The Animal Cell By Elizabeth Moore Photos from ClipArt(Microsoft)
Introduction to the Cell
The cell is the most basic unit of life
All living things are composed of cells
Many Cells: Multicellular
One Cell: Unicellular
Plants and animals have similar cells but they are different
Have different organelles that have specific function
Photos from ClipArt(Microsoft)
There are two different kinds of cells:
Prokaryotic: cells that do not have a membrane bound nucleus and do not have distinct organelles.
Eukaryotic: cells that have a membrane bound nucleus. These cells have membrane bound nuclei and include plant and animal cells!
Remember: We as people are made up of millions of animal cells! We also have Eukaryotic cells inside of our bodies! All information on this slide from: http://www.cellsalive.com/cells/3dcell.htm
The Animal Cell Has many different organelles Each organelle has a different function and a different job. You will only need to know the ones listed in this powerpoint! Picture from: http://search.creativecommons.org/?q=cell%20model
The Nucleus The nucleus is the “brain” of the cell. It contains the genetic material Also known as DNA The nucleus is also the site of DNA replication. The nucleus is also key in cell replication. Remember: The nucleus is one of the most obvious parts of the cell. It can easily be seen with a microscope. All information on this slide from: http://www.cellsalive.com/cells/cell_model.htm
The Nucleolus The nucleolus is the main structure located WITHIN the nucleus. This is the site of ribosome creation. Ribosomes are very important in many functions of the cell. Notice: The dark grey mass is the nucleus of the cell. The white area at the end of the pointer is the nucleolus. Picture From: http://search.creativecommons.org/?q=cell%20model All information on this slide from: http://www.cellsalive.com/cells/cell_model.htm
The Cell Membrane
The cell membrane is the cell’s protection from the outside world.
It is composed of two layers of lipids.
The membrane controls what goes in and out of the cell at all times.
The membrane also has proteins inside which allows the cell membrane to be stronger.
Picture from: http://search. creativecommons.org/?q=cell%20model All information from: http://www.cellsalive.com/cells/cell_model.htm
The Mitochondria The mitochondria are the “power houses” of the cell. They help produce the energy a cell needs to function. They have double membranes and their own set of DNA. This leads scientists to believe that mitochondria were once a cell on their own.
Inside the mitochondria is where sugar is combined with Oxygen to create ATP, which the cell uses to function.
All information from: http://www.cellsalive.com/cells/cell_model.htm Picture from: http://search.creativecommons.org/?q=cell%20model
The Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) SMOOTH ER Smooth ER appears to be smooth, unlike the rough ER. The smooth ER has a different function in each cell, depending on what the function of the cell is. ROUGH ER The rough ER works to transport ribosomes throughout the cell. The rough ER appears “rough” because it is covered in ribosomes. Notice: The rough and smooth ER are connected in the cell and help with transport. All information from: http://www.cellsalive.com/cells/cell_model.htm Picture from: http://search.creativecommons.org/?q=cell%20model
The Golgi Apparatus The Golgi Apparatus is where everything gets “shipped” from within the cell. The Golgi Apparatus does everything from sorting particles, packaging them for transport and actually transporting them. Notice: When looking at the Golgi Apparatus on a slide, it can be identified because it looks like a stack of pancakes. Picture and information from: http://middletownhighschool.wikispaces.com/Golgi+Apparatus,+Vesicle,+Lysosome
The Vacuole The vacuole is a small sac that acts in digestion and secretion in the cell. The vacuole has a different purpose in plant cells, so remember in animal cells, it is responsible for digestion! Vacuole All information from: http://www.cellsalive.com/cells/cell_model.htm Picture from: http://search.creativecommons.org/?q=cell%20model
Lysosomes and Perixisomes Lysosomes are helpful in animal cells because they aid in digestion. They help to get rid of toxins and other harmful chemicals. If a cell looses too many lysosomes, the cell may die. Perixisomes help to protect the cell from its own toxins that it creates. The cell creates these toxins to help protect the cell. However, if the cell makes too much of any given toxin, the cell may die. This is why the perixisome is there! All information from: http://www.cellsalive.com/cells/cell_model.htm
Ribosomes Ribosomes are made of RNA and protein. Ribosomes are the site of protein synthesis, which is crucial within the cell! This happens in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. It also occurs in both plant and animal cells. These are located throughout the cell and in different organelles. Remember: Without ribosomes, the cell would not be able to function! All information from: http://www.cellsalive.com/cells/cell_model.htm
Cytoplasm The area between all the organelles is called the cytoplasm. It is made of mostly water, but also contains nutrients and all the organelles. When referring to JUST the material in between the organelles, it is called Cytosol. The organelles AND the Cytosol is called the Cytoplasm. Hint: Know the difference between Cytosol and Cytoplasm for the test. Image From: http://www.daylilies.org/ahs_dictionary/cytoplasm.gif All information from: http://www.cellsalive.com/cells/cell_model.htm
Questions to Consider For the test: Be able to identify the parts of the cell on a diagram and under the microscope. Know the function of each organelle. Know how the other organelles relate to one another. Hint: do the review in the text book to help prepare you for the exam! Next Week: we will cover plant cells and then go over specific functions of the entire cell and different processes.