Ball and socket joint
Weight bearing joint
between the femur and acetabulum of
2. Acetabular labrum
Ligament of the head of the femur
Transverse ligament of the acetabulum
thin sac of tissue that contains fluid to lubricate the
area and reduce friction that occurs between muscles,
tendons, and bones
E.g. greater trochanteric bursa
can get inflammed(trochanteric bursitis) producing Lateral Superficial
hip pain that may radiate down the lateral aspect of the thigh, Usually
aggravated when lying on the side at night
Surrounding Vital Structures:
All of the nerves that travel down the thigh pass by the hip. The main nerves
are the femoral nerve in front and the sciatic nerve in back of the hip. A
smaller nerve, called the obturator nerve, also goes to the hip
Blood Vessel & Blood Supply of the Joint
femoral artery passes by the front of the hip area, and has a deep branch,
called the profunda femoris. The profunda femoris sends two vessels that
go through the hip joint capsule.
Lateral & Medial femoral circumflex arteries
These vessels are the main blood supply for the femoral head,
the ligamentum teres (Ligament of the head of the femur) contains a
small blood vessel hat gives a very small supply of blood to the top of
Hip Joint Pain:
- Groin pain that may radiate to the Ant. Thigh & knee
- Usually increased with activity (OA)
- Pain over the greater trochanter is typically
-The buttock is not the hip! Buttock pain is typically
from the sciatic nerve or lumbar spine
Limping can be due to:
- Pain (as in antalgic limp).
- Shortening of one of the limbs.
- Weakness in abductors (as in trendelenburg gait).
in >70 or postmenopausal woman, there is an
chance of neck fracture
- How did this affect your daily activity?
- How Long/Far can you walk?
- Do you use any Walking Aid?
3.Position: for most of the exam the patient should be supine lying on a
flat table. patient's hands should remain at his/her sides with the head resting on
a pillow. The knees and hips should be in the anatomical position
5.Exposure: patient's hips should be exposed so that the quadriceps muscles and
greater trochanter can be assessed
Look …. Feel …. Move….
- Gait (while ptn is standing)
- Masses / Scars / Lesions / Signs of trauma or
- Bony alignment (rotation, leg length)
- Muscle bulk and symmetry at the hip and knee
- Tenderness over the greater trochanter
- Assessing for fractures & Injuries look for
Tenderness over: ischial spine, Pubic Rami,
Lesser trochanter & ischial tuberosity
- Internal/External Rotation:
with leg in full extension with rolling the leg on the couch & using
the foot to indicate the range of rotation, and then test with knee
(and hip) flexed at 90º
- Flexion: with your hand under the back
(to detect any masking of hip movement
by the pelvis or lumbar spine)
Examination (Move Cont.)
- Extension: with ptn’s face down on the couch & with place your
left hand on the pelvis
to stabilize the pelvis place your left hand on the opposite iliac crest
Examination (Move Cont.)
- Check in several positions
- Compare with the contralateral side
0º - 120º
0º - 20º
0º - 45º
(up to 90º in infants)
0º - 25º
0º - 45º
0º - 45º
- Neurovascular exam
Measures fixed flexion deformity (incomplete extension)
- place your hand under ptn’ lumbar spine
- passively flex both legs (hips & knees) as far as possible
- you should feel that lumber spine lordosis got eliminated
- now ask the ptn to extend the test hip
- Incomplete extension indicates fixed flexion deformity
Shortening (Leg Length Discrepancy)
Ask the ptn to lie spine and stretch both legs as possible
Measure with tape:
From Umbilicus to medial malleolus: the apparent length
From ASIS to medial malleolis: the ‘true length’
In hip fractures the affected leg is often
. shortened and externally rotated
- Ask the ptn to stand on one knee for 30 seconds
- Repeat with the other leg
- Watch the iliac crest on each side if it moves up or down
The Trendelenburg sign is said to be positive if, when
standing on one leg, the pelvis drops on the side opposite to
the stance leg.
The weakness is present on the side of the stance leg. The body is not able to
maintain the center of gravity on the side of the stance leg. Normally, the body
shifts the weight to the stance leg, allowing the shift of the center of gravity and
consequently stabilizing or balancing the body. However, in this scenario, when the
patient/person lifts the opposing leg, the shift is not created and the patient/person
cannot maintain balance leading to instability.
It is positive in:
- Weakness / paralysis in hip abductors.
- Marked proximal dislocation / subluxation of the hip.
- Shortening of femoral neck.
- Any painful disorder of the hip.