Transcript of "The state of public education in afghanistan"
The State of Public Education in AfghanistanUniversity: IUICDepartment: MSDSInstructor: Dr. Imranullah KhanSubject: Economic StudiesPrepared by: Malik Faisal Moonzajer (17646) 2
History and Overview 1904-2001 Kabul Habibia School 1904 (Male), Asmat School 1921(female). – Ministry of Education 1922. 1964 Constitutions (Zahir- Compulsory).1969 Y 600,000 students. Literacy campaign 1968, 25 % Men & 5 % women. 1976 communist(Dawood), every year 18,000 literate, national wide campaign 1986(Najib) world literacy day Medal and diploma by UNESCO.1989 GER 54% boys, 12 % girls. 1992-1996 Islamic state and civil war - 1996-2001, Taliban and northern alliance 95-98 % schools, infrastructures. 5 million fled to Pakistan & Iran- primary schools students 90,000 in Refuge camps by NGOs. 1996-2001 , 100 NGOs closed up, female banned. Funds 1993-1997 , 22 % to 0.3 %. GER 39 boys, 3 girls. 3
Developments & Improvements 2001-2011• 4.3 million Students enrolled in grades 1–12, in 2003. The largest in the history ofAfghanistan.• By 2004 there were 200 % more school buildings and 500 percent more teachersthan two years before.•Currently 2,744 schools are active in 20 (out of 34) provinces. Over 27,000teachers, 36% of whom are women. 9 million textbooks have been distributed forgrades1-12.•Only 12 percent of girls get a primary education whereas it is 47 percent of all boys.12 % literate women, with 21 % men totally 17.5 % literate.•In rural areas where 74 percent of all Afghans live, however, an estimated 90percent of women and 63 percent of men cannot read, write and do a simple mathcomputation 4
Levels of Education•Basics•Intermediate•High School•Technical 5
Challenges and constraints•2008 - 670 attacks on the Afghan education system, Between January 2006 andDecember 2008, 1153 attacks on education personnel. 230 people died as a resultof (2006-2008)•651 schools were closed in southern provinces; 141 teachers and students werekilled since beginning of the year; and 173,000 students dropped out off schools103 teachers, principals, (January 2006 and April 2008)•In 2003 the Asian Development Bank 80% of all school buildings are destroyed.Afghans do not see an incentive for becoming teacher.• as out of 12081 schools, 68 percent do not have surrounding walls,•16000-20000 ghost teachers 2006 by Oxfam•Physical Punishment by teachers•Children, easily become a target for Taliban and warlord recruitment efforts.•Female still in most of provinces are not allowed due to many reasons. 6
Recommendations•Establish a High Commission for National Literacy Strategy; Establish NationalLiteracy Centre; Develop a national implementation/operational plan for literacy.Literacy textbooks, teacher’s guidebooks.•Train provincial and district master trainers ,recruit literacy teachers; Provide learnerswith basic supplies for literacy classes;•Literacy program of the Ministry no development budget, total amount of fundingeducation sector in 2007 USD 389.31 million, 4,6 million was allocated for the literacyprogram .•Permanent and contracted literacy facilitators get USD 60 per month, should beincreased. cover 60% of women in its literacy program -upgrade their pedagogicalskills•Most school buildings are damaged or destroyed. Schools need to be built or repaired•Disabled children. Both the war and land mines special classes.•60000 “Street Children”, 30% of Street Children are girls. Most Street Children arefrom 7-16 years old 7
References1. National Report on the Situation of Adult Learning and Education, Islamic Republic of Afghanistan Ministry of Education April 20082. Millennium Development Goals, Dr. Nadira Hayat, Deputy Minister of Public Health Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan – 19-20 July, 20073. Education in Afghanistan, A Requirement for Assuring Security and Development, Rana Deep Islam, No. 21 ∙ November 20074. Education and the Role of NGOs in Emergencies: Afghanistan 1978-2002, Hassan Mohammed- August 8, 20065. THE IMPORTANCE OF EDUCATION IN AFGHANISTAN’S RECONSTRUCTION, Michael Riley, May 14, 2009, The Johns Hopkins University6. Knowledge on Fire: Attacks on Education in Afghanistan, Risks and Measures for Successful Mitigation, September 2009- Marit Glad7. The Current Situation of Basic Education in Afghanistan, Torpekai Sultani ,Kibou no Gakko, Japan8. http://www.uis.unesco.org/ev.php?ID=4959_201&ID2=DO_TOPIC 8