Essential Fish Habitats

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World Fisheries Congress 2008

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Essential Fish Habitats

  1. 1. Subsession 7e: Ecosystem and habitat assessment and management Preserving Sensitive and Essential Fish Habitats in the Mediterranean: a valuable tool for the maintenance of biodiversity and fisheries The case of the Balearic Islands Joan MORANTA, Francesc ORDINES, Enric MASSUTÍ, Beatriz GUIJARRO, Antoni QUETGLAS,  Maria VALLS, Biel POMAR, Michel J. KAISER Maria VALLS Biel POMAR Michel J KAISER Spanish Institute of Oceanography Palma de Mallorca, Balearic Islands, Spain School of Ocean Science Menai Bridge, Anglesey, UK
  2. 2. Preserving SH and EFH in the MED: a valuable tool for the maintenance of biodiversity and fisheries. The case of the Balearic Islands Contents 1. Ecosystem-Based Fisheries Management 1 E t B d Fi h i M t a. Impact of Trawling on Species and Habitats b a e o ec ed eas b. Marine Protected Areas 2. What Happens Beyond 50 m Depth? 3. 3 The International Bottom Trawl MEDITS Programme 4. The Circalittoral Soft Bottoms of the Balearic Shelf 5. 5 Conclusions
  3. 3. 1. Ecosystem-Based Fisheries Management : Linking species, habitats and fisheries g p , Seagrass Bare sandy/mud Bottoms Habitats Estuaries Coral reefs Rocky bottoms Throughout their lives fish species may use many different habitats to support breeding, spawning, nursery, feeding and protection functions. Fisheries are i Fi h i inextricably li k d t t i bl linked to h lth healthy marine i habitats; protecting them will help to support species conservation but also the activity of fishing communities.
  4. 4. 1a. Impact of Trawling on Species and Habitats Bottom t B tt trawling i one of th most d li is f the t damaging gears d i due t th amount of to the t f discards and habitat destruction (MED: Multi-specific fishery). Number of species: 100≤X≤300 (~100 of commercial interest) p ( ) Amount of discards: 20≤X≤70 % of the catch % of discards b d th i diff f di d by depth in different ports t t Port Fuengirola Santa Pola Valencia Palma Alcúdia Al údi Pisa Vilanova Mallorca Vilanova Average Year 1995-96 1995-96 1995-96 1995-96 1995-96 1995-96 1995-96 1996-97 1996 97 1995-96 <150 m 45 23 23 69 55 32 48 63 45 151-350 m 55 56 27 62 44 21 17 19 38 >350 m) 42 24 21 19 14 22 22 42 19 25
  5. 5. 1a. Impact of Trawling on Species and Habitats Bottom t B tt trawling i one of th most d li is f the t damaging gears d i due t th amount of to the t f discards and habitat destruction (MED: Multi-specific fishery). Number of species: 100≤X≤300 (~100 of commercial interest) p ( ) Amount of discards: 20≤X≤70 % of the catch Sampling on Board (Mallorca 2001-2007) Mean Biomass Discards Composition 1200 100 1000 Percen ntage (%) 80 Tons 800 600 400 40 20 200 0 60 SS Discards DS US Fishing Tactic Landings MS Pisces 0 Algae g Echinoidea SS DS US Fishing Tactic Crustacea Mollusca MS Others SS: shallow shelf (50-100 m) DS: deep shelf (101-200 m) US: upper slope (201-500 m) MS: middle slope (501-800 m)
  6. 6. 1b. The Marine Protected Areas Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) have become valuable management tools around the world for conserving the nation's natural and cultural marine resources as part of an ecosystem approach to management. Many types of MPAs for many purposes exist, including conservation of natural and cultural heritage, and also sustainable production.
  7. 7. 1b. The Marine Protected Areas © www.medpan.org p g Slovenia UK (Gibraltar) Lebanon Cyprus yp Israel Malta Algeria Syria Tunisia Morocco Croatia Turkey France Spain Gr c Greece Italy ~100 MPAs (17 countries) ~9 million he (~4% of the area) Source: www.medpan.org ww.mpaglobal.org Only the Sanctuary of Cetaceans (Ligurian Sea) covers ~8 million he (90% of MPAs) 8 Most MPAs are coastal and are located below 50 m depth 0 5 10 15 20 Percentage of MPA 25 30 Most MPAs only exits on paper, protection never enforced
  8. 8. 2. What Happens Beyond 50 m Depth? Europe (RE 1967/2006) Current Legislation g Trawling National (Spanish legislation APA/79/2006) Seagrass: 3 Nm/<50 m (Posidonia oceanica) Coralligenous habitats Maërl beds >1000 m According STECF1 other Sensitive Habitats (SH) have been identified: Coastal L C t l Lagoons, seamonts and submarine canyons t d b i Facies of the crinoid Leptometra phalangium, the cnidarian Funiculina quadrangularis and the gorgonian Isidella elongata Deep-sea Deep sea coral mounts with colonies of the scleractinian Lophelia pertusa and Madrepora oculata Some of this habitats has been identified as Essential Fish Habitats (EFH) ( ) (P. oceanica1, Maërl beds1,2, L. phalangium1,2) and Peysonellia beds2 Little is know about these Habitats (1)Report Location? of the SGMED of the Scientific, Technical and Economic Committee for Fisheries (2006). F & Massutí E. Aquatic Conserv: Mar. Freshw. Ecosyst. DOI: 10.1002/aqc.969 (2008). (3)Colloca F et al. Mar. Biol. 145, 1129-1142 (2004). (2)Ordines
  9. 9. 3. The International Bottom Trawl MEDITS Programme The international MEDITS b tt Th i t ti l bottom t trawl surveys d l developed along th l d l the northern MED countries could represents a very good opportunity to extend the classic objectives of fisheries management, for which MEDITS programme was promoted to a more EAFM promoted, EAFM.
  10. 10. 4. The Circalittoral Soft Bottoms of the Balearic Shelf (WMED): High Biodiversity Habitats ( ) g y MEDTIS_ES 2001-2008 (483 samples) Source: Acosta 2005 Mallorca-Menorca GOC73 R/V F. P. Navarro Eivissa-Formentera Cluster A l i Cl t Analysis R/V Cornide de Saavedra Macro Epi-benthic species of the Continental Shelf (279 samples) Shallow Shelf (50-90 m) Deep Shelf (91-255 m) Crinoid beds CB PB Peyssonnelia beds MB Maërl beds Sandy-mud b tt S d d bottoms DSM1 Sandy-mud bottoms Sandy-mud bottoms DSM2 SSM
  11. 11. 4. The Circalittoral Soft Bottoms of the Balearic Shelf (WMED): High Biodiversity Habitats ( ) g y Percentage Kilograms*K -2 Km Total Number of Species Shallow 42 40 38 10 500 400 Deep 300 200 100 0 14000 12000 10000 5000 4000 3000 2000 1000 0 Total Number of Species TAXON Algae Molluscs Crustaceans Equinoderms Ascidians Chondrichthyes Teleosts Other invertebrates PS PB 58 67 38 31 50 19 85 67 MB 27 51 25 27 38 18 61 46 SSM 28 49 24 32 39 10 73 54 268 151 12 309 100 335 2143 51.4 DSM1 DSM2 22 10 24 18 11 59 16 37 28 27 16 15 75 32 43 23 27 15 12 79 40 46 5 650 17 319 1779 38 58 4 99 4 212 1812 21 49 5 159 3 479 1532 48 CB Mean Biomass (Kg km-2) (Kg*km PS MB SSM CB DSM1 DSM2 PB Relative Biomass Composition 8 6 4 2 0 Non-Commercial Commercial Pelagic Fish Algae Molluscs Crustaceans Equinoderms Ascidians Chondrichthyes Teleosts Other invertebrates 5304 331 29 4682 366 426 1399 351 1451 365 10 815 72 427 733 70
  12. 12. 4. The Circalittoral Soft Bottoms of the Balearic Shelf (WMED): High Biodiversity Habitats ( ) g y Demersal Resources and Habitats MB RDA Axi 2 is Shallow Shelf Deep Shelf RDA Axis 2 PB CB RDA Axis 1
  13. 13. 5. Conclusions I. I The Balearic shelf i th WMED i characterised b th occurrence of Th B l i h lf in the is h t i d by the f high biodiversity areas, which has been classified as SH and/or EFH. II. These habitats are characterised by the presence of “foundation species” which increase the structural complexity of the habitat and support high number of species and biomass. Most of the commercial species present high abundance, biomass and number of recruits in these habitats. III. III The occurrence of SH and EFH in the continental shelf of the MED MED, highlight the need of an ecosystem-based assessment and management of the trawling fishery developed in the area. IV. There is a need for a greater effort to know the localization and bathymetric distribution of these habitats in the MED. The international MEDITS surveys could represents an excellent opportunity for this purpose. V. The study of these habitats requires a more appropriate methodologies for better characterise the biodiversity (beam trawl and box-core) and non-destructive methods for mapping (acoustic sonar, photographvideo sledges).
  14. 14. 5. Conclusions VI. VI An spatially adapted management could be useful to preserve these habitats in those areas where precise cartography exist. In other areas, in accordance with the principle of precaution, and due to the lack of knowledge related with these habitats it should be advisable to extend habitats, the prohibition of trawling on the continental shelf down to 100 m depth. VII. The VII Th availability of th d t obtained f il bilit f the data bt i d from th V the Vessel M it i l Monitoring S t System is completely necessary for an adequate scientific advise and management. VIII.This management strategy could be useful to avoid spatial p competence for the resources and will enhance the captures of more traditional gears (artisanal and recreational) which could allow the ld ll h conservation of the SH and EFH in the MED.

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