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Edu 290: Biology of Cells
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Edu 290: Biology of Cells

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Edu 290: Biology of Cells Edu 290: Biology of Cells Presentation Transcript

  • The Animal Cell
    By Elizabeth Moore
    Photos from ClipArt(Microsoft)
  • Introduction to the Cell
    • The cell is the most basic unit of life
    • All living things are composed of cells
    • Many Cells: Multicellular
    • One Cell: Unicellular
    • Plants and animals have similar cells but they are different
    • Have different organelles that have specific function
    Photos from ClipArt(Microsoft)
    • There are two different kinds of cells:
    • Prokaryotic: cells that do not have a membrane bound nucleus and do not have distinct organelles.
    • Eukaryotic: cells that have a membrane bound nucleus. These cells have membrane bound nuclei and include plant and animal cells!
    Remember: We as people are made up of millions of animal cells! We also have Eukaryotic cells inside of our bodies!
    All information on this slide from: http://www.cellsalive.com/cells/3dcell.htm
  • The Animal Cell
    Has many different organelles
    Each organelle has a different function and a different job.
    You will only need to know the ones listed in this powerpoint!
    Picture from: http://search.creativecommons.org/?q=cell%20model
  • The Nucleus
    The nucleus is the “brain” of the cell.
    It contains the genetic material
    Also known as DNA
    The nucleus is also the site of DNA replication.
    The nucleus is also key in cell replication.
    Remember: The nucleus is one of the most obvious parts of the cell. It can easily be seen with a microscope.
    All information on this slide from: http://www.cellsalive.com/cells/cell_model.htm
  • The Nucleolus
    The nucleolus is the main structure located WITHIN the nucleus.
    This is the site of ribosome creation. Ribosomes are very important in many functions of the cell.
    Notice: The dark grey mass is the nucleus of the cell. The white area at the end of the pointer is the nucleolus.
    Picture From: http://search.creativecommons.org/?q=cell%20model
    All information on this slide from: http://www.cellsalive.com/cells/cell_model.htm
  • The Cell Membrane
    • The cell membrane is the cell’s protection from the outside world.
    • It is composed of two layers of lipids.
    • The membrane controls what goes in and out of the cell at all times.
    • The membrane also has proteins inside which allows the cell membrane to be stronger.
    Picture from: http://search. creativecommons.org/?q=cell%20model
    All information from: http://www.cellsalive.com/cells/cell_model.htm
  • The Mitochondria
    The mitochondria are the “power houses” of the cell.
    They help produce the energy a cell needs to function.
    They have double membranes and their own set of DNA.
    This leads scientists to believe that mitochondria were once a cell on their own.
    • Inside the mitochondria is where sugar is combined with Oxygen to create ATP, which the cell uses to function.
    All information from: http://www.cellsalive.com/cells/cell_model.htm
    Picture from: http://search.creativecommons.org/?q=cell%20model
  • The Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER)
    SMOOTH ER
    Smooth ER appears to be smooth, unlike the rough ER.
    The smooth ER has a different function in each cell, depending on what the function of the cell is.
    ROUGH ER
    The rough ER works to transport ribosomes throughout the cell.
    The rough ER appears “rough” because it is covered in ribosomes.
    Notice: The rough and smooth ER are connected in the cell and help with transport.
    All information from: http://www.cellsalive.com/cells/cell_model.htm
    Picture from: http://search.creativecommons.org/?q=cell%20model
  • The Golgi Apparatus
    The Golgi Apparatus is where everything gets “shipped” from within the cell.
    The Golgi Apparatus does everything from sorting particles, packaging them for transport and actually transporting them.
    Notice: When looking at the Golgi Apparatus on a slide, it can be identified because it looks like a stack of pancakes.
    Picture and information from: http://middletownhighschool.wikispaces.com/Golgi+Apparatus,+Vesicle,+Lysosome
  • The Vacuole
    The vacuole is a small sac that acts in digestion and secretion in the cell.
    The vacuole has a different purpose in plant cells, so remember in animal cells, it is responsible for digestion!
    Vacuole
    All information from: http://www.cellsalive.com/cells/cell_model.htm
    Picture from: http://search.creativecommons.org/?q=cell%20model
  • Lysosomes and Perixisomes
    Lysosomes are helpful in animal cells because they aid in digestion.
    They help to get rid of toxins and other harmful chemicals.
    If a cell looses too many lysosomes, the cell may die.
    Perixisomes help to protect the cell from its own toxins that it creates.
    The cell creates these toxins to help protect the cell.
    However, if the cell makes too much of any given toxin, the cell may die.
    This is why the perixisome is there!
    All information from: http://www.cellsalive.com/cells/cell_model.htm
  • Ribosomes
    Ribosomes are made of RNA and protein.
    Ribosomes are the site of protein synthesis, which is crucial within the cell!
    This happens in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. It also occurs in both plant and animal cells.
    These are located throughout the cell and in different organelles.
    Remember: Without ribosomes, the cell would not be able to function!
    All information from: http://www.cellsalive.com/cells/cell_model.htm
  • Cytoplasm
    The area between all the organelles is called the cytoplasm.
    It is made of mostly water, but also contains nutrients and all the organelles.
    When referring to JUST the material in between the organelles, it is called Cytosol. The organelles AND the Cytosol is called the Cytoplasm.
    Hint: Know the difference between Cytosol and Cytoplasm for the test.
    Image From: http://www.daylilies.org/ahs_dictionary/cytoplasm.gif
    All information from: http://www.cellsalive.com/cells/cell_model.htm
  • Questions to Consider
    For the test:
    Be able to identify the parts of the cell on a diagram and under the microscope.
    Know the function of each organelle.
    Know how the other organelles relate to one another.
    Hint: do the review in the text book to help prepare you for the exam!
    Next Week: we will cover plant cells and then go over specific functions of the entire cell and different processes.