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  • 1. Persuasive Writing
  • 2. Quickwrite: What is your experience with writing persuasive essays?  If you have never written one, have you ever tried to convince someone to act a certain way or do something?  If so, what techniques did you use? What kind of argument did you make?
  • 3. Persuasive Writing  In persuasive writing, a writer takes a position FOR or AGAINST an issue and writes to convince the reader to BELIEVE or DO something.
  • 4. Where do you find Persuasive Writing?  In advertisements to get the reader to buy a product  In newspapers, magazines, essays and other texts to get the reader to accept a point of view  In speeches, petitions, and political cartoons to convince readers to believe a certain political viewpoint  On blogs, webpages, and social media sites to convince the reader to subscribe to or follow the author
  • 5. Examples of Persuasive Writing  Editorials  Essays  Advertisements  Speeches  Petitions  Political Cartoons  Editorial Letters  Blogs  Tweets  Facebook  Advice Columns
  • 6. What are some topics that you make argue or debate over?  Examples:  Students should be required to go to school all year.  The United States troops should leave Iraq.  Come up with at least 5 topics that have opposing views that interest you.
  • 7. Persuasive Arguments Should have the following:  A claim  Evidence Supporting the claim (reasons)  An opposing viewpoint with counter- arguments  A conclusion
  • 8. Making a Claim  A writer must express an opinion to turn a topic into a claim. For example, if your topic is “school start time,” then a possible claim could be “school should start later in the day.” Remember that your claim has to be arguable, meaning it needs to have at least two sides.
  • 9. Thesis statements or claims avoid the following: • the first person (I believe, In my opinion, etc.) • unclear language (It seems, etc.) • attempting two topics at once (even if they seem related). Pick one and stick with it. • just stating a fact - A thesis is something you plan to make an argument about.
  • 10. Claim Opposing Viewpoints School should start later in the day. FOR Starting later will allow more sleep for students. Rested students are good students. AGAINST Starting later will take away time from after-school activities. Example:
  • 11. Now you write a Thesis Statement Step 1: TOPIC State the topic under consideration: dogs
  • 12. Now you write a Thesis Statement Step 2: ISSUE State the specific issue in the form of a debating proposition (for something). The issue usually answers the question “what?” What about dogs? Dogs should be subject to leash laws. Dogs make great pets.
  • 13. Now you write a Thesis Statement Step 3: Position + Rationale ( because- clause) Your topic and issue = your position. Now, using a because-clause. Dogs should be subject to leash laws because they are natural wanderers.
  • 14. Persuasive Techniques People aren’t always logical. Emotion can play a key role in decision- making. That’s why writers and speakers use persuasive techniques, or methods that are intended to sway people’s feelings and actions.  Appeals by Association  Emotional Appeals  Loaded Appeals
  • 15. Appeals by Association  Link an idea or a product to something or someone positive or influential  Bandwagon Appeal  Taps into people’s desire to belong  Testimonial  Uses celebrities or satisfied customers to persuade  Transfer  Connects a product, a candidate, or a cause with a positive image or idea
  • 16. Emotional Appeals  Use strong feelings, rather than facts, to persuade  Appeal to Pity  Taps into people’s compassion for others  Appeal to Fear  Preys upon people’s fear for their safety  Appeal to Vanity  Uses flattery to win people over
  • 17. Loaded Language  Uses words with strongly positive or negative associations  Words with Positive Associations  Call up favorable images, feelings, or experiences  Words with Negative Associations  May bring t0 mind unpleasant images, feelings, or experiences; often create a sense of distrust or unease
  • 18. Practice  Now you will analyze the following persuasive arguments. Remember to ask yourself the following questions:
  • 19. Purpose:  What is the writer’s purpose for writing this argument? Why does the writer want to convince the audience to accept the claim?
  • 20. Audience:  To whom is the letter written? To whom do the reasons and evidence seem targeted? How do you know?
  • 21. Support:  What facts, examples, and personal experiences are presented?
  • 22. Organization:  What do you notice about the structure of the essay? How does it begin? What is included in the body paragraphs? How does the essay end?
  • 23. Get Started  What is your topic or idea?  What claim are you making about this idea?  What is your thesis statement or topic sentence?  What evidence do you have to support your claim?  Do you have an argument against an opposing viewpoint?  How will you wrap up or conclude your argument?  Do you have an action you want the reader to take?
  • 24. Organizing the Essay  Topic sentence: Statement of a reason to support your claim.  Evidence: Examples to support the claim (facts, details, stories, etc.).  Commentary: Explanation of the significance of the evidence or the connection to the claim (reasoning).  Counter-Argument: An argument acknowledging and defending against an opposing viewpoint.  Conclusion: Wrapping up the argument and restatement of the claim.
  • 25. Concluding a Persuasive Essay When generating a conclusion for a persuasive essay, writers should do the following:  Wrap up the argument.  Restate the claim.  Provide a new appeal to needs or values.  Add additional commentary.  Ask for readers to take action or change thinking.  Refrain from repeating information.
  • 26. Directions 1. Establish a position: Decide what your opinion is. Are you for or against mandatory recycling? 2. Create a thesis statement: Make a claim and include several key facts to support your claim. 3. Identify Supporting Evidence: What evidence supports your claim? Use specific evidence and cite where you found it. 4. Consider alternatives: What is the counter argument? How will you defend against an opposing viewpoint? 5. Include a Conclusion: Wrap-up your argument. Restate your claim and summarize briefly any important ideas. Ask readers to take action. 6. Revise and Edit: Does your essay follow guidelines given? Did you check the rubric?
  • 27. Persuasive Essay: Revision Checklist 1. Issue/Topic • Are there multiple viewpoints surrounding this issue? 2. Claim • Does the claim have a topic and opinion? • Does the writer give reasons for making the claim? 3. Support • What facts, statistics, examples, and personal experiences are used? • Does the writer use sound reasoning and relevant details? • Is the evidence relevant, accurate, current, and typical? 4. Audience • To whom do the reasons, evidence, appeals, and examples seem to be targeted? • Are the above appropriate for the intended audience? 5. Opposing Viewpoints • Does the writer address opposing viewpoints clearly, fairly, and completely? • Does the writer acknowledge and refuse opposing viewpoints with logic and relevant evidence? 6. Conclusion • Does the writer conclude the argument effectively?