Cosmetology and nails


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Cosmetology and nails

  1. 1. Cosmetology and Nails Reviewed by Hala Aly Ibrahim Lecturer Of Dermatology & Venereology
  2. 2. Healthy Nails Anatomy & Physiology
  3. 3. Nail Histology
  4. 4. Nail Plate Growth  Complete growth for the nail plate to replace itself from the time it is formed at the root until it reaches beyond the finger tip needs 57 months.
  5. 5. Nail Regeneration If:  Nail plate is injured & falls off→ replaced at normal growth rate.  Nail matrix is destroyed→ nail plate won’t grow.  Nail matrix is damaged →distorted newly growing nail plate.
  6. 6. I - Factors Determining Nail Beauty a. b. c. d. The Shape of the Nail Nail texture Nail Colour Periungual tissue
  7. 7. a. The Shape of the Nail
  8. 8. b. The texture of the nail
  9. 9. c. Nail Colour
  10. 10. Causes of nail discoloration     External factors. Degenerative changes. Drugs. Systemic diseases.
  11. 11. d. Periungual Tissue
  12. 12. a. General health care measures  Chemicals & repeated wetting & drying should be avoided  Cutting the nails [(wet) - magic ratio]  Shaping the nails (dry)  Splits and cracks & hang nails  Nail health supplements
  13. 13. b. Nail Care Items Instruments i. Instruments:  Tools  Sanitary practice:  Sanitation  Disinfection  Sterilization Cosmetics
  14. 14. ii. Nail Cosmetics:  Nail Cosmetic Products       Nail polishes Polish removers Basecoats & topcoats Nail Hardeners Conditioners & Buffering creams Cuticle remover  Artificial nails
  15. 15. Artificial Nails  These are used as a substitute for nails in individuals desiring long attractive nails, but whose own nails are abnormal in appearance or break easily.  Types:     Sculptured Preformed Nail mending or wrapping kits Gel Systems
  16. 16. Sculptured Artificial Nails  Replace deteriorated nail plate  Lengthen & decorate normal nail plate  The polymer is clear so can be used for men
  17. 17. Preformed Plastic Nails     Used as full nails or tips Fixed with adhesives e.g. cyanoacrylate Need some normal nail for attachment Don’t leave for more than 2 days at a time
  18. 18. Nail Mending or Wrapping Kits Act as a splint for a partially fractured nail plate
  19. 19. Gel Nails  Acrylic-based material used as caps over natural nails of persons having trouble growing their own nails (chipping, cracking & peeling) e.g. nail biters
  20. 20. Adverse Effects of Nail Cosmetic Procedures a. Nail instrument damage:  Misuse of nail instruments is potentially far more damaging to the nail than are many cosmetic preparations. Traumatic injuries may cause not only infection but also chipping, splitting, breaking, onycholysis and even Beau’s lines
  21. 21. b. Reactions to cosmetics applied to the nails:  Nail polish:  Nail polish dermatitis: Dermatitis of allergic origin can appear in any part of the body accesible to the nails, but usually with no signs in the nail apparatus except for the periungual area in some cases.
  22. 22. Diagnostic skin patch testing with a battery of nail enamel components should be performed without occlusive covering, or with dry enamel film to avoid false positive reactions from the solvents.
  23. 23. Nail plate staining: Deeper shades of red and brown nail enamel may cause mild staining of nail keratin. This is self-limiting as new nail growth appears. The stain can be avoided by using a basecoat.
  24. 24. Granulation of nail keratin In persons who apply fresh coats of enamel on top of old ones for several weeks. It results in superficial NP friability. It may be avoided by keeping the nail free of cosmetic agents for a few days.
  25. 25. Onycholysis Nail enamel and related products reduce but do not eliminate vapour exchange from nail bed to the environment rarely causing onycholysis.
  26. 26.  Nail polish removers:  Acetone, ethylacetate or similar organic solvents dehydrate the NP and decrease corneocyte adhesion, contributing to brittleness. They also remove lipids from the NP & cause inflammation of the paronychial area. Rarely, irritant and allergic contact dermatitis, blistering and onycholysis may occur.
  27. 27.  Artificial Nails:  Spontaneous separation of the natural NP from its bed  Peeling and transverse splitting of the nail  Contact dermatitis resulting in onycholysis and subungual hyperkeratosis  May potentiate infectious complications
  28. 28. Summary  The art of nail care is a common demand among most health oriented individuals.  It is a mistake for the physician to view a patient’s complaint of unattractive nails as too trivial for medical consideration.  The proper understanding of nail anatomy & physiology is a baseline request.
  29. 29.  In addition, a sound insight on conventional nail care procedures as well as nail care products will help to overcome any unappealing cosmetic defect.
  30. 30.  Dystrophic, absent or diseased nails (particularly were only few are involved, can be improved cosmetically with nail care regimen, added colors or artificial nails.  Dermatologists are well advised to recognize such means for achieving a psychologic lift in their patients.
  31. 31.  Factors causing cosmetic nail derangement  Developmental and hereditary nail disorders  Physical or chemical trauma  Diseases  Systemic  Cutaneous  Psychological  Tumours  Medications  Topical  Systemic
  32. 32. Infection of nail unit 1.Nail fold (paronychia):  Acute: Bacterial : (staph), Viral: herpetic whitlow honey-comb)  Chronic: (Candida with superadded bacteria)  2.nail plate (onychia)
  33. 33. Tumours  Benign: • • • • • • • Warts. Myxoid cyst (synovial ). Subungual exostosis. Nevus Junctional N. in matrix….band). Pyogenic granuloma. Fibromata (tuberous sclerosis). Glomus tumour
  34. 34. Malignant  SCC  Malignant melanoma usually follows pigmented nail band.  Lymphoma