Environmental and human factors for the abandonment of settlements
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Environmental and human factors for the abandonment of settlements

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Summary of the main causes of population shrinkage worldwide in the post-industrial era

Summary of the main causes of population shrinkage worldwide in the post-industrial era

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Environmental and human factors for the abandonment of settlements Environmental and human factors for the abandonment of settlements Presentation Transcript

  • ENVIRONMENTAL AND HUMAN FACTORS THAT LEAD TO LEAVE TOWNSFUTURE TREDS, REGARDING CURRENT POPULATION DECLINING AREASFrancisca Molina24 / 04 / 2013
  • In the past two centuries, urban growth hasincreased at a rapid pace, mainly driven bythe demographic impact of industrialization.Besides urban growth, effects ofindustrialization have likewise intensifiedurban shrinkage (decrease).HashimaChernobylPrypiatDetroitSan Zhi, Taipei (Taiwan)Birao (Africa Central)REPOSITORY OFGHOST CITIES,LOST TOWNS ANDREMOTE SETTLEMENTSANCIENT VS. PRESENTLOCATIONS2
  • Cities of the industrial age have: experienced unprecedented economiccrises followed by waves of out-migration; suffered from violent destruction, madepossible by the mechanization of war; they have been drained bysuburbanization driven by an industrializedbuilding sector and increasing private carownership; they have undergone processes ofdeindustrialization followed by losses ofworkplaces and population.INTRODUCTIONKEY WORDS:SHRINKING CITIES-SUBURBANIZATION-DEINDUSTRIALIZATION- URBAN GROWTH3
  • Factors of Abandonments ofSettlements around the World• WORLDWIDE EXEMPLES• MOST RELEVANT CAUSES OF SHRINKING CITIES ANDABANDONEMENT
  • ◦ Considered Unforseeable◦ Earthquakes◦ Unstable slopes◦ Forseeable IN THE LONGTERM by climate changemitigation◦ Floods◦ Hurricanes (Katrina)◦ Stormy coasts◦ Volcanoes (Monserrat)ENVIRONMENTALFACTORSThe Caribbean islandof St. Montserrat,buried in 1995We are entering an erawhere the potential for anenvironmentally migrationof disasters is rising5
  • Human or Antropogenic FactorsINDUSTRIALISATION◦ Leveraging [obtaining] ofresources◦ Mining & Exploitation◦ Resource Depletion(i.e. Coal)◦ De-Industrialisation[decline of Capitalism?]TERRITORY [Land Property]◦ War Conflicts [devastation]◦ [unsustainable] development◦ Housing Oversupply [soaringhousing prices or artificial landboom]REPOSITORY OF GHOST CITIES, LOST TOWNS AND REMOTE SETTLEMENTS6
  • abandonement byNUCLEAR DISASTERSFACTOR: EXPLOITATION OF NATURAL RESOURCES1986 at theChernobyl Nuclear Power Plantin Ukraine(then officially Ukrainian SSR)
  • NUCLEAR DISASTERSFORSEEABLE ORUNFORSEEABLE?Prypiat City8
  • abandonement by1. RESOURCE HARVESTING [OBTENTION]2. DEPLETION OF NATURAL RESOURCES [SHORTAGE]Hashima - Gunkanjima(軍艦島)As coal became obsolete in 1960s Japan, the mines on the island were shut down
  • Harvesting gold or diamondsACTUAL LOCATIONFACTOR:LEVERAGING OFRESOURCES• Rush diamond drillingreflects the wealth• By German miners whosought their fortunesthereGerman imperial gov.jealousAgainst others to get theirloot (diamonds)
  • 1959- one of the mostdensely populated cities withmore than 5,000 inhabitantsHASHIMA:ABANDONED ISLANDOFF THE COAST OFMACAO835 peoplelived on asquare meterand a half ofland perperson.SKYFALL SHOOTING11
  • abandonement byPROCESSES OF DE-INDUSTRIALIZATION
  • With its dependence and traditionalcenter of the automotive industry(companies based General Motors, Fordand Chrysler), the Detroit area is morevulnerable to economic cycles than mostlarge cities.‘Swiss cheese’ pattern ofneighbourhood abandonment800,000 out-migrants since1950s;In red colour:Surface parking lotsand underutilizeddemolished buildingsites shown in red.ACTUAL LOCATION:DETROIT-MOTOR CITYFACTOR:DE-INDUSTRIALIZATION13
  • A rise in car manufacturing using robottechnology, inexpensive labor in other partsof the world, and increased competitionhas led to a transformation of certain typesof jobs in the region. Economy is currently in aprolonged dead spiral:Houses for close, thenabandoned,neighbourhoods died. Accelerated by recession.Deindustrialisation. Increasingunemployment rate inthe metropolitan Detroit Recently localgovernment seeks todemolish abandonedhomes, re-zone land useACTUAL LOCATION:DETROIT-MOTOR CITYFACTOR:DE-INDUSTRIALIZATIONRuins of civilization – A dying city.Listed as the most dangerous city inUSA14
  • reports that a recent landmark survey has foundthat a third of Detroit’s residential parcels areeither vacant lots or abandoned homes.Results portray a city ofcontrasts: deep in distress inmany areas, but surprisinglystrong in others.The survey, found more than30,000 vacant residentialstructures, with more than10,000 of them open totrespass and in dangerouscondition.ACTUAL LOCATION:DETROIT-MOTOR CITYFACTOR:DE-INDUSTRIALIZATIONJohn Gallagher, Detroit Free Pressresults provided by the Detroit Data Collaborative15
  • Solutions?to do something about the city’s plan to formally abandon these neighborhoods byturning them into something more fun and constructivehttp://www.digitaltrends.com/lifestyle/abandoned-parts-of-detroit-may-be-turned-into-a-zombie-theme-park/ABANDONEDPARTS OFDETROIT MAY BETURNED INTO AZOMBIE THEMEPARK!!!That should give you a taste of what the show is likeDetroit Dry Docks complex16
  • ABANDONEMENT BY WAR CONFLICTSAND HISTORICAL MEMORIES17
  • But in 2007 came to the town rebelsbrought violence and destruction againstgovernment troops, leaving Birao almostcompletely burned to the ground.Only a few years agoBirao served as the capitalof Vakaga, one of the 14prefectures of the CentralAfrican Republic.ANCIENT LOCATIONFACTOR:WAR/BELIC CONFLICTSBirao, prefecture of Central African Republic
  • MEMORIES FROM THE PASTCommemorate sites where◦ WWII battles took place,◦ Concentration camps stood.Convey powerful visualimpact to show theconfidence and strength ofthe Socialist Republic.Abandoned YugoslaviaMonuments that look liketheyre from the Future:These structures werecommissioned by formerYugoslavian president in the1960s and 70s toIn the 1980s, thesemonuments attractedmillions of visitors per year.After the Republic dissolvedin early 1990s, they werecompletely abandoned,and their symbolic meaningswere forever lost.ANCIENT LOCATIONFACTOR:WAR MEMORIES LOST19
  • ABANDONEMENT BY OTHER PHENOMENA20
  • A mysterious series ofaccidents led this would-betourist town to go unusedupon its completion.Further, regional beliefs alsokept the abandonedsettlement from demolished- for fear of angering spiritsdwelling in the complex.ANCIENT LOCATIONFACTOR:SOCIAL FEARFULNESSSan Zhi, Taipei (Taiwan)Abandoned settlement onthe outskirts / sububs21
  • HOUSING BUBBLE STILLBURSTING IN SPAINVALDELUZ CITY(GUADALAJARA)• Stop on the high speed rail• Built to house 30,000people;• only 1,000 people took upresidence.SESEÑA (TOLEDO)Apartments selling:• 2008 - 221,000 €• 2013 -65,000 € (marketsfloors below cost sinceMarch 2012)Due to the economicdownturn, never finished22
  • MACROURBANIZATIONSDespite the scarce population, the town is a reminder of theeconomic downturn and how easy it is for towns to be abandoned.Not even entirely populated areaCauses: Due to the changes inState Land Legislation: 1996–2008PRESENT LOCATIONVALDELUZ CITYFACTOR:UNSUSTAINABLEDWELLING SITESOur national currentlycause – PRIORITY23
  • Consequencies: As a result, theconstruction sector, encouraged by theresidential-infrastructure tandem, steadilyincreased its share of the Spanish GDP.’‘YOUR HOPES MEETOUR HOPES MEET OURSEVERY DAY’Valdeluz City (Guadalajara suburb near Madrid)24
  • ‘Current trends in population growthand global environmental change willresult coming decades to◦ population displacements,◦ forced migrations, and◦ abandonment of settlementson scales previously unseen.’McLeman, 2011:CONCLUSIONS25
  • Development of Artificial LandPotential for environmentallyrelated migration is rising.Population growth rates arehighest in regions where are acute:• resource depletion,• land degradation,• and the expected impacts ofanthropogenic climatechange.As the number of settlementsexperiencing a heightened stateof vulnerability grows, increasingnumbers of people will undertakeadaptive migration. In somelocations this will lead topopulation declinePRESENT LOCATIONFACTOR:POPULATIONGROWTHCity ofAlmereHOLLAND
  • ‘In the context of the long time-scale, theabandonment of inhabited locations maybe seen as just one stage in the ongoingcycle of human settlement and land use.’Stage 1 Rising vulnerabilityStage 2 Population declineStage 3 AbandonmentCameron, 1993:PROCESS OFABANDONMENT27
  • Overexploitation Resource Depletion(i.e. Coal)Soaring housing pricesor artificial land boom Housing OversupplyCOMMUN FACTORSOF ABANDONEMENTOPINIONAs an architect, I thinkthe old abandonedsites after thehegemony of theindustrial age shouldbe preserved ascultural heritage.28
  • WHAT CAN YOU DO AS A CITIZEN?ACTIVE CITIZEN - TOP 7 WEBSITESFOR CREATING THE FUTURE CITYA collaborativeplatform for sharingideas about:◦ urban development,◦ urban transformation,◦ engage in dialoguesGIVE A MINUTE,EIGHBOURLAND, THE CITY 2.0,WALKONOMICS, WALK YOURCITY, SPACEHIVEA crowdfundingplatform forneighborhoodimprovement projects.LEARNING CITIZEN – BOOKS,ARTICLESI. R. Register. Ecocities-Rebuilding Cities inBalance with Nature.2006, New SocietyPublishersII. R.A. McLemanSettlementabandonment in thecontext of globalenvironmental change.Global EnvironmentalChange (2011)III. Pérez, J.M.G. The RealEstate and EconomicCrisis: An Opportunity forUrban Return andRehabilitation Policies inSpain.Sustainability 2010, 2,1571-1601.29
  • What can we do with our abandonedairports and thematic centres that carrypublic debts that will last for decades tothe citizenship?OUR PARTICULARABANDONEDINFRASTRUCTURESUNCOMPLETEDLARGE-SCALEENDEAVOURSCulture City (GALICIA)30