Unisa KeyNote Innovation in ODL Research Teaching and Learning - MOOCs

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MOOCs and Developing countries

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Unisa KeyNote Innovation in ODL Research Teaching and Learning - MOOCs

  1. 1. School of Systems Engineering Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) Dr. Tharindu Liyanagunawardena © University of Reading 2008 www.reading.ac.uk
  2. 2. Agenda for today • A Glance at MOOCs • Current Developments • Participation in MOOCs • Appeal for Developing Countries • Opportunities and Challenges • Learner Persona Analysis • Platform Support • Summing up 2
  3. 3. What is a MOOC? Image: Mathieu Plourde http://www.flickr.com/photos/mathplourde/10425003764/sizes/l/ 3
  4. 4. Massive Open Online Courses • MOOCs open up learning opportunities – Think Again: How to Reason and Argue, Duke University on Coursera – 226,652 – Social Psychology, Wesleyan University on Coursera – 200,000+ – AI 2012, Stanford University on Udacity – 160,000 from 209 countries Photo: Horia Varlan http://www.flickr.com/photos/horiavarlan/4290551550/size s/z/in/photostream/ 4
  5. 5. • Large numbers sign up for MOOCs – From around the world • … but • EdX – 2.7% from Least Developed Countries – 29% female (Ho, et. al 2014) • Coursera – – – – OECD 65.3%, BRICS 14.8%, Other Developing 19.9% 41% female 79.4% Bachelor’s degree or higher level of education (Christensen, et. al 2013) Adapted from: Conecta13 http://www.flickr.com/photos/conecta13/10206525186/sizes/l/ 5
  6. 6. Brief History • Connectivism and Connective Knowledge 2008 (CCK08) • Facilitators – George Siemens – Stephen Downes • University of Manitoba, Canada – 25 paid enrolments (for credit) – ~2,200 non-credit, non-fee paying students • Multiple Learning Spaces – More than 12 different tools and technological environments (Fini 2009) – from a VLE (Moodle) to 3D environments (Second Life) 6
  7. 7. A timeline (Yuan &Powell 2013) 7
  8. 8. Coursera 8
  9. 9. edX 9
  10. 10. FutureLearn 10
  11. 11. Rwaq 11
  12. 12. Xuetangx 12
  13. 13. Other Language support • Rwaq (Arabic) • Xuetangx (Chinese) • Mirianda X (Spanish, Portugues) • Many more..... • 28 MOOC Platforms identified http://openeducationmooc.blogspot.co.uk/2013/12/moocplatforms-december-2013.html (as of December 2013) 13
  14. 14. Systematic Review of Literature • 2008-2012 Liyanagunawardena, Adams & Williams (2013) 14
  15. 15. Participation in MOOCs • Have you participated in a MOOC? • Some MOOCs – – – – – – – – Edfuture OLDS-MOOC Open Education Learn to Program Begin Programming Social Network Analysis Introduction to Forensics Science History and Future of (Mostly) Higher Education • Lost count! 15
  16. 16. MOOC Completion Rates • 'Completion rate' is typically defined as the number who earned a certificate of completion or 'passed' the course – Katy Jordan MOOC Completion Rates: The Data http://www.katyjordan.com/MOOCproject.html Image by:  Josh Self http://www.flickr.com/photos/xabbu/5102633867/sizes/z/ 16
  17. 17. Some Completion Rates • Think Again: How to Reason and Argue – 2,274 Minimum Grade, 3,048 with Distinction – 5,322 / 226,652 2.35% • Social Psychology – ~8,000 Completed – 8,000 / 200,000  ~4% • AI https://www.coursera.org/course/thinkagain – ~20,000 Completed – 20,000 / 160,000  ~12.5% 17
  18. 18. Dropout • This is what we see in reports – “Massively Open Online Courses (MOOCs) have an expected 90% dropout rate which is not considered a problem” (Londeore, 2013) • But what is ‘dropout’? • 100 minus completed % ? • Then what is 100% ? – Only 50-60% of enrolled come to the first class • What about learner intentions? • Inadequate attention to defining dropout? (Liyanagunawardena, Parslow & Williams 2014) Photo: Ian Muttoo http://farm2.staticflickr.com/1430/51095 43974_52f6bb1430_b.jpg  http://www.survey.bris.ac.uk/reading/mooc_dropout 18
  19. 19. MOOCs are Different Traditional Courses MOOC • No fee (for basic offering) • Enrolment and tuition fees charged • Registration frozen before commencement • Generally registration open while course is offered • Can drop in-out • ‘Risk free’ exploration • Different engagement contract “drop outs represent risks and challenges of Openness and inclusion” (COL, 2013) Photo: AJ Cann http://www.flickr.com/photos/ajc1/7566869868/sizes/m/ 19
  20. 20. Empirical Evidence Typical Coursera MOOC • Enrolments 40,00060,000 • Free • First class – 50-60% returned • Completion – 5% Signature Track Scheme • US$30-100 • Completion 74% • Suggests financial stake provide additional incentive to complete ‘retention in MOOCs should be evaluated within the context of learner intent’ (Koller et, al., 2013: p62) 20
  21. 21. Appeal for Developing Countries • Open – how open? • Free – really? • Opportunity – Learning – Researching – For us to be heard Image: Cambodia4kids.org Beth Kanter from Flicker Must read work of Laura Czerniewicz – University of Cape Town • Prestige? – ‘[i]n Uganda, it’s quite possible that a few Coursera certificates, even if they don’t add up to a real degree, might in fact be worth more than a degree from Ankole Western University [..] because the prestige of the western universities from which those certificates will come is so much higher than that of the local universities, and will offset the fact that they don’t quite add up to a real degree’ Usher (2013). 21
  22. 22. MOOCs in Developing Countries • 24th February 2014 • Internet.org Announces SocialEDU • A pilot initiative in Rwanda – – – – – Free content Free data Affordable smartphones Localized, social educational experience A government that supports innovation http://newsroom.fb.com/News/808/SocialEDU 22
  23. 23. • École polytechnique fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), Switzerland – MOOCs for Africa a Unique Opportunity – EPFL – Blended form of delivery 95% + completion rates http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xxp1p-pqpls 23
  24. 24. • African Management Initiative (AMI) – The first Massively Open Online Course (MOOC) designed by Africans for Africans – Business education tailored for African SMEs and young managers and/or knowledge workers – Longer-term vision for the AMI Virtual Campus • EducateMe360 – Education Is A Right And Not A Privilege – Indian Trust – Open Source 24
  25. 25. • unX – MOOCs in Latin America – http://www.redunx.org/ – Spanish Platform • MOOC.org – Open edX – Google – MOOC platform for anyone to use 25
  26. 26. Review on MOOCs:Health & Medicine • A review of Health & Medicine MOOCs • 01st Jan 2013 – 31st Dec 2013 • 98 MOOCs • 70% - North American • Only 2 MOOCs offered by Universities in Developing Countries – St. George’s University, Grenada – West Indies – Shanghai Jiao Tong University - China Liyanagunawardena, T.R. & Williams, S.A – MediMOOC Work in progress 26
  27. 27. Learner Personas Adapted from:  Lafayette College http://farm6.staticflickr.com/5460/7210420676_d73c97d 44e_b.jpg • Raj – 35 Years – IT Professional – Bangalore city apartment – Hindi, English & French – People Management – Potential opening in Managerial capacity 27
  28. 28. • Dian – 26 Years – Secondary School Teacher – School has the state of art computer facilities – Lives in Kuala Lumpur – Malay & little bit of English – No IT Skills – Wants to find teaching material to improve the course she teaches (‘History of Malaysia’) Adapted from: Thompson Rivers http://farm9.staticflickr.com/8147/7161440301_e68cf2e91 2_b.jpg 28
  29. 29. • Eric – – – – – – Adapted from  Lafayette College http://farm6.staticflickr.com/5447/7210409890_a34b63f54f _c.jpg 23 Years Dropped out of College Bujumbura (Burundi) Only Speaks Kirundi Some IT Skills No access to computers or Internet – Gets electricity 3 days a week – Wants to improve his employability 29
  30. 30. • Sunil – 65 Years – Retired Director of a Government Department – Lives in Galle (Sri Lanka) – Sinhala & English – Learning to use a computer – Has Internet access to home – Wants to learn about Disaster Management in his spare time Image by: Tanzil Tafheem http://farm4.staticflickr.com/3455/3398860855_045a6 47419_o.jpg 30
  31. 31. What challenges will they face? • Language • Digital Literacy – IT skills – Critically analysing digital content • Physical Access to computers/Internet Photo: Steve http://www.flickr.com/photos/sanjoseweb/448 5508101/sizes/m/ – Equipment access – Data download (costly in some parts of the world) • Cultural issues – Who’s perspective of History – Ability to apply Western Management practices – ‘Cultural Translation’ (Nkuyubwatsi 2014) 31
  32. 32. • Copy right – Can Dian use content from a MOOC to teach in her course? • Learner support – Sunil, Eric and Dian may need lot more support initially • Style of T&L • Accreditation and recognition? • ... 32
  33. 33. What form of support is there? • Platform Support – Coursera – Prof. Andrew Ng – co founder Coursera at EMOOCs2014 • Mobile App • • • • • Allow download of content Internationalization of the site Translation Partnerships Discoverability Coursera Financial Aid • Learning Hubs programme 33
  34. 34. Summing up • MOOCs and their spread • Appeal for Developing Countries • Opportunities and Challenges • Our learners and their needs Adapted From: Celestine Chua http://www.flickr.com/photos/celestinechua/9683205509/sizes/m/ 34
  35. 35. Bibliography • Christensen, G., Steinmetz, A., Alcorn, B., Bennett, A., Woods, D., & Emanuel, E.J. (2013). The MOOC Phenomenon: Who Takes Massive Open Online Courses and Why?, Retrieved from http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2350964 • Commonwealth of Learning, (December 5, 2013). PCF7: Alan Tait Makes Case for Open Universities as Agents of Empowerment and Transformation, PCF7 News Flash, http://www.col.org/SiteCollectionDocuments/PCF7-Bulletin_Day3.pdf • Fini, A. (2009). The Technological Dimension of a Massive Open Online Course: The Case of the CCK08 Course Tools. The International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning, 10(5). • Ho, A. D., Reich, J., Nesterko, S., Seaton, D. T., Mullaney, T., Waldo, J., & Chuang, I. (2014). HarvardX and MITx: The first year of open online courses (HarvardX and MITx Working Paper No. 1), Retrieved from http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2381263 • Koller, D., Ng, A., Do, C., & Chen, Z. (2013). Retention and Intention in Massive Open Online Courses. EDUCAUSE review, May/June 2, 62–63. • Liyanagunawardena, T. R., Adams, A. A., & Williams, S. (2013). MOOCs: a Systematic Study of the Published Literature 2008-2012, International review of Research in Open and Distance Learning, 14(3), 202-227. • Liyanagunawardena, T., Williams, S. and Adams, A. (2013) The impact and reach of MOOCs:a developing countries’ perspective. eLearning Papers (33). ISSN 1887-1542 • Liyanagunawardena, T. R., Parslow, P. and Williams, S. (2014) Dropout: MOOC participants’perspective. In: EMOOCs 2014, the Second MOOC European Stakeholders Summit, 10-12 th February 2014, Lausanne, Switzerland, pp. 95-100. • Londeore, C. (September 17, 2013). Tales of MOOC Dropout, http://www.hybridpedagogy.com/journal/tales-of-a-moocdropout/ • Nkuyubwatsi, B. (2014). Cultural Translation in Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs), In: EMOOCs 2014, the Second MOOC European Stakeholders Summit, 10-12 th February 2014, Lausanne, Switzerland, pp.122-129. • Usher, A. ( March 7, 2013). African Higher Education Offshore Education: MOOCs in Africa, Higher Education Strategy Associates, http://higheredstrategy.com/offshore-education-moocs-in-africa-2/ • Yuan, L., & Powell, S. (2013). MOOCs and Open Education: Implications for Higher Education - A white paper, JISC CETIS (Centre for Educational Technology & Interoperability Standards). Retrieved from http://publications.cetis.ac.uk/2013/667 35
  36. 36. Thank you Please take part in the survey at  http://www.survey.bris.ac.uk/reading/mooc_d ropout Dr. Tharindu R. Liyanagunawardena t.r.liyanagunawardena@reading.ac.uk 36
  37. 37. http://harvardx.harvard.edu/harvardx-insights/world-map-enrollment Back 37
  38. 38. http://thenextweb.com/insider/2013/12/10/coursera-launches-ios-app-let-studentslearn-go-says-android-app-coming-soon/#!xMmOn Back 38
  39. 39. https://d396qusza40orc.cloudfront.net/students%2FScreen%20Shot%202013-10-30%20at%2011.47.34%20PM.png Back 39
  40. 40. An Example 40
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