Gibson:perceptual systems , rather than a number of senses as separate entities, complex question of how many senses we actually have, allows an investigation of all sensorial perception in unisonacknowledging the relationship of the visual and the haptic modality. meaning reveals itself by the individual acting and interacting with his surroundingsrelationship of actor and environment is where meaning is createda process that he calls an ecological approach to perception
Noë:enactive perception - activity is considered the key to perception: “The enactive view challenges neuroscience to devise new ways of understanding the neural basis of perception and consciousness” (Noë, 2004, p.2). Sensorimotor knowledge is the way we are able to build a picture of the world, a picture meaningful to us(Hand-Eye-coordination, visual and haptic relationship a rich one – how do we experience space/spatiality?) blind people regaining their sight – not JUST dependent on light hitting the retina, also need to learn ‘how to experience’ the world by sight
A very good example of our personal relationship to scale is the grains of sand he describes (Gibson, 1979, p.10): they tend to be of similar size the whole world round. Not exactly uniform, but roughly similar enough for us to build up a picture of scale when comparing a grain of sand to a pebble. Those relationships are within us and are directly perceived. What matters to Gibson are the things that we perceive, not physical facts (as described by physical law). “Grains of sand tend to be of the same size everywhere, and so do pebbles and rocks, blades of grass, clumps of grass, bushes”NATURAL units (of size and scale) NOT perfectly uniform like man-made tilesstochastically regular, in a probabilistic wayAnd relative to us, our experience – once I know what a grain of sand is, I will recognise one all around the worldEXAMPLE: Image 1 of arial view of EarthAND next slide of grains of sandWorld of Physics: unimaginable extremes such as atoms and galaxies, imperceivableAbstract concepts and laws, which are not necessarily experiential-> Gibson is talking about the ANIMAL in the ENVIRONMENT (does not perceive physics as such)-> properties emerge out of interaction of the animal with its environment, it’s and ECOLOGICAL approach to perceptionExample: Block of ice. According to Physics, this does not disappear, it just changes its state from ice to water (matter and energy). In our experience though, it does disappear (psychologically).Gibson proposes that the Cartesian space and Geometry are just artificial concepts that indoctrinate how we perceive space, rather than explain it. The categorization derived for physics, not useful for psychology, where one deals with the living being's perception,and an 'ecological approach to perception', i.e. considering the living being relative to their environment, becomes more important.Gibson rejects the idea of a perception of space entirely:"We live in an environment consisting of substances that are more of less substantial; of a medium, the gaseous atmosphere; and of the surfaces that separate that substances from the medium. We do not live in 'space'." (Gibson, 1979, p.32)This rejection of an idea of an experience of space has consequences for how one imagines the world of a blind person. Traditionally, it has been assumed that blind people are ‘in the dark’ and are therefore missing something from their experience. However, a congenitally blind person’s experience of perception, may be so fundamentally different to how we traditionally imagine it that they are not aware of a ‘deficit’. It would be similar to us bemoaning the fact we do not possess the sense of smell of a bloodhound. We would simply not be aware of what is ‘missing’.
The philosophical origins: phenomenological traditionMerleau-Ponty’s:the embodied mind - a vision of the self, interwoven inseparably with the world. Critical of any form of reductionism or dualism, Merleau-Ponty:extensive phenomenological account of our ‘being-in-the world’, making us aware of the subject-in-perception (Merleau-Ponty, 2002). The cognitivist tradition of seeing the mind as separate from the body, and that the mind works with some kind or representations of the external world, is being challenged. By describing the felt experience, he phenomenologically demonstrates how the body is the internal world. Moran,comprehensive overview of phenomenology, explains why the description of ‘phenomena of experience’ is particularly relevant to the investigation of the non-verbal: “Phenomenological description can play a vital role in reminding us of what our pre-reflective experience is like against various philosophical and scientific distortions” (Moran, 2000, p.403). The perspective is adopted here by all approaches presented:the body and movement are considered essential for thought.
Image 2 – Compare to Physics illustrations of Field of Vision
“The affordances of the environment are what it offers the ‘animal’, what it provides or furnishes, either for good or ill” p. 127, Gibson“Different layouts afford different behaviours for different animals, and different mechanical encounters” p. 128, Gibson“Manufacture, as the term implies, was originally a form of manual behaviour like manipulation. Things were fabricated by hand. To identify the substance in such cases is to perceive what can be done with it, what is it good for, its utility.”Discuss the affordances of a chair to a child and an adultShow next slide while doing this
Gestalt psychology:– meaning and value of a thing is perceived immediately as its colour
Aidt lecture 01
Affordances and Enactive Perception<br />
Ecological Approach<br />James Jerome Gibson <br />The Senses as Perceptual Systems (1966)<br />The Ecological Approach to Visual Perception (1979)<br />-> AFFORDANCES<br />Ecological Approach: all perception is relative (to us) and is created out of engaging with / acting in the world<br />
Enactive Perception<br />Perceiving is a way of acting, it is something we do, it is not a passive reception/transmission <br />‘the world makes itself available to the perceiver through physical movement and interaction’<br />‘Experiential Blindness’ – visual sensations need to be integrated with bodily skills<br />(Alva Noë, 2004, Action in Perception)<br />
Physical Experience<br />Grains of Sand – Units of the Ground Surface, Units of Experience (Natural/Metrical)<br />Scale, Topology, Perspective / Geometry <br /> – Space/Spatiality?<br />Physical Laws (Indoctrination not Experience)<br />-> Ecological Approach to Perception<br />
Phenomenology<br />Merleau-Ponty provides an extensive account of perception and re-positions the body at the centre of any experience<br />Cognitivist tradition of mind-body dualism is challenged<br />Describing felt experience – pre-reflective, without analysis<br />
Field of View<br />Refers to Experiential Field of View & Position of Self (Image 2)<br />“When a man sees the world, he sees his nose at the same time; or rather, the world and his nose are both specified and his awareness can shift. Which of the two he notices depends on his attitude” <br />(Gibson, 1986, p. 116)<br />
Affordances<br />A flat rigid surface you can stand on, a water surface you cannot<br />BUT: rigid is a physical abstract property. An affordance hast to be relative to the animal (i.e. a water bug could stand on the water)<br />Chair/Table: Child/Adult – Utility?<br />
Affordances<br />Gibson (1986) says: it is not so much physical properties we notice first, but the Affordance:<br />“the meaning is observed before the substance and surface, the colour and form, are seen as such” p. 134<br />Relationship to Gestalt theory (Koffka, 1935, Principles of Gestalt Psychology)<br />
Affordances<br />Following:<br />Norman – Perceived Affordances “The Design of Everyday Things” – Doors, buttons etc.<br />Apply affordances theory to Interface /Interaction Design<br />
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