Presentation in Literature
Ayn Rand Rommel Q. Paspie
Is a collection of recorded and unrecorded
human experiences which attempt to mirror
artistically what exist in real situations.
These human experiences which oftentimes
embody man’s great passions , thoughts,
ideals, beliefs and attitudes are expressed and
transmitted aesthetically through the medium
The subject in literature is often presented in an
ideal manner of lasting interest so that the
reader is inclined to exert effort to experience
When one reads a literary work, he is given the
opportunity to look at life from a very familiar
perspective- his own self.
He does not only become a reader but also an
observer, a participant, and a reactor to a
certain situation. He pauses in order to
indulge in this experience and to relate it to
his own personal experiences.
It is a type of literature which is written in
sentences and paragraphs. It may either be
fiction or non-fiction.
It is a special kind of writing in which language,
pictures, and sounds combine, creating a
special effect. It packs meaning into a small
amount of words which tend to be more
visual and musical than prose.
These are narrative poems telling a simple
dramatic story intended either to be sung or
to be recited. Most ballads have anonymous
authors and are handed down from one
generation to another orally.
Ballad of the Cool Fountain:
Anonymous Spanish poetess (15th century)
Fountain, coolest fountain,
Cool fountain of love,
Where all the sweet birds come
For comforting–but one,
A widow turtledove,
At once the nightingale,
That wicked bird, came by,
And spoke these honied words:
"My lady, if you will,
I shall be your slave."
"You are my enemy:
Begone, you are not true!
Green boughs no longer rest me,
Nor any budding grove.
Clear springs, where there are such,
Turn muddy at my touch.
I want no spouse to love
Nor any children either.
I forego that pleasure
And their comfort too.
No, leave me; you are false
And wicked–vile, untrue!
I’ll never be your mistress!
I’ll never marry you!"
It is a long narrative poem that tells the
adventures and exploits of a legendary hero
who usually embodies the aspirations and
culture of a particular race or group of people.
One good example of an epic is the Western
Visayan epic known as the Hinilawod.
It is a narrative poem telling about the love and
adventures of knights and their ladies. This
type of poetry was highly inspired during the
age of Chivalry in England and other parts of
It is a narrative poem about a simple and
Another type of Narrative Poem is the
It is a highly musical poem expressign the
personal thoughts and feelings of the writer.
In ancient times these lyric poems were sung
and accompanied by a stringed instrument
like the lyre.
is a string instrument known for its use
in Greek classical antiquity, it is played by
being strummed by a plectrum, like a guitar or
a zither, rather than being plucked like a harp.
If you’re questioning on what a lyre looks like
here’s a picture of it…
It is a special form of a lyric poem consisting of
14 lines popularized by Francesco Petrach in
Italy. It is otherwise known as Petrarchan or
Here’s an example of a sonnet done by
James DeFord, in 1997
Turn back the heart you’ve turned away
Give back your kissing breath
Leave not my love as you have left
The broken hearts of yesterday
But wait, be still, don’t lose this way
Affection now for what you guess
May be something more, could be less
Accept my love, live for today.
Your roses wilted, as love spurned
Yet trust in me, my love and truth
Dwell in my heart, from which you’ve turned
My strength as great as yours aloof
It is in fear you turn away
And miss the chance of love today!
It is a lyric poem of praise of a person, an
inanimate object or a lofty and profound idea
written in a highly dignified manner.
Here’s an example of an ode entitled:
Ode on Intimations of Immortality from
Recollections of Early Childhood written by
There was a time when meadow, grove and stream,
The earth, and every common sight
To me did seem
Aparelled in celestial light,
The glory and the freshness of a dream
It is not now as it hath been of yore;-Turn wheresoe’er I may,
By night or day,
The things which I have seen I now can see no more.
It is a lyric poem of lamentation over a loss of a
Here’s an example of an elegy written by Walt
Whitman entitled: “O Captain! My Captain!”
which was written in memory of Abraham
My Captain does not answer, his lips are pale and still;
My father does not feel my arm, he has no pulse nor will;
The ship is anchor’d safe and sound, it’s voyage closed and
From fearful trip, the victor ship, comes with the object won;
Exult, O shores, and ring, O bells!
But I, with mournful tread,
Walk the deck my Captain lies,
Fallen cold and dead
It is any short, simple poem expressing the
writer’s response to any ordinary thing which
provokes a certain deep feeling or emotion
Here’s an example of a simple lyric entitled:
A Recipe for Love
The recipe of love must always include
Some herbs and spices for fortitude;
A tablespoon of forgiveness –
A clove of loyalty –
A cup of faith –
And a sprig of honesty;
A pinch of patience –
A teaspoon of trust –
A cup of friendship –
And a bit of lust;
Mix all these herbs and spices well –
No other recipe could ever excel;
Add your name and her’s for proper effect;
Then saute the whole in two cups of respect.
The Origin and Growth of Philippine
Ancient Philippine Literature
Historical records show that before the coming
of the Spaniards, our ancestors had been
performing rituals in relation to worship,
marriages, deaths and other social
These rituals were made colorful and interesting
by their presentation in mixed forms like
reciting, chanting, dancing and even playing
the crude musical instruments to accompany
these ritual presentations.
Ancient Filipino literature such as songs, poems,
riddles, sayings and folk stories are generally
regarded as part of unrecorded literature
which have been handed down from one
generation to the next orally.
Part of the ancient Philippine literature is the
ancient metrical tales coming from the
Western Visayas Region. These are the
Haraya, Lagda, Maragtas, and Hinilawod.
Haraya and Lagda though remain unrecorded
while Maragras is more of a historical record
rather than a literary work.
It is considered as the oldest and longest epic of
Panay, and is sung for a number of days.
It tells about the story of the three superheroes,
Labaw Dongon, Dumalapdap, and
Humadapnin- all sons of the goddess Alunsina
and her mortal husband, Paubari.
It also gives account of the unusual and fantastic
adventures of these three sons especially
when each decides to go in quest for his own
The last part of the epic interestingly reveals the
origin of Panay and Negros as the result of
the moral combat between the youngest son,
Dumalapdap, and the monster, Ayutang.
Besides the epic Hinilawod, there are other
forms of literature that
existed in our region before the coming of the
These are short narratives consisting of myths
and stories of local heroes. Gnomic verses
consisting of short, didactic, general truths
about moral and civic conduct.
Paktakon which are witty riddles recited mainly
Ritual chants consisting of verses recited by a
babaylan on any occasion like planting,
harvesting, or healing the sick.
Poetic joust consisting of verbal battle in rhyme
as in “siday sa pamalye”.
Philippine Literature during the
Although the literature of the Philippines during
the Spanish occupation was predominantly
religious in nature, many European literary
forms were brought to the country by the
Spaniards, and became popular to us.
These literary forms were:
Composo, Corrido, Comedia, Zarzuela, MoroMoro, Luwa, Pagdayaw, Novena, Pasyon, and
Flores de Mayo.
It was also during the period of the Spanish
occupation when brave-hearted Filipino
Burning with the desire to claim back the
Philippines from the foreign invaders, they
used their literary prowess to awaken the
hearts and minds of their fellowmen from
Our National Hero Jose Rizal along with his
fellow writers and his two important works
Noli me Tangere and El Filibusterismo,
published literary works intense with patriotic
Philippine Literature after the Spanish
The literature after the Spanish period was
predominantly made up of literary works
using English and Filipino languages.
With the introduction of the English language as
the medium of instruction in 1900, many
budding Filipino writers tried using the
Western tongue in writing stories and poems.
Understandably, the first attempts were
It was amazing, however how they learned and
mastered this language so quickly that It was
not very long before their works began to
show marked sensitivity as well as originality.
Philippine Regional Literature
Regional literature refers to the recorded or
unrecorded literature typical of a certain
boundary or area which is a part of the entire
It consists of distinctive linguistic, cultural, and
traditional characteristics common among the
people within the community, not
withstanding the numerous factors brough
about by the foreign influences.
Western Visayas literature, or Panayanon
literature, includes that written or orally
transmitted in the provinces into which Panay
island is divided: Iloilo, Capiz, Antique, and
The term also includes the literature of the
provinces of Negros Occidental and Guimaras,
both of which are on separate islands. This is
because the people of these two islands have
the same ethnic origins as those of Panay.
Hiligaynon refers to the language and culture of
the Illongo people, who inhabit Iloilo, Capiz,
Guimaras, and Negros Occidental.
However, the term has to come to connote the
more formal and literary language as it is used
in schools and by older generation of speakers
and writers. Ilongo is now used to the more
popular and informal use of the language.
The Filipino student is now given a holistic
perspective of the Filipino culture and spirit, in
spite of the diversity in the regional cultures,
is given this chance to understand and
develop a deep sense of appreciation for the
Origin and Development of the
Hiligaynon is a word which originated from “ilig”
which means “to flow”. It did not originally
mean the language spoken by the inhabitants
of Western Visayas.
It actually referred to the occupation of the
people living in the upper region of Panay.
They are bamboo floaters.
These bamboo floaters would float bamboo
poles downstream(“ilawod”) from
upstream(“iraya”) until they reach the bottom
of the river where others waited to buy these
poles for building houses.
Santiago Alv. Mulato related in his article “Why
Hiligaynon” how the Spaniards, through
misconception, became indirectly responsible
for popularizing the word “Hiligaynon” to refer
to a group of people called by that name.
When the Spaniards came, and since they also
used water for travel, they came upon these
people from upriver and their buyers
transacting business at the river mouths in the
Kalanagan Area and in Panay-an in Capiz.
When the Spaniards asked the name of this
group of people who navigated the river by
usign rafts like the “baizeros”(raftsmen) of
Mexico, the inaccurate answer they received
As the informants thought they were being
asked what profession those “manog-ilig sang
kawayan” (bamboo floaters) people had.
Today, this term is formally applied to the
dominant language used by the inhabitants of
Panay and Negros Occidental. “Ilonggo” is
another popular West Visayas term referred to
the people living in the region.
The term “Negrense” or “Negrosanon” or
“Tabukanon” became the specific word for
the inhabitants of Negros Occidental. The
practice extends to other places in the Panay
For instance, one refers to those from Aklan as
Aklanon, or from Antique as Antiquenos.
Another term which is commonly heard is
“Binisaya”. This is a modification of Visayas
which was earlier accepted as referring to the
language of Western Visayas also.
With the publication of the magazine
“Hiligaynon” many writers gave way to the
demands of the times and accepted
Hiniligaynon or Hiligaynon as the literary
language of Western Visayas.
Notable Writers in Hiligaynon
Hiligaynon writers have produced works in
various fields such as grammar books, novels
and short stories to serve the need and
purpose of time.
Some who researched in grammar were able to
publish dictionaries of Hiligaynon-English
translation especially for educational
Flavio Zaragoza Cano who hailed from
Cabanatuan, Iloilo, wrote both in Spanish and
Hiligaynon. His masterpiece, De Mactan A
Tirad (From Mactan to Tirad), won the first
Commonwealth Literary Contest in Spanish in
Another famous poet from Binalbagan, Negros
Occidental is Augurio M. Abeto who is
unforgettable for his Dalawidaw and Tuburan.
Angel Magahum is remembered as the first
Hiligaynon novelist who wrote the first novel
in Hiligaynon, Benjamin.
Magdalena Jalandoni, whose works, Ang
Bantay Sang Patyo, and Ang Dalaga Sa
Tienda, marked her place as a famous
novelist. She also won the Republic Cultural
Heritage Award in 1969 making her the first
Hiligaynon writer to be given the honor.
Avid readers of the leading vernacular
magazines, Hiligaynon and Yuhum, will never
forget the prolific and eloquent writer, Ramon
Muzones, whose literary prowess is illustrated
in his many unforgettable novels such as
Margosatubig, Tamblot and Dama de Noche.
The Hiniraya Language
The mother tongue of the region is Kinaray-a
(also called Karay-a, Hiniraya, or Kaday-a). In
act, Hiligaynon is a modern language that
evolved from kinaray-a.
Kiniray-a is better known as Hinaraya because it
coems from the word Iraya meaning “a high
place where water comes from”.
When the Malays and the Polynesians reached
the East Asia and the Pacific, the greatly
influenced people in these areas with their
languages. A group of these Malays and
Polynesians known as the Ilayanon settled in
Some landed in Panay, especially in Capiz, which
was referred to by Otley Beyer and Jaime C.
de Veyra in their Philippine Saga as the Ilayan
section of Panay.
Today, Kinaray-a is spoken in most rural areas
especially the coastal towns of Iloilo, in
Antque in Capiz (except in Roxas City where
Hiligaynon is used).
In one of Conrado J. Norada’s articles cited
Hiniraya as being responsible for enriching the
Hiligaynon language. Two factors which made
this possible are worth mentioning…
The difference in the usage of letter “l” in
Hiligaynon and the letter “r” in Hiniray-a e.g.
“wala” in Hiligaynon and “wara” in Hiniray-a