Presentation in Literature 1

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Presentation in Literature 1

  1. 1. Presentation in Literature By: Ayn Rand Rommel Q. Paspie
  2. 2. Literature Is a collection of recorded and unrecorded human experiences which attempt to mirror artistically what exist in real situations.
  3. 3. These human experiences which oftentimes embody man’s great passions , thoughts, ideals, beliefs and attitudes are expressed and transmitted aesthetically through the medium of language.
  4. 4. The subject in literature is often presented in an ideal manner of lasting interest so that the reader is inclined to exert effort to experience it.
  5. 5. When one reads a literary work, he is given the opportunity to look at life from a very familiar perspective- his own self.
  6. 6. He does not only become a reader but also an observer, a participant, and a reactor to a certain situation. He pauses in order to indulge in this experience and to relate it to his own personal experiences.
  7. 7. In other words…
  8. 8. Amid the rapid events happening around him, he is allowed to reflect momentarily about himself and his surroundings through literature.
  9. 9. Literature likewise manifests the culture and traditions of different places since it is the result or product of the age in which it is produced.
  10. 10. Literature is separated into two parts…
  11. 11. Prose It is a type of literature which is written in sentences and paragraphs. It may either be fiction or non-fiction.
  12. 12. Poetry It is a special kind of writing in which language, pictures, and sounds combine, creating a special effect. It packs meaning into a small amount of words which tend to be more visual and musical than prose.
  13. 13. The different types of Prose…
  14. 14. Short Stories These are brief narrative prose which presents a single world of experience in action and can be read in one sitting.
  15. 15. Here are some of the popular short stories that you might have read…
  16. 16. Hansel and Gretel
  17. 17. The Ugly Duckling
  18. 18. Little Red Riding Hood
  19. 19. The Little Match Girl
  20. 20. The Red Shoes
  21. 21. Novels It is a type of prose which presents a more complex view of life. It is much longer than a short story since it consists of several subplots.
  22. 22. Here are some novels made by popular authors…
  23. 23. J.K. Rowling’s Harry Potter Series
  24. 24. Tami Hoag’s Still Waters
  25. 25. Jerry Spinelli’s Space Station Seventh Grade
  26. 26. Chelsea Cain’s Sweetheart
  27. 27. And here’s a novel that made quite a trend back when it got it’s movie adaptation…
  28. 28. Stephenie Meyer’s Twilight Saga
  29. 29. Novelette It is a type of prose narrative which has all the elements of a short story and a novel. Obviously, it is shorter than a novel but longer than a short story.
  30. 30. Here are some novelletes…
  31. 31. Karsten Kluge’s Necrophobia
  32. 32. Ada Uzoije’s The Ghost at London Victoria Station
  33. 33. Kary English’s Flight of Kikayon
  34. 34. Essays It is a non-fiction prose writing expressing the writer’s view or opinion on any topic.
  35. 35. Drama It is a story to be acted on the stage by a group of actors before and audience.
  36. 36. Next are the types of Poetry…
  37. 37. Narrative Poems These intends to tell a story and as such, has a plot, setting, dialogue, and theme. Narrative poems also have their different types.
  38. 38. These are…
  39. 39. Ballads These are narrative poems telling a simple dramatic story intended either to be sung or to be recited. Most ballads have anonymous authors and are handed down from one generation to another orally.
  40. 40. Here’s an example of a ballad...
  41. 41. Ballad of the Cool Fountain: Anonymous Spanish poetess (15th century)
  42. 42. Fountain, coolest fountain, Cool fountain of love, Where all the sweet birds come For comforting–but one, A widow turtledove, Sadly sorrowing. At once the nightingale, That wicked bird, came by, And spoke these honied words: "My lady, if you will, I shall be your slave." "You are my enemy: Begone, you are not true! Green boughs no longer rest me, Nor any budding grove. Clear springs, where there are such, Turn muddy at my touch. I want no spouse to love Nor any children either. I forego that pleasure And their comfort too. No, leave me; you are false And wicked–vile, untrue! I’ll never be your mistress! I’ll never marry you!"
  43. 43. Epic It is a long narrative poem that tells the adventures and exploits of a legendary hero who usually embodies the aspirations and culture of a particular race or group of people.
  44. 44. One good example of an epic is the Western Visayan epic known as the Hinilawod.
  45. 45. Metrical Romance It is a narrative poem telling about the love and adventures of knights and their ladies. This type of poetry was highly inspired during the age of Chivalry in England and other parts of Europe.
  46. 46. Metrical Tale It is a narrative poem about a simple and ordinary folk.
  47. 47. Another type of Narrative Poem is the lyric poem…
  48. 48. Lyric Poem It is a highly musical poem expressign the personal thoughts and feelings of the writer. In ancient times these lyric poems were sung and accompanied by a stringed instrument like the lyre.
  49. 49. Lyre is a string instrument known for its use in Greek classical antiquity, it is played by being strummed by a plectrum, like a guitar or a zither, rather than being plucked like a harp.
  50. 50. If you’re questioning on what a lyre looks like here’s a picture of it…
  51. 51. Different types of Lyric poem…
  52. 52. Sonnet It is a special form of a lyric poem consisting of 14 lines popularized by Francesco Petrach in Italy. It is otherwise known as Petrarchan or Italian sonnet.
  53. 53. Here’s an example of a sonnet done by James DeFord, in 1997
  54. 54. Turn back the heart you’ve turned away Give back your kissing breath Leave not my love as you have left The broken hearts of yesterday But wait, be still, don’t lose this way Affection now for what you guess May be something more, could be less Accept my love, live for today. Your roses wilted, as love spurned Yet trust in me, my love and truth Dwell in my heart, from which you’ve turned My strength as great as yours aloof It is in fear you turn away And miss the chance of love today!
  55. 55. Ode It is a lyric poem of praise of a person, an inanimate object or a lofty and profound idea written in a highly dignified manner.
  56. 56. Here’s an example of an ode entitled: Ode on Intimations of Immortality from Recollections of Early Childhood written by William Wordsworth
  57. 57. There was a time when meadow, grove and stream, The earth, and every common sight To me did seem Aparelled in celestial light, The glory and the freshness of a dream It is not now as it hath been of yore;-Turn wheresoe’er I may, By night or day, The things which I have seen I now can see no more.
  58. 58. Elegy It is a lyric poem of lamentation over a loss of a loved one.
  59. 59. Here’s an example of an elegy written by Walt Whitman entitled: “O Captain! My Captain!” which was written in memory of Abraham Lincoln.
  60. 60. My Captain does not answer, his lips are pale and still; My father does not feel my arm, he has no pulse nor will; The ship is anchor’d safe and sound, it’s voyage closed and done; From fearful trip, the victor ship, comes with the object won; Exult, O shores, and ring, O bells! But I, with mournful tread, Walk the deck my Captain lies, Fallen cold and dead
  61. 61. Simple Lyric It is any short, simple poem expressing the writer’s response to any ordinary thing which provokes a certain deep feeling or emotion
  62. 62. Here’s an example of a simple lyric entitled: A Recipe for Love
  63. 63. The recipe of love must always include Some herbs and spices for fortitude; A tablespoon of forgiveness – A clove of loyalty – A cup of faith – And a sprig of honesty; A pinch of patience – A teaspoon of trust – A cup of friendship – And a bit of lust; Mix all these herbs and spices well – No other recipe could ever excel; Add your name and her’s for proper effect; Then saute the whole in two cups of respect.
  64. 64. The Origin and Growth of Philippine Literature
  65. 65. Ancient Philippine Literature Historical records show that before the coming of the Spaniards, our ancestors had been performing rituals in relation to worship, marriages, deaths and other social occupational activities.
  66. 66. These rituals were made colorful and interesting by their presentation in mixed forms like reciting, chanting, dancing and even playing the crude musical instruments to accompany these ritual presentations.
  67. 67. Ancient Filipino literature such as songs, poems, riddles, sayings and folk stories are generally regarded as part of unrecorded literature which have been handed down from one generation to the next orally.
  68. 68. Part of the ancient Philippine literature is the ancient metrical tales coming from the Western Visayas Region. These are the Haraya, Lagda, Maragtas, and Hinilawod.
  69. 69. Haraya and Lagda though remain unrecorded while Maragras is more of a historical record rather than a literary work.
  70. 70. Hinilawod It is considered as the oldest and longest epic of Panay, and is sung for a number of days.
  71. 71. It tells about the story of the three superheroes, Labaw Dongon, Dumalapdap, and Humadapnin- all sons of the goddess Alunsina and her mortal husband, Paubari.
  72. 72. It also gives account of the unusual and fantastic adventures of these three sons especially when each decides to go in quest for his own bride.
  73. 73. The last part of the epic interestingly reveals the origin of Panay and Negros as the result of the moral combat between the youngest son, Dumalapdap, and the monster, Ayutang.
  74. 74. Besides the epic Hinilawod, there are other forms of literature that existed in our region before the coming of the Spaniards.
  75. 75. These are short narratives consisting of myths and stories of local heroes. Gnomic verses consisting of short, didactic, general truths about moral and civic conduct.
  76. 76. Paktakon which are witty riddles recited mainly for entertainment.
  77. 77. Ritual chants consisting of verses recited by a babaylan on any occasion like planting, harvesting, or healing the sick. Poetic joust consisting of verbal battle in rhyme as in “siday sa pamalye”.
  78. 78. Philippine Literature during the Spanish Period
  79. 79. Although the literature of the Philippines during the Spanish occupation was predominantly religious in nature, many European literary forms were brought to the country by the Spaniards, and became popular to us.
  80. 80. These literary forms were: Composo, Corrido, Comedia, Zarzuela, MoroMoro, Luwa, Pagdayaw, Novena, Pasyon, and Flores de Mayo.
  81. 81. It was also during the period of the Spanish occupation when brave-hearted Filipino propagandists arose.
  82. 82. Burning with the desire to claim back the Philippines from the foreign invaders, they used their literary prowess to awaken the hearts and minds of their fellowmen from lethargic indifference.
  83. 83. Our National Hero Jose Rizal along with his fellow writers and his two important works Noli me Tangere and El Filibusterismo, published literary works intense with patriotic zeal.
  84. 84. Philippine Literature after the Spanish Period The literature after the Spanish period was predominantly made up of literary works using English and Filipino languages.
  85. 85. With the introduction of the English language as the medium of instruction in 1900, many budding Filipino writers tried using the Western tongue in writing stories and poems.
  86. 86. Understandably, the first attempts were imitative…
  87. 87. It was amazing, however how they learned and mastered this language so quickly that It was not very long before their works began to show marked sensitivity as well as originality.
  88. 88. Philippine Regional Literature Regional literature refers to the recorded or unrecorded literature typical of a certain boundary or area which is a part of the entire country.
  89. 89. It consists of distinctive linguistic, cultural, and traditional characteristics common among the people within the community, not withstanding the numerous factors brough about by the foreign influences.
  90. 90. Western Visayas literature, or Panayanon literature, includes that written or orally transmitted in the provinces into which Panay island is divided: Iloilo, Capiz, Antique, and Aklan.
  91. 91. The term also includes the literature of the provinces of Negros Occidental and Guimaras, both of which are on separate islands. This is because the people of these two islands have the same ethnic origins as those of Panay.
  92. 92. Hiligaynon refers to the language and culture of the Illongo people, who inhabit Iloilo, Capiz, Guimaras, and Negros Occidental.
  93. 93. However, the term has to come to connote the more formal and literary language as it is used in schools and by older generation of speakers and writers. Ilongo is now used to the more popular and informal use of the language.
  94. 94. The Filipino student is now given a holistic perspective of the Filipino culture and spirit, in spite of the diversity in the regional cultures, is given this chance to understand and develop a deep sense of appreciation for the Filipino psyche.
  95. 95. Origin and Development of the Hiligaynon Language Hiligaynon is a word which originated from “ilig” which means “to flow”. It did not originally mean the language spoken by the inhabitants of Western Visayas.
  96. 96. It actually referred to the occupation of the people living in the upper region of Panay. They are bamboo floaters.
  97. 97. These bamboo floaters would float bamboo poles downstream(“ilawod”) from upstream(“iraya”) until they reach the bottom of the river where others waited to buy these poles for building houses.
  98. 98. Santiago Alv. Mulato related in his article “Why Hiligaynon” how the Spaniards, through misconception, became indirectly responsible for popularizing the word “Hiligaynon” to refer to a group of people called by that name.
  99. 99. When the Spaniards came, and since they also used water for travel, they came upon these people from upriver and their buyers transacting business at the river mouths in the Kalanagan Area and in Panay-an in Capiz.
  100. 100. When the Spaniards asked the name of this group of people who navigated the river by usign rafts like the “baizeros”(raftsmen) of Mexico, the inaccurate answer they received was “Iligaynon”.
  101. 101. As the informants thought they were being asked what profession those “manog-ilig sang kawayan” (bamboo floaters) people had.
  102. 102. Today, this term is formally applied to the dominant language used by the inhabitants of Panay and Negros Occidental. “Ilonggo” is another popular West Visayas term referred to the people living in the region.
  103. 103. The term “Negrense” or “Negrosanon” or “Tabukanon” became the specific word for the inhabitants of Negros Occidental. The practice extends to other places in the Panay provinces.
  104. 104. For instance, one refers to those from Aklan as Aklanon, or from Antique as Antiquenos. Another term which is commonly heard is “Binisaya”. This is a modification of Visayas which was earlier accepted as referring to the language of Western Visayas also.
  105. 105. With the publication of the magazine “Hiligaynon” many writers gave way to the demands of the times and accepted Hiniligaynon or Hiligaynon as the literary language of Western Visayas.
  106. 106. Notable Writers in Hiligaynon Hiligaynon writers have produced works in various fields such as grammar books, novels and short stories to serve the need and purpose of time.
  107. 107. Some who researched in grammar were able to publish dictionaries of Hiligaynon-English translation especially for educational purposes.
  108. 108. Flavio Zaragoza Cano who hailed from Cabanatuan, Iloilo, wrote both in Spanish and Hiligaynon. His masterpiece, De Mactan A Tirad (From Mactan to Tirad), won the first Commonwealth Literary Contest in Spanish in 1940.
  109. 109. Another famous poet from Binalbagan, Negros Occidental is Augurio M. Abeto who is unforgettable for his Dalawidaw and Tuburan.
  110. 110. Angel Magahum is remembered as the first Hiligaynon novelist who wrote the first novel in Hiligaynon, Benjamin.
  111. 111. Magdalena Jalandoni, whose works, Ang Bantay Sang Patyo, and Ang Dalaga Sa Tienda, marked her place as a famous novelist. She also won the Republic Cultural Heritage Award in 1969 making her the first Hiligaynon writer to be given the honor.
  112. 112. Avid readers of the leading vernacular magazines, Hiligaynon and Yuhum, will never forget the prolific and eloquent writer, Ramon Muzones, whose literary prowess is illustrated in his many unforgettable novels such as Margosatubig, Tamblot and Dama de Noche.
  113. 113. The Hiniraya Language The mother tongue of the region is Kinaray-a (also called Karay-a, Hiniraya, or Kaday-a). In act, Hiligaynon is a modern language that evolved from kinaray-a.
  114. 114. Kiniray-a is better known as Hinaraya because it coems from the word Iraya meaning “a high place where water comes from”.
  115. 115. When the Malays and the Polynesians reached the East Asia and the Pacific, the greatly influenced people in these areas with their languages. A group of these Malays and Polynesians known as the Ilayanon settled in West Visayas.
  116. 116. Some landed in Panay, especially in Capiz, which was referred to by Otley Beyer and Jaime C. de Veyra in their Philippine Saga as the Ilayan section of Panay.
  117. 117. Today, Kinaray-a is spoken in most rural areas especially the coastal towns of Iloilo, in Antque in Capiz (except in Roxas City where Hiligaynon is used).
  118. 118. In one of Conrado J. Norada’s articles cited Hiniraya as being responsible for enriching the Hiligaynon language. Two factors which made this possible are worth mentioning…
  119. 119. The difference in the usage of letter “l” in Hiligaynon and the letter “r” in Hiniray-a e.g. “wala” in Hiligaynon and “wara” in Hiniray-a
  120. 120. And the last one is…
  121. 121. The increase in vocabulary through the use of several words for the same meaning e.g. “idu” for Hiligaynon and “ayam” for Hiniraya (both words mean dog)
  122. 122. That’s all, end of presentation.

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