktober 2012 Aulacorthum solani
    • 44. Aphids Damage •Suction of juice:  growth inhibition  toxins: deformation of foliar tissue  virus transmission •Production of honeydew:  sooty mould17 oktober 2012
    • 45. Beneficial insects: Aphids Aphidius ervi Aphidius colemani Aphilinus abdominalis 17 oktober 2012 Aphidoletes aphidimyza
    • 46. Aphids Aphidius colemani: • Parasitic wasp, specifically against Aphis gossypii and Myzus persicae • +/- 7 days after parasitization, the first mummies are observed • Total fecundity: 300 eggs in the first 3 days17 oktober 2012
    • 47. Aphids Aphidius ervi: • Parasitic wasp specifically against Macrosiphum euphorbiae and Aulacorthum solani •+/- 7 days after parasitization, the first mummies are observed17 oktober 2012
    • 48. Hyper parasitism •Hyperparasitism in the summer and late summer: Dendrocerus carpenteri •Irregular border •Lid is missing •Switch to Aphelinus and Aphidoletes17 oktober 2012
    • 49. Aphids Aphelinus abdominalis: • Parasitic wasp, specifically against Macrosiphum euphorbiae and Aulacorthum solani. • +/- 7 days after parasitization, the first mummies are observed. • Total fecundity: 200 eggs in the first 3 days.17 oktober 2012
    • 50. Aphids Aphidoletes aphidimyza: • Gall midge • Omnivorous • Feeds on all stages of aphids: 10-100/day17 oktober 2012
    • 51. Aphids Aphidoletes aphidimyza T (°C) Egg Larva Pupa Total 15 5 10 16 31 20 2.5 7 10 19.5 25 2 5 8 1517 oktober 2012
    • 52. Banker-System • Grain pollen (banker plants) • Winter barley • Cereal aphids on monocotyledons • On the substrate, along the aisle with a dropper • Not between the crops (not enough light) • ½ tube Aphidius or Aphidoletes (box with moist sand) • 1 rearing tray a week per ha. (total: +/-10 per ha) • Advantages compared to mummies: - continuous production, preventive, labor saving, cheaper17 oktober 2012
    • 53. Aphids ControlBeneficial Organism Dosage RemaksAphidius ervi Preventive: 0.15/m²/w Macrosiphum and(Ervi-System) Curative: 0.5/m²/w x5 AulacorthumAphidius colemani Preventive: 0.15/m²/w Aphis gossypii(Aphidius-System) Curative: 0.5/m²/w x5 and Myzus persicaeAphelinus abdominalis Preventive: / Less mobile(Aphelinus-System) Curative: 2-4/m²/2w x2 In hot spotsAphidoletes Preventive: 1/m²/w x3aphidimyza Curative: 10/m²/w x3 In hotspots(Aphidoletes-System) 17 oktober 2012
    • 54. Spider mite Egg Larva Adult Nymph17 oktober 2012
    • 55. Spider mite 120 - - Total fecundity Fecundity 4 - - (egg / day) 33 15 7 Total 1.5 7 3 Deutonymph 5 2 1 Protonymph 1.5 7 3 Larva 14 7 3 Egg 15 20 30 Temperature (°C) 17 oktober 2012
    • 56. Spider mite Adult Egg Nymph17 oktober 2012
    • 57. Spider mite Damage: • Feeds on cells and vegetal sap  reduction of photosynthesis  a lot of necrosis • Spiders web •Dispersion: mechanical and webbing17 oktober 2012
    • 58. Hibernation Climate condictions: • High T° and Low RH = fast development + more eggs Hibernation: • Females • Day length becomes shorter • Temperature • Deterioration of the food supply • In hidden places • Less sensitive to chemical control17 oktober 2012
    • 59. Beneficial insects: Spider mite Amblyseius californicus Phytoseiulus persimilis 17 oktober 2012 Feltiella acarisuga
    • 60. Spider mitePhytoseiulus persimilis: Amblyseius californicus:• Predatory mite, all stages of • Predatory mite, all stages of the prey the prey + pollen• Devours daily • Devours daily +/- 5 adults, +/- 5 adults, some larvae / eggs o +/- 13 nymphs, • Development a little slower o +/- 20 eggs • Resists better the high• Very fast development: temperatures (35°C) and low 15°C: 20 days humidity. 20°C: 7 days 30°C: 4 days 17 oktober 2012
    • 61. Spider mite Feltiella acarisuga: • Gall midge • Larva feeds on all stages of the spider mite • Consumes 5X more than P. persimilis17 oktober 2012
    • 62. Spider mite Feltiella acarisuga: Longevity Fecundity Larva Total Pupa Egg 25 °C 2 7 7 16 3 10017 oktober 2012
    • 63. Spider mite ControlBeneficial Organism Dosage RemarksAmblyseius californicus Preventive: 2/m²/3w Feed on pollen(Californicus-System) Curative: 6/m²Phytoseiulus persimilis Prevetive: 2/m²/3w(Phytoseiulus-System) Curative: 6/m² 20/m²/w x2 In hot spotsFeltiella acarisuga Preventive: /(Feltiella-System) Curative: 10-50/m²/w x4 In hot spots 17 oktober 2012
    • 64. Thrips egg 2 3 2 adult 3 4 3 4 nymph 1 pupa 25°C17 oktober 2012
    • 65. Frankliniella Thrips Echinothrips americanus occidentalis tabaciColour: Larva: yellow - orange yellow – light green light yellow Adult: brown – orange grey - yellow - brown blackSize: Larva: 0.5 – 1.3 mm 0.6 – 0.8 mm > F.o and T.t Adult: 0.9 – 1.3 mm 0.8 – 1.0 mm 1.3 – 1.6 mmSituation Adult In the flowers, in the buttons and On the underside of the leaf, All stages are found in both sides & Larva: in the top. nearby the nerves of the leaf. of the leaf. Also on the leaves. On the whole plant. Lower part of the plant Especially in the superior part of the plant. Pupa: In the ground In the ground Egg: In the epidermis of the leaf In the epidermis of the leafDamage Feeding spots on the upper side of Feeding spots on the under side o Feeding spots on both sides of the leaves and flowers the leaves. the leaves. Deformation on leaves and flowers.Life cycle 20°C: 19 days 20°C: 20 days 20°C: 34 days 25°C: 11 – 15 days 25°C: 13 – 16 days 25°C: 15 days 17 oktober 2012
    • 66. Thrips Damage: • Rasping-sucking mouth parts • Suck cells dry • Cells • Silvery grey spots with black dots • Epidermis tissue comes off parenchym tissue (filled with air) • Black dots are excrements.17 oktober 2012
    • 67. Damages Thrips 17 oktober 2012
    • 68. Major danger • TSWV (tomato spotted wilt virus) • Can occur on 1200 plant species • Transmitted by Frankliniella occidentalis and thrips tabaci (obligate vector) • Is absorbed via sap, multiplication in the intestine, emission via saliva • Measures: infected plants should be removed • Thrips control • Remove weeds near the greenhouse, especially composites are host plants of thrips and the virus.17 oktober 2012
    • 69. 17 oktober 2012
    • 70. ThripsBeneficials:Amblyseius cucumeris Amblyseius degenerans Orius sp. 17 oktober 2012
    • 71. Orius Thrips Amblyseius cucumeris Amblyseius swirskii • Predatory mite • Feeds on thrips larvae and pollen • Fast development: 15°C: 16 days 20°C: 11 days 30°C: 7 days • Adult lives +/- 30 • Fecundity: 2/day 17 oktober 2012
    • 72. Thrips Amblyseius degenerans: • Predatory mite • Feeds on thrips larvae and pollen • Development similar to A.cucumeris17 oktober 2012
    • 73. Thrips T (°C) 15 20 25 30 Orius sp.: Egg 12 6.5 4.5 3 L1 9.5 4 3 2 • Predatory bug + killer L2 6 3 2 1 • Feeds on thrips larvae and pollen L3 6 3 2 1 L4 7 3.5 2 2 L5 14 7 4 3 Total 54.5 27 17.5 12 Fecundity 60 140 160 150 Longitivity 80 50 40 2017 oktober 2012
    • 74. 17 oktober 2012
    • 75. 17 oktober 2012
    • 76. Thrips ControlBeneficial Organism Dosage RemaksAmblyseius cucumeris Preventive: 50/m²/2w(Amblyseius-System) Curative: 100/m²/ 1-2w(ABS-System) Preventive: 1 sachet/2.5m²/6w or 1x inpollen rich crops Curative: 1 sachet/m²/4wAmblyseius degenerans Preventive: 0.2/m² Pollen rich(Degenerans-System) cropsOrius spp. Preventive: 0.5/m²/2w x2 Pollen rich(Orius-System) Curative: 1-10/m²/1-2w crops 17 oktober 2012 In hot spots
    • 77. Botrytis17 oktober 2012
    • 78. 17 oktober 2012
    • 79. Botrytis • Germination of spore needs moisture • Dry wounds faster than spore can germinate: no infection (dry wounds for the night regime) • Until March only remove leaves before noon • In the summer until 14h • Do not remove leaves on cloudy rainy days • Lower spore pressure: remove affected material • Remove mould spots+ coat with wound dressing17 oktober 2012
    • 80. Nursing17 oktober 2012
    • 81. Scaniavital Silica ® Wound dressing17 oktober 2012
    • 82. Action • Clay paste with minerals and organic substances • Dries quickly • Completely covers the wound17 oktober 2012
    • 83. Action • Prevents the dehydration of wounds after the removal of old leaves or other stem damage • Creates a physical barrier  prevents further evaporation  prevents penetration of dust and dirt17 oktober 2012
    • 84. Packaging • 2 packages available 1. Squeeze-bottle • Content 250 ml • Apply with integrated brush17 oktober 2012
    • 85. Packaging (continuation) 2. Bucket 1. Content 1L 2. Apply with brush or plastic glove17 oktober 2012
    • 86. Application • Spread over fresh wounds • Apply evenly around the stem • Cover the surface of the wound as well as a few cm above and below the wound17 oktober 2012
    • 87. Virus and Bacteria  Cause Disease  Reduce Yields  Affect Flower and Color Quality  Unmarketable  Lost Revenue17 oktober 2012
    • 88. Symptoms Lesions are localized spots that may be chlorotic or necrotic. Line patterns are a series of chlorotic lines or patterns Mosaic is a defined pattern of dark green/light green areas Mottle is a diffuse patterns of various shades of green17 oktober 2012 Ringspots are concentric ring patterns that may be chlorotic or necrotic
    • 89. ArMV in Hosta
    • 90. Line Pattern in Bean
    • 91. CMV in Anthurium
    • 92. CbMV in Calibrachoa
    • 93. PFBV/ToRSV in Geranium
    • 94. Flashkit: Virus detection kit Immunocromatography strip17 oktober 2012  Extraction bag
    • 95. 15 minutes17 oktober 2012
    • 96. 17 oktober 2012
    • 97. ●Acidovorax a. citrulli ●Arabis mosaic virus ●Pepino mosaic virus ●Calibrachoa mottle virus ●Potato virus Y ●Citrus tristeza virus ●Ralstonia solanaecearum ●Squash mosaic virus ●Clavibacter m. michiganensis ●Tobacco mosaic virus ●Cymbidium mosaic virus & ●Tomato spotted wilt virus Odontoglossum ringspot virus ●Xanthomonas axonopodis ●Cucumber mosaic virus pv. Citri – Asiatic citrus canker ●Xanthomonas c. pv.pelargoni ●Hosta virus X ●Zucchini yellow mosaic virus ●Impatiens necrotic spot virus17 oktober 2012
    • 98. • QUESTIONS? • THANK YOU FOR YOUR ATTENTION.17 oktober 2012

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