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Chapter 7 gas chromatograph
Chapter 7 gas chromatograph
Chapter 7 gas chromatograph
Chapter 7 gas chromatograph
Chapter 7 gas chromatograph
Chapter 7 gas chromatograph
Chapter 7 gas chromatograph
Chapter 7 gas chromatograph
Chapter 7 gas chromatograph
Chapter 7 gas chromatograph
Chapter 7 gas chromatograph
Chapter 7 gas chromatograph
Chapter 7 gas chromatograph
Chapter 7 gas chromatograph
Chapter 7 gas chromatograph
Chapter 7 gas chromatograph
Chapter 7 gas chromatograph
Chapter 7 gas chromatograph
Chapter 7 gas chromatograph
Chapter 7 gas chromatograph
Chapter 7 gas chromatograph
Chapter 7 gas chromatograph
Chapter 7 gas chromatograph
Chapter 7 gas chromatograph
Chapter 7 gas chromatograph
Chapter 7 gas chromatograph
Chapter 7 gas chromatograph
Chapter 7 gas chromatograph
Chapter 7 gas chromatograph
Chapter 7 gas chromatograph
Chapter 7 gas chromatograph
Chapter 7 gas chromatograph
Chapter 7 gas chromatograph
Chapter 7 gas chromatograph
Chapter 7 gas chromatograph
Chapter 7 gas chromatograph
Chapter 7 gas chromatograph
Chapter 7 gas chromatograph
Chapter 7 gas chromatograph
Chapter 7 gas chromatograph
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Chapter 7 gas chromatograph

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Transcript

  • 1. Chapter 7 Gas Chromatograph
    • 7.1 Introduction to Interphase Separations
    • Interphase Separations
    Mixed Substances Separated Components Stationary Phase Mobile Phase
  • 2. 2. Classification of Chromatography Instrumentation
    • By the types of mobile phase & stationary phase
    • Gas - Liquid GLC
    • Gas - Solid GSC
    • Liquid - Liquid LLC
    • Liquid - Solid LSC
  • 3.
    • By stationary’s forms
    • Column
    • Paper
    • thin layer
    • By separation mechanism
    • absorption
    • partition
    • exchange
  • 4. 3. Typical GCS Progresses Carrier gas Column Injector Sample Detector Chromatogram
  • 5. 7.2 Principle of GC
    • 1. The Interphase Partition of One Substance
    C(m) C(s) (1) Partition Coefficient K 7-1
  • 6. (2) Partition Ratio k p, q : mass fraction in the stationary and mobile phase k : Partition Ratio or Capacity factor  : phase ratio 7-2 7-3 7-4
  • 7. 2.Theoretical Plate (1) Some common relationship (2) Theoretical Plate Model:
    • Height Equivalent to a Theoretical Plate(HETP)
    • Gas Flow rate is 1 plate Volume per time
    • K is a constant
    • Sample come into the plate only by the plate No. 0
    7-5
  • 8.  
  • 9.  
  • 10. Binomial distributing 7-7 7-6
  • 11. 3. Export Curve Equation
    • Export Curve Equation
    • (Gauss distribution)
    7-8
  • 12. (2) The Shape of Export curve t m (t air ): unreteined time t R : retention time T’ R : adjusted retention time V m (V air ): unreteined volume V R : retention volume V’ R : adjusted retention volume
  • 13. h: Peak of zone  : Standard deviation Y: Width of zone Y 1/2 : Half peak width 7-9 7-10 7-11 7-12 7-13
  • 14. (3) The Number of theoretical plate and HETP L: length of the column 7-14 7-15 7-15 7-17
  • 15. 4.Van Deemter Equation
    • u : velocity of the carrier gas
    • A, B and C are the constants for a given system
    7-18
  • 16. 7.3 Separation of Components
    • Separation for tow components
    • (1) Resolution R
    (2) Separation Factor 7-19 7-20
  • 17. 2. Separation Equation of GC Assume: Y 1 =Y 2 =Y, k 1 ≈k 2 =k 7-21 7-22 7-23
  • 18. 3. Three Separation factor (1) Column effect factor n (2) Capacity factor k (3) Selective factor 
  • 19. 4. The Choice of experimental qualification (1) Flow rate of carrier gas 7-24 7-25 7-26 7-27
  • 20. (2) Column temperature
    • (3) Column types
    • Stationary type
    • Stationary Liquid and Temperature
    • Supporter
    (4) Injection time and volume 300 ~ 400 ℃ 200 ~ 300 ℃ 100 ~ 200℃ high mid low
  • 21. 7.4 GC Instrument
  • 22.
    • Gas Supply
    Carrier Argon Carrier Helium Carrier Nitrogen Carrier, Fuel gas Hydrogen Function Type
  • 23. 2. Sample Injector
  • 24. 3. Column System
    • (1)Capillary GC Columns
  • 25. (2) stationary phases Polysiloxanes
  • 26. 4. Detector (1) Two Kinds of Detectors
    • Thermal conductivity detector (TCD)
    While equilibrium: R 1 R 3 =R 2 R 4
  • 27. Electron capture detector (ECD)
  • 28. Flame ionization detector (FID)
  • 29.  
  • 30. Flame photometric detector (FPD)
  • 31. (2) Behavior of Detector
    • Sensitivity
    a) for concentration types 7-28 7-29 7-30
  • 32. b) For mass types
    • Detect limit
    N: noise of detector(mV) A: area of the signal 7-31 7-32 7-33
  • 33.
    • Minimum detect quantity Q 0
    • Response time
    • Linear response range
    For mass: For concentration: 7-34 7-35 7-36
  • 34. 7.5 Qualitative analysis
    • Comparison with pure maters
    • Work as a part of analysis system
    • GC-IR GC-MS
    • 3. Retention Index
  • 35.  
  • 36.  
  • 37. 7.6 Quantitative analysis
    • Quantitative Equation
    • For same detector, different substance have different response sensitivity.
    Is called as Quantitative correction factor The equation Is Quantitative Equation. 7-37 7-38
  • 38. 2. Determination of zone area (1) By calculation (2) Numerical integral by computer (3) By instrumental integral
  • 39. 3. Normalization Methods
    • Assume the zones of every substance m j in sample have obtained, so:
    7-39
  • 40. 4. Internal standard Methods
    • Use a internal standard sample its mass is a constant known as m s and its zone area is A s
    7-40 7-41

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