The Creators Developed by Irene Fountas and Gay Su Pinnell They both originally worked in Reading Recovery (early intervention one-to-one tutoring) In 1996 they introduced a systematic approach to small-group reading instruction in their first text, Guided Reading: Good First Teaching for All Students. In 2005 they created the Leveled Literacy Intervention System
The System Produced by Heinneman Publishers Emphasizes phonological awareness and phonics, fluency, comprehension, oral language skills, and vocabulary. Utilizes authentic texts to motivate students and maintain attention
Leveled Literacy Intervention(LLI) Who: Administered to a small group of 3-4 students Designed for kindergarten to second grade students When: Instructional class time of 30-45 minutes every day For a duration of 14-20 weeks Home component as well What: Considered an intervention because it is to be taught in addition to regular curriculum reading instruction.
Materials The LLI materials are based around a series of “leveled” texts (i.e. texts of progressing difficulty) with difficulty measured by the Fountas and Pinnell text gradient system that they have established. Comes with detailed teaching guide and lesson script
How it is implemented? The first ten days are structured to establish a routine The group will begin with a lap book for shared reading and then the students read the same text in a little book. The lessons then move on to comprehension discussions, shared writing, word work, and homework.
Structured Lesson Format Everyday: 10 minutes is allocated to phonemic awareness/discrimination and phonics At least 5 minutes are reserved for oral rereading of texts Every other day in each ten-lesson sequence, students write for 15 minutes.
Home-school literacyconnection Students are given a specific word study or writing activity to do at home Given a Take-Home Book version of every book they read in their lessons. These are black-and-white versions of the books and are inexpensive so students can keep them. Children and their families can build a home collection of books that the children can read aloud and practice.
Cost The average cost per student is $84.79, based on 4 groups of 3 students for two different 18 week sessions. The replacement cost per student is $29.24 (take home bags, little books, and writing books). Each grade level System is priced as a package and is inclusive of all materials necessary for instructional intervention of 3 students per group. The online prices for the sets are as follows: LLI (Kindergarten)Orange - $1,635 LLI (Grade 1) Green - $2,500 LLI (Grade 2) Blue - $2,835 LLI (Grade 3) Red -$4,500
Research and Results The Center for Research and Educational Policy (CREP) at University of Memphis conducted two independent evaluations of LLI. In the first study, pre-LLI tests showed only 5% of the students reading at grade level on the Gates-MacGinitie Reading test, while post-LLI tests showed 34% of students reading at grade level (Harrison, Grehan, Ross, & Inan, 2007). In the second study, a randomized control- group study, LLI students in grades K-2 gained more in reading, as measured by the Benchmark Assessment and/or DIBELS, than students in the control group (Ransford- Kaldon, 2010).
The Future Currently, Fountas & Pinnell is working with children’s writers and illustrators to create texts to extend LLI Leveled Literacy Intervention will be extended through the publication of four more systems to serve students across the upper elementary grades and middle school. According to Fountas & Pinnell, their ultimate goal is “to create engaging texts that students can read and that also offer age appropriate material”
ReferencesFountas, Irene C., Gay Su Pinnell, and Heinemann. "The Fountas & Pinnell Story."Heinemann. 2011. Web. 23 Nov. 2012.<http://www.heinemann.com/fountasandpinnell/FountasPinnellStory.pdf>.National Institute of Child Health and Human Development. (2000). Report of theNational Reading Panel. Teaching children to read: an evidence-basedassessment of the scientific research literature on reading and its implications forreading instruction. Web. 23 Nov. 2012<http://www.nichd.nih.gov/publications/nrp/smallbook.htm>.Ransford-Kaldon, C. R., E. S. Flynt, C. L. Ross, L. Franceschini, T. Zoblotsky & Y.Huang. 2011. “Implementation of Effective Intervention: An Empirical Study toEvaluate the Efficacy of Fountas & Pinnell’s Leveled Literacy Intervention Program(LLI), 2009–2010.” Memphis, TN: University of Memphis Center for Research inEducational Policy. Web. 2 Dec. 2012 <http://www.heinemann.com/fountasandpinnell/research/LLIEfficacyStudyReport2010.pdf>.Research base for leveled literacy intervention. Heinemann. (2011). Web. 2 Dec.2012 <http://www.heinemann.com/fountasandpinnell/researchLLI.aspx>.