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Biological control of white grubs
Biological control of white grubs
Biological control of white grubs
Biological control of white grubs
Biological control of white grubs
Biological control of white grubs
Biological control of white grubs
Biological control of white grubs
Biological control of white grubs
Biological control of white grubs
Biological control of white grubs
Biological control of white grubs
Biological control of white grubs
Biological control of white grubs
Biological control of white grubs
Biological control of white grubs
Biological control of white grubs
Biological control of white grubs
Biological control of white grubs
Biological control of white grubs
Biological control of white grubs
Biological control of white grubs
Biological control of white grubs
Biological control of white grubs
Biological control of white grubs
Biological control of white grubs
Biological control of white grubs
Biological control of white grubs
Biological control of white grubs
Biological control of white grubs
Biological control of white grubs
Biological control of white grubs
Biological control of white grubs
Biological control of white grubs
Biological control of white grubs
Biological control of white grubs
Biological control of white grubs
Biological control of white grubs
Biological control of white grubs
Biological control of white grubs
Biological control of white grubs
Biological control of white grubs
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Biological control of white grubs

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  • i need to have some thing that will kill off these pest that are in our garden not in the lawn which is thebest way to get rid of thesr root eating thing s with out damage to the plant s & trees thank u
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  • 1. Biological control of white grubs
  • 2. Content • Enemy species • Most occurring white grubs in Belgium and the Netherlands • Biological control possibilities • Chemical control possibilities • Working of nematodes • Life cycle: – Garden Chafer – Welsh Chafer – Black vine weevil – others • Determination12 May 2011
  • 3. Enemy species Lawns and sports fields – Emelts = larvae of crane flies (Tipula) – Click beetles = larvae of wireworms – White grubs = larvae of beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae = scarab beetles) Perennials and shrubs – Othiorynchus sulcatus = Black vine weevil12 May 2011
  • 4. 17 oktober 2012Emelts
  • 5. 17 oktober 2012Click beetles Bron:www.zin.ru
  • 6. 17 oktober 2012White grub
  • 7. 17 oktober 2012Larva Black vine weevil
  • 8. Most occurring white grubs in Belgium and the Netherlands • Hoplia philanthus = Welsh Chafer (lawns, moist until drier sandy soils) • Phyllopertha horticola = Garden Chafer (lawns) • Amphimallon solstitiale = Summer Chafer (lawns, dry sandy soils) • Melolontha melolontha = Cockchafer (very local)12 May 2011
  • 9. Most occurring white grubs in Belgium and the Netherlands (continued) • Melolontha hippocastani = Chestnut Cockchafer (very local) • Serica brunnea = Brown Chafer • Polyphylla fullo = Pine Chafer • Aphodius sp. = Dung Beetle • Anomala sp.12 May 2011
  • 10. Biological control possibilities • Emelts (Tipula)  nematode Steinernema feltiae (bad to moderate action) • Bacteria preparation based on Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis (no homologation in Belgium and the Netherlands)12 May 2011
  • 11. Biological control possibilities • White grubs  B-Green (Heterorhabditis bacteriophora) as from 12 – 15°C +++ Phyllopertha horticola ++ Aphodius contaminatus + Anomala dubia + Hoplia philanthus + Serica brunnea - Amphimallon solstitiale --- Melolontha melolontha12 May 2011
  • 12. Biological control possibilities • White grubs (continued)  Steinernema scarabaei most effective also against Aphimallon and Melolontha (not native in Europe and cannot be produced for the moment) • Black vine weevil  Heterorhabditis-System (Heterorhabditis megidis) as from 12°C12 May 2011
  • 13. Chemical control possibilities • Results are disappointing, better results when injected • Chlorinated hydrocarbons (e.g. Lindaan), Temik (aldicarb) and Confidor (imidacloprid) are forbidden, with a Confidor injection the larvae stop feeding. • Other carbofuran, chloorpyrifos, …..12 May 2011
  • 14. Working of nematodes 1. Nematode searches actively for a prey – excrements – cuticula – respiration (CO2) – temperature 1. Penetration through natural openings: mouth and anus 2. Movement to the intestinal canal and penetration12 May 2011
  • 15. Working of nematodes 4. Release of symbiotic bacterium Steinernema: Xenorhabdus Heterorhabditis: Photorhabdus 5. Bacterium releases toxin  blood poisoning within 48h 6. Reproduction of the nematode in the cadaver 7. Thousands of new nematodes leave the cadaver to search for new prey12 May 2011
  • 16. Life cycle of Garden Chafer (Phyllopertha horticola)12 May 2011
  • 17. Life cycle of Garden Chafer (Phyllopertha horticola) (continued) • Beetles (adults) copulate during the first night of their life and then lay 85 % of the eggs in the neighbourhood of pupation. During the next 3 weeks in May and June during the ripening gluttony they fly in late morning (10 – 12h) and feed with leaves. Then they swarm out 3 to 4 km from the birth place to lay the other 15 % of the eggs. The larvae eat the roots of the grasses. • Treatment period August-September before the larvae drain deeper.12 May 2011
  • 18. Life cycle of Welsh Chafer (Hoplia philanthus) Fecundity before the end of June Year 1 Year 2: L3 as from April Year 1 L1 August Year 3: L3 until April L2 September Source: PCS Pupation May Year 312 May 2011
  • 19. Life cycle of Welsh Chafer (Hoplia philanthus) (continued) • The life cycle is spread over 3 years and the total development takes about 24 months • Year 1 – Adults (beetles) lay eggs (25 to 40 per female end of June, flight radius ± 10 meters) – Eggs hatch end of July, L1 white grubs in August – As from September L2 white grubs (These white grubs hide in the winter months deeper in the soil)12 May 2011
  • 20. Life cycle of Welsh Chafer (Hoplia philanthus) (continued) • Year 2 As from April, May L3-larvae, year with the most damage • Year 3 L3 white grubs colour in April and May completely white and pupate in May • Treatment period in April and May on L3-larvae when the soil temperature contains 15°C.12 May 2011
  • 21. Control of Welsh Chafer (Hoplia philanthus)12 May 2011
  • 22. Black vine weevil (Othiorynchus sulcatus) Fecundity before the end of May Larvae as from June Pupation around May Source: PCS12 May 2011
  • 23. Black vine weevil (Othiorynchus sulcatus) (continued) • Adults around the end of May damage leaves and lay eggs. Eggs come out and become larvae (white grubs), which eat the roots. Pupation occurs around the month of May. • In protected crops the development stages overlap. • Treatment period at soil temperatures above 12 – 15°C – April-May: against pupating larvae – August-September: against larvae which have just come out12 May 2011
  • 24. Others • Summer Chafer: 2-year life cycle, fly in the evening • Cockchafer: 3- or 4-year life cycle • Brown Chafer: 2-year life cycle, treatment period April-July • Pine Chafer: 3 to 4 years12 May 2011
  • 25. Determination • Adults are often not detected which is the reason why identification is done with white grubs • Running white grubs – Phyllopertha horticola – Anomala dubia • Twisting white grubs – Hoplia philanthus (reddish dorsel hair = ) – Melolontha melolontha – Amphimallon solstitiale – etc.12 May 2011
  • 26. Determination Garden Chafer larva (Phyllopertha horticola)12 May 2011
  • 27. Determination Garden Chafer larva12 May 2011
  • 28. Determination Adult Garden Chafer Bron:www.zin.ru Source: Paul Parey12 May 2011
  • 29. Determination Black vine weevil larva12 May 2011
  • 30. Determination Black vine weevil adult12 May 2011
  • 31. Determination Welsh Chafer larva (Hoplia philanthus)12 May 2011
  • 32. Determination Welsh Chafer larve12 May 2011
  • 33. Determination Adult Welsh Chafer Source: Ingrid Altmann Source: Paul Parey12 May 2011
  • 34. Determination Summer Chafer (Amphimallon solstiale)12 May 2011
  • 35. Determination Summer Chafer larve12 May 2011
  • 36. Determination Adult Summer Chafer Source: entomart Source: Paul Parey12 May 2011
  • 37. Determination Cockchafer (Melolontha melolontha)12 May 2011
  • 38. Determination Cockchafer larve12 May 2011
  • 39. Determination Adult Cockchafer Source: Paul Parey12 May 2011
  • 40. Application • Always use an entire packing • Remove all filters from the spray equipment • Use spray caps with a diameter of min. 0.8 mm • Use a good stir installation or return • Apply in the evening or on a cloudy day • Sprinkle the soil before application • Sprinkle after application with 2 to 5 liters per m² (depending on the tatch) • Keep the soil moist during 4 weeks12 May 2011
  • 41. Dosage • Heterorhabditis-System (Heterorhabditis megidis) – Preventive: 0.5 million nematodes/m² – Curative: 1 million nematodes/m² • B-Green (Heterorhabditis bacteriophora) – Curative: 0.5 million nematodes/m²12 May 2011
  • 42. Packing • Heterorhabditis-System: – 50 million – 200 million • B-Green: – 50 million – 500 million12 May 2011

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