Ecological Approach James Jerome Gibson The Senses as Perceptual Systems (1966) The Ecological Approach to Visual Perception (1979) -> AFFORDANCES Ecological Approach: all perception is relative (to us) and is created out of engaging with / acting in the world
Enactive Perception Perceiving is a way of acting, it is something we do, it is not a passive reception/transmission ‘the world makes itself available to the perceiver through physical movement and interaction’ ‘Experiential Blindness’ – visual sensations need to be integrated with bodily skills (Alva Noë, 2004, Action in Perception)
Physical Experience Grains of Sand – Units of the Ground Surface, Units of Experience (Natural/Metrical) Scale, Topology, Perspective / Geometry – Space/Spatiality? Physical Laws (Indoctrination not Experience) -> Ecological Approach to Perception
Phenomenology Merleau-Ponty provides an extensive account of perception and re-positions the body at the centre of any experience Cognitivist tradition of mind-body dualism is challenged Describing felt experience – pre-reflective, without analysis
Field of View Refers to Experiential Field of View & Position of Self (Image 2) “When a man sees the world, he sees his nose at the same time; or rather, the world and his nose are both specified and his awareness can shift. Which of the two he notices depends on his attitude” (Gibson, 1986, p. 116)
Affordances A flat rigid surface you can stand on, a water surface you cannot BUT: rigid is a physical abstract property. An affordance hast to be relative to the animal (i.e. a water bug could stand on the water) Chair/Table: Child/Adult – Utility?
Affordances Gibson (1986) says: it is not so much physical properties we notice first, but the Affordance: “the meaning is observed before the substance and surface, the colour and form, are seen as such” p. 134 Relationship to Gestalt theory (Koffka, 1935, Principles of Gestalt Psychology)
Affordances Following: Norman – Perceived Affordances “The Design of Everyday Things” – Doors, buttons etc. Apply affordances theory to Interface /Interaction Design