Listening Comprehension in EFL Teaching

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Listening Comprehension in EFL Teaching

  1. 1. Jan. 2008, Volume 6, No.1 (Serial No.52) US -China Foreign Language, ISSN1539 -8080, USA Listening comprehension in EFL teaching XU Fang (College of Foreign Languages, Qingdao University of Science and Technology, Qingdao 266061, China) Abstract: This paper gives detailed analysis of listening nature, listening process and listening skills. On thebasis of the analysis, the paper makes some suggestions on how to improve the teaching and learning of listeningcomprehension: (1) relationships between listening and speaking, that is, we should realize the interrelated natureof input and output, especially because a student’ comprehensible output may very often become comprehensible sinput for others; (2) listening materials, that is, present students with different kinds of input, attempt to discovervisual aids or draw pictures and diagrams related to the listening topics, grade listening materials according to thestudents’ level, knowledge of structure is an important part of listening proficiency; (3) the speaker, that is, givepractice in liaisons and elisions, enable students to be conscious of different native-speaker accents, choose short,simple listening texts with little redundancy for lower -level students and complicated authentic materials withmore redundancy for high-level learners; (4) the listener, that is, offer background knowledge and linguisticknowledge, assist students to cultivate the skill of listening with anticipation, provide and try to gain as muchfeedback as possible, improve memory methods. Key words: listening comprehension; language teaching; comprehensible input Listening is the Cinderella skill in second language learning. It became fashionable again in the 1980s whenKrashen’ (1982) ideas about comprehensible input gained prominence. By stressing the role of comprehensible sinput, second language acquisition research has given a major boost to listening. As Rost (1994) points out, of thefour language skills— speaking, listening, reading and writing, listening is the most critical for language learningat the beginning stages. Large amounts of listening practice before speaking or reading may prepare the learner toacquire a second language with a greater efficiency than if he or she was taught all the skills simultaneously(Postovsky, 1974; Winitz & Reeds, 1973, 1975; Winitz, 1973; Gary, 1978). In fact, listening is the most frequentlyused language skill in everyday life. Researchers (for example, Rivers 1981; Morley, 1991) propose that we listentwice as much as we speak, four times as much as we read, and five times as much as we write. Listening is ahighly integrative skill and research has demonstrated its crucial role in language acquisition (for example, Rost,1990; Feyten, 1991; Mendelsohn & Rubin, 1995). Listening is assuming greater and greater importance in foreignlanguage classrooms. 1. Listening compre hension 1.1 The nature of listening comprehension The nature of LC (listening comprehension) means that the learner should be encouraged to concentrate onan active process of listening for meanings, using not only the linguistic cues but his nonlinguistic knowledge as XU Fang (1970- ), female, M.A., lecturer of College of Foreign Languages, Qingdao University of Science and Technology ;research field: psycholinguistics. 21
  2. 2. Listening comprehension in EFL teachingwell. He should also know that not every clue is equally important to the message. Therefore, even when hemisses a piece of language, he need not worry: there is a good chance that other clues will make him understandthe message, or at least, enough of the message for his own aim. Of course, it may be that the missed item is onewhich completely changes the whole message. This doesn’ concern the general point being made here; since the tlearner has more hope of realizing his own misunderstanding if he concentrates on the communication rather thanbeing distracted by a sense of failure. There do exist controversies on the nature of LC. According to Anderson and Lynch (1988), there are twoinfluential views: traditional view and alternative view. Traditional view regarded the listener as a tape-recorderand the listener took in and stored aural messages in much the same way as a tape-recorder. Anderson and Lynchcriticized this view as inappropriate and inadequate. This notion is not a tenable one. Alternative view consideredthe listener as an active model builder. This kind of listener could combine the new information with his previousknowledge and experience to reach full comprehension of what had been heard. Anderson and Lynch agreed withthis view. It emphasized the active interpretation and integration of incoming information with prior knowledgeand experience. Many scholars supported this view. O’ Malley and Chamot made a conclusion by doing a researchon LC in 1989: “ Listening comprehension is an active and conscious process in which the listener constructsmeaning by using cues from contextual information and existing knowledge, while relying upon multiple strategicresources to fulfill the task requirement”(O’ Malley, J. M. & Chamot, A. U., 1989, p. 420). Among the various definitions, a representative one is propounded by Clark and Clark (1977, pp. 43-44).They give both a narrow and broad definition: “Comprehension has two common senses. In its narrow sense it denotes the mental processes by whichlisteners take in the sounds uttered by a speaker and use them to construct an interpretation of what they think thespeaker intended to convey.... Comprehension in its broader sense, however, rarely ends here, for listenersnormally put the interpretations they have built to work.” Lynch and Mendelsohn (Cited in Norbert Schmitt, 2002, p. 194) describe the unique features of listening asfollows: Its usually ephemeral, one-shot nature. The presence of a rich prosody (stress, intonation, rhythm, loudness and more), which is absent from thewritten language. The presence of characteristics of natural fast speech, such as assimilation, making it markedly different fromwritten language, for example /g?mmt/ for “ government” . The frequent need to process and respond almost immediately. Besides the controversies over the definition of LC, there also exist the concerns about the process and skillsof LC. We will focus on these in the following literature. 1.2 The process of listening comprehension Listening comprehension is regarded theoretically as an active process in which individuals concentrate onselected aspects of aural input, form meaning from passages, and associate what they hear with existingknowledge. Cognitive psychology, the most developed model in accounting for comprehension processes, definescomprehension as information processing. Schemata are the guiding structures in the comprehension process. Theschema is described by Rumelhart (1980, p. 34) as “ data structure for representing the generic concepts stored in amemory. It can be used to represent our knowledge about all concepts: those underlying objects, situations, events,22
  3. 3. Listening comprehension in EFL teachingsequences of events, actions and sequences of actions.” According to the cognitive comprehension theory,“ schema”(plural form schemata) means an abstract textual structure that the comprehender uses to make sense ofthe given text. The comprehender makes use of linguistic and situational cues and also the expectations he/she hasabout the new input to evoke schemata. When a schema has been evoked, it will become a guiding structure incomprehension. If the incoming information is matched with the schema, then the listeners have succeeded incomprehending the text; if they are not compatible, either the information or the schema will be discarded ormodified. The principle of schema leads to two fundamental modes of information processing: bottom-upprocessing and top-down processing. These two processing intersect to develop an interactive processing. Thus,models for listening process fall into three types. Bottom-up processing (the first type of models) is activated by the new incoming data. The features of thedata pass into the system through the best fitting, bottom-level schemata. Schemata are hierarchically formed,from the most specific at the bottom to the most general at the top. It acknowledges that listening is a process ofdecoding the sounds, from the smallest meaningful units (phonemes) to complete texts. Thus, phonemic units aredecoded and connected together to construct words, words are connected together to construct phrases, phrasesare connected together to construct utterances, and utterances are connected together to construct complete,meaningful text. That is to say, meaning is arrived at as the last step in the process. A chain of incoming soundstrigger schemata hierarchically organized in a listener’ mind— the phonological knowledge, the morphological sknowledge, lexical and syntactical knowledge (syntactical knowledge aids to analyze the sentence structure). Thus,the listener makes use of “ knowledge of words, syntax, and grammar to work on form”in the bottom-up hisprocessing (Rubin, 1994, p. 210). This process is closely associated with the listener’ linguistic knowledge. sHowever, bottom-up processing has its weak points. Understanding a text is an interactive process between thelistener’ previous knowledge and the text. Efficient comprehension that associates the textual material with slistener’ brain doesn’ only depend on one’ linguistic knowledge. s t s Top-down processing (the second type) is explained as employing background knowledge in comprehendingthe meaning of a message. Carrell and Eisterhold (1983, p. 557) point out that in top-down processing, the systemmakes general predictions based on “ higher level, general schemata, and then searches the input for information ato fit into these practically satisfied, higher order schemata” In terms of listening, the listener actively constructs .(or reconstructs) the original meaning of the speaker employing new input as clues. In this reconstruction process,the listener employs prior knowledge of the context and situation within which the listening occurs to understandwhat he/she hears. Context and situation involve such things as knowledge of the topic at hand, the speaker orspeakers, and their correlation with the situation, as well as with each other and previous events. We must realizeif the incoming information the listener hears is unfamiliar to him, it can’ evoke his schemata and he can only tdepend heavily on his linguistic knowledge in LC. Besides, although the listener can trigger a schema, he mightnot have the suitable schema expected by the speaker. Thus, only relying on top-down processing may result inthe failure of comprehension. The interactive processing (the third type) overcomes the disadvantages of bottom-up processing andtop-down processing to augment the comprehension. In the early 1980s, it was the tendency that only top-downprocessing was acknowledged to improve L2 (second language) listening comprehension. However it is now moregenerally accepted that both top-down and bottom-up listening processing should be combined to enhance LC.Complex and simultaneous processing of background knowledge information, contextual information andlinguistic information make comprehension and interpretation become easy. When the content of the material is 23
  4. 4. Listening comprehension in EFL teachingfamiliar to the listener, he will employ his background knowledge at the same time to make predictions which willbe proved by the new input. As opposed with this, if the listener is unfamiliar with the content of the listening textand deficient in language proficiency, he can only depend on his linguistic knowledge, especially the lexical andsyntactical knowledge to make sense of the information. From the cognitive perspective, Anderson (1983, 1985) elaborates that comprehension consists of perception,parsing and utilization. Perceptual processing is the encoding of the acoustic or written message. In listening, thiscovers chunking phonemes from the continuous speech stream (Anderson, 1995, p. 37). During this stage, anindividual pays close attention to input and the sounds are stored in echoic memory. While the input is still inechoic memory, some initial analysis of the language code may start, and encoding processes may transform someof the input into meaningful representations (Anderson, 1985). It seems probable that the same factors inperceptual processing that attend to auditory material excluding other competing stimuli in the environment alsoattend selectively to certain key words or phrases that are important in the context, attend to pauses and acousticemphases that may offer clues to segmentation and to meaning, or attend to contextual elements that may fit withor support the interpretation of meaning such as the listener’ goals, expectations about the speaker’ purpose, and s sthe type of speech interaction contained (for example, a conversation or a lecture). In the second LCprocess— parsing, words are converted into a mental representation of the combined meaning of these words. Thebasic unit of LC is a proposition (Anderson, 1985). Complex propositions may be differentiated into simplerpropositions that can be regrouped by the listener to produce new sentenc es whose basic meaning does not alter.Therefore, through parsing, a meaning-based representation of the original sequence of words can be stored inshort-term memory; this representation is an abstraction of the original word sequences but can be employed toreproduce the original sequences or at least their planned meaning. The size of the unit or segment (or “ chunk” of )information processed will rely on the learner’ knowledge of the language, general knowledge of the topic, and show the information is presented. The main clue for segmentation in LC is meaning, which may be representedsyntactically, semantically, phonologically, or by any combination of these. Second language listeners may havesome trouble in understanding language spoken at typical conversational rates by native speakers if they areunfamiliar with the rules for segmentation, even though they may comprehend individual words when heardseparately. Findings from research with second language learners show that memory span for target languageinput is shorter than for native language input (Call, 1985). Complex input materials may be especially difficult tocomprehend in a second language because they need combining of parsed segments in the process ofcomprehension, thus putting an extra burden on STM (short-term memory) which already may be burdened withunencoded elements of the new input. The third process, utilization, is composed of associating a mentalrepresentation of the auditory meaning with existing knowledge. Existing knowledge is retained in long-termmemory as propositions or schemata. Connections between the new input meaning and existing knowledge takeplace through spreading activation in which knowledge in LTM (long-term memory) is activated so that it isassociated with the new meanings in STM. Comprehension occurs when input and knowledge are matched witheach other. Perception, parsing and utilization stand for different levels of processing. Of the three levels ofprocessing, perception is the lowest. All three phases are recursive and connected closely, and can occursimultaneously during a single listening event. Coakley & Wolvin (1986) suggest that listening comprehension in a L2 (second language) is the process ofreceiving, focusing attention on, and assigning meaning to aural stimuli. It includes a listener, who brings priorknowledge of the topic, linguistic knowledge and cognitive processes to the listening task, the aural text, and the24
  5. 5. Listening comprehension in EFL teachinginteraction between the two. Fischer and Farris (1995) regard listening comprehension as a process by which students actively form amental representation of an aural text according to prior knowledge of the topic and information found within. 1.3 The skills of listening comprehension Use of effective listening skills can help students capitalize on the language input they are receiving and helpteachers facilitate the teaching process. A great many researches have been done about the skills of listeningcomprehension in order to make the listening effective. Richard (1983) was one of the first to consider the nature of the sub-skills required in different listeningsituations. He provided 33 micro-skills for conventional listening and a further 18 for academic listening tolectures. Richard’ analysis has been extremely persuasive in aiding language teachers to differentiate and prioritize sthe components of different types of listening. His micro-skill taxonomies were reshaped and developed by Rost(1990) who pinpointed the division of listening into perception, interpretation and response. McDonough & Shaw (1993) claim that listening skills should be discussed under 2 related headings: (1) Processing sound: To segment the stream of sounds and recognize word boundaries; To recognize sentence and clause boundaries in speech; To recognize significance of language-related features, most obviously intonation; To recognize changes in pitch, tone and speed of delivery. (2) Processing meaning: To organize the incoming speech into meaningful sections; To identify redundant material; To use language data to anticipate what speakers are going to say; To store information in memory and know how to retrieve it later, by organizing meaning as efficiently aspossible and avoiding too much attention to immediate detail. Voss (1984) and Shohamy and Inbar (1991) propound 2 kinds of skills: top-down processing skills andbottom-up processing skills according to listening processes involving top-down processing and bottom-upprocessing. H. Byrnes (1984) points out that LC can be divided into a set of distinct sub-skills. Two of these skills areconsidered by Rivers (1971) as the recognition of component parts of the language (words, verb groups, simplephrases) and memory for these elements as soon as they have been recognized. Recognizing linguistic elements,while fundamental to the process, is not enough for understanding what is heard fully. Listeners must be able tohold these elements in STM long enough to interpret the utterance to which they are attending. 2. Pedagogical implications On the basis of the above analysis, we will make some suggestions on how to improve the teaching andlearning of listening comprehension. 2.1 Relationships between listening and speaking Students often complain that listening and speaking are their vulnerable spots, and speaking is even weaker.It seems that language teaching should begin with the purpose to improve students’ spoken proficiency. However, 25
  6. 6. Listening comprehension in EFL teachingthis is not the case, because language comprehension is prior to language production. When speaking a language, a learner can control a relatively narrow range of vocabulary at his or her ownpace to express an idea, but when listening to the response he or she no longer handles the choice of vocabulary.One must be ready to absorb those words which are a part of the speaker’ active vocabulary and must adapt to the sspeaker’ rate of speech. In order to manipulate a simple conversation, an individual must possess a much broader scompetency in listening comprehension than in speaking; this is especially true when talking in a foreign languagewith a native speaker of that language. According to the range of lexicon and structure, the comparablecapabilities might be shown by the areas of two concentric circles in the following Figure: Figure Normal range of receptive and expressive language ability Note: Cited from Harris Winitz, 1981, pp. 223-251. What is more, as a learner’ language skill improves, we can observe both concentric circles enlarging at the ssame time with the outer (listening comprehension) circle always embracing a far greater range than the inner(speaking) circle. Stressing the inner circle (speaking) severely hinders the expansion of the outer circle (listeningcomprehension). Emphasis on aural comprehension training and relaxation of the requirement for oral productionin the initial phase of instruction prompt development of linguistic competence and cause better results than thosegained through intensive oral practice. Postovsky (1974) contended that decoding language input requires recognition knowledge while encodinglanguage input requires retrieval knowledge retained in LTM. When one understands a sentence, he will retainlinguistic knowledge in his STM for a short period of time until it is further processed and corresponds to theknowledge retained in his LTM. If he has not enough accumulation in recognition knowledge, it will not be easyfor him to extract knowledge retained in LTM and make use of it. In the natural listening process, the developmentof recognition knowledge is prior to the development of retrieval knowledge. Delay of oral practice in the earlystages of language learning is an important factor in reducing task overload and proficiency in listeningcomprehension is easily transferable to other language skills (including speaking a reading). English teachers ndshould not underestimate the process of accumulation of recognition knowledge and spare no efforts to create asmany opportunities as possible for students to take in a wealth of language materials before they can speak thetarget language fluently. Students also need to realize the importance of this process and are prepared toaccumulate as much knowledge input as possible through listening. Step by step, speaking will emerge with thelapse of time. Speaking and listening are complementary. A student can’ be expected to produce “ t i+1” output withoutlearning first about the “ element, that is to say, without taking in some sort of “ +1” i+1”input. On the other hand,26
  7. 7. Listening comprehension in EFL teachingcomprehensible input in itself may not result in language development, since, as we have seen, only the pressureto actively make use of the new material (the “ +1”part) in their output will compel the students to consciouslyanalyze the linguistic forms the message includes. We should realize the interrelated nature of input and output,especially because a student’ comprehensible output may very often become comprehensible input for others. s 2.2 Listening materials The listening materials involve almost any area of life. The content is usually not well organized. In manysituations, listeners can’ predict what speakers are going to say. At the same time, for many learners, listening to a ttaped message is more difficult than reading the same message since listeners can’ control the pace of tpresentation of the material. Therefore, we propose some suggestions below: (1) Present students with different kinds of input, such as lectures, radio news, films, TV plays,announcements, everyday conversations, interviews, story-telling, English songs, and so on. (2) Attempt to discover visual aids or draw pictures and diagrams related to the listening topics to aidstudents to guess or imagine actively. (3) Grade listening materials according to the students’level, and offer authentic materials rather thanidealized filtered samples. At the lowest proficiency levels, listening materials that offer very familiar and/orpredictable content and that are connected with students’interests will be best, if students will be able to takeadvantage of their knowledge of the world to as sist them in comprehension when their linguistic skills aredeficient. The materials should progress step by step from semi-authenticity that shows most of the linguisticfeatures of natural speech to total authenticity. That is to say, “i+1”input is important for the low level students toimprove comprehension. The design of listening exercises in the high and low grades should have obviously different requirements.Multiple-choice is one of the common patterns of listening exercises at present. The comprehension point inmultiple-choice listening test materials is usually partial or local because many answers are a certain digit, word,phrase, or sentence of listening materials so as to lead to partial limit of listening comprehension. In the teachingof listening of juniors and seniors, listeners’listening emphasis should be changed from surface-level memory todeep-level comprehension. The main direction of teaching in this period is to guide listeners to comprehend thelistening content on the basis of memory; focus of attention is to improve students’ understanding andgeneralizing ability in listening. Therefore, the exercise patterns at this stage should be changed from the originalmultiple-choice (objective exercises) first to subjective exercises first. This can guide students to change theirthoughts, to spread the angle of STM and expand the scope of STM by exercise patterns. What is more, if thestyles of listening exercises always remain the same, listeners will feel bored because of the identity and repetitionof exercise patterns. This can’ arouse the listeners’initiative and enthusiasm so as to cause the listening level to tremain at the original level. This is one of the reasons why listeners often feel that their listening levels don’ timprove. (4) Knowledge of structure is an important part of listening proficiency although most published materialsunderscore listening for the meaning of the passage rather than listening for the structure that clearly embodies themeaning. Knowledge of vocabulary is not enough to enable students to become good listeners; they must also beable to make use of syntax to aid them to identify the relationships among the words they have heard and to keeputterances in memory long enough to comprehend them. Formal exercises concentrating on the recognition ofsyntactic structures are fundamental to the development of this skill. As soon as students have been familiar withthe vocabulary and structure that are the immediate targets of instruction, they are prepared to begin acquisition 27
  8. 8. Listening comprehension in EFL teachingactivities by listening to input at the “ i+1” level for global meaning. Students would profit from a formalintroduction to the syntactic structures of the target language, taught at first for recognition before they arerequired to l sten for meaning so that they could make use of this knowledge to process comprehensible input imore efficiently and to acquire the target language more quickly. 2.3 The speaker In our daily conversation, we usually say a good deal more than would appear to be necessary so as toexpress our message. Redundancy is a natural feature of speech and may be a help or an impediment. At the sametime, natural dialogues are usually full of hesitations, pauses and uneven intonation. As a result of these, we findsome helpful ideas as follows: (1) Give practice in liaisons and elisions so as to assist students to be accustomed to the acoustic forms ofrapid natural speech. It is helpful to discover rapidly uttered colloquial collocations and require students to imitatenative speaker’ pronunciation. Listed below are a few of these from Ur (1984, p. 46): s Let’ have /’ s lets?v/ There isn’ any /’ rizndeni/ t ð You shouldn’ have /ju:’udnd?v/ t ? You and me /’ ?n’ju: mi:/ Tell him, tell her /’ telm, ‘tel?/ (2) Enable students to be conscious of different native-speaker accents. What is more, the American accent isquite different from the British and Australian. Therefore, it is indispensable to enable students to understanddifferent accents, especially in extensive listening. (3) Choose short, simple listening texts with little redundancy for lower -level students and complicatedauthentic materials with more redundancy for high-level learners. Low-level students are not able to interpretextra information in the redundant message; however, advanced listeners may profit from messages beingexpanded, paraphrased etc. 2.4 The listener Language usually expresses culture. Foreign language students lack sociocultural, factual and contextualknowledge of the target language to augment comprehension, and are unfamiliar with cliché and collocations in sEnglish to predict a missing word or phrase. It is boring for them to focus on listening to unfamiliar sounds, wordsand sentences for long periods. To solve these problems, we offer some suggestions below: (1) Offer background knowledge and linguistic knowledge, such as complex sentence structures andcolloquial words and expressions, as needed. Require the students to learn to make use of context and title toaugment comprehension. (2) Assist students to cultivate the skill of listening with anticipation, listening for specific information,listening for gist, interpretation and inference, listening for intended meaning, listening for attitude, etc., byaffording various tasks and exercises at different levels with different intents. (3) Provide and try to gain as much feedback as possible. During the course, the teacher should fill the gapbetween input and students’reply and between the teacher’ feedback and students’reaction so as to make slistening purposeful. This not only promotes error correction but gives encouragement as well. It can aid studentsto heighten their confidence in their ability to tackle listening problems. Students’ feedback can assist the teacherto judge where the class is going and how it should be instructed. (4) Improve memory methods. As for the problem of improving English listening, many listeners only see the28
  9. 9. Listening comprehension in EFL teachingone side of listening more and practicing more, whereas they don’ pay enough attention to another side of timproving listening methods such as improving the effect of STM. One of the important reasons why manylisteners’listening level still remains at the original level is the inappropriate memory method. After listening levelis converted from low stage to high stage, the listener should adjust his/her thinking style and memory model inlistening properly, be good at finding out various note-taking styles that are helpful to brain memory according tohis/her own actual condition and learn how to associate STM with LTM scientifically. 3. Conclusion Some teachers think that listening is the easiest skill to teach, whereas most students think it is the mostdifficult to improve. This contradiction warns us that there are some things about teaching listening that need to beinvestigated. Maybe those who claim it is “ easiest to teach”tell us that it does not need much laborious lesson thepreparation and all they are required to do is play the tapes and test the students’ comprehension. But isn’ there treally anything more to teaching listening than testing? We must discover all we can about how listening can beenhanced and what activities are useful to this purpose and then fully make use of this knowledge and theseactivities in our own classroom.References:Anderson, J. R. 1995. Cognitive psychology and its implications (4th ed.). New York: Freeman.Call, M. E. 1985. Auditory short -term memory, listening comprehension, and the input hypothesis. TESOL Quarterly, 19(4): 765-781.Clark, Herbert H. & Clark, Eve V 1977. Psychology and language: An introduction to psycholinguistics. New York: Harcourt Brace . Jovanovich Inc.Cook, Vivian. 1986. Experimental approaches to second language learning. Oxford: Pergamon Press.Cook, Vivian. 2000a. Second language learning and language teaching. Beijing: Foreign Language Teaching and Research Press.Cook, Vivian. 2000b. Linguistics and second language acquisition. Beijing: Foreign Language Teaching and Research Press.Krashen, Stephen D., Tracy D. Terrell, Madeline E. Ehrman, & Martha Herzog. 1984. A theoretical basis for teaching the receptive skills. Foreign Language Annals, 17(4): 261-275.O’Malley, J. M. & Chamot, A. U. 1989. Listening comprehension strategies in second language acquisition. Applied Linguistics, 10(4): 418-437.Richards, J. C. 1998. Listening comprehension: Approach, design and procedure. The context of language teaching. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Richards, Jack C. & Renandya, Willy A. 2002. Methodology in language teaching: An anthology of current practice. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Rubin, J. 1994. A review of second language listening comprehension research. The Modern Language Journal, 78: 199-221.Rumelhart, D. 1980. Schema: The basic building blocks of cognition. In: R. Spiro, B. Brice & W. Brewer. (Eds.), Theoretical issues in reading comprehension, Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Schmitt, Norbert. 2002. An introduction to applied linguistics. London: Arnold.Vandergrift, Laurens. 1997. The comprehension strategies of second language (French) listeners: A descriptive study. Foreign Language Annals, 30(3): 387-409.WANG Chu-ming. 1990. Applied linguistics. Hunan Education Publishing House.Winitz, Harris. 1981. The comprehension approach to foreign language instruction. Rowley/Massachusetts. (Edited by Stella and Jessica) 29

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