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Requirements Management
 

Requirements Management

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ISFP Requirements Management Process in Software Development Life Cycle

ISFP Requirements Management Process in Software Development Life Cycle

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  • Not sure I agree with everything stated; however I believe the key to successful system development lies with defining good information requirements as opposed to simply defining 'What the system should do'. Focus should be on 'What information should the system be handling' placing more emphasis on the overall purpose of the system.
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  • Very comprehensive and useful !
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    Requirements Management Requirements Management Presentation Transcript

    • SPIG-PD: PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT PROCESS Software Requirements Procedures I ntegrated S olutions F or P orts Mohamed M. Mobarak Business Integration Analyst Alexandria Port Automation
    • AGENDA
      • WHAT Requirements Management (RM)?
      • WHY Requirements Management (RM)?
      • HOW Requirements Management (RM)?
        • Requirements Planning
        • Requirements Elicitation
        • Requirements Analysis
        • Requirements Development
        • Requirements Validation
        • Requirements Acceptance
        • Requirements Administration
      • Requirements Engineering Best Practices
    • AGENDA
      • WHAT Requirements Management (RM)?
      • WHY Requirements Management (RM)?
      • HOW Requirements Management (RM)?
        • Requirements Planning
        • Requirements Elicitation
        • Requirements Analysis
        • Requirements Development
        • Requirements Validation
        • Requirements Acceptance
        • Requirements Administration
      • Requirements Engineering Best Practices
      • Software Requirements
      • SPIG Definition
        • Requirements are the basis for design and the whole product development process.
      • IEEE Standard Definition
        • A condition or capability needed by user to solve a problem to achieve an objective.
        • Condition or capability that must be met or processed by a system or system component to satisfy a contract, standard, specification, or other formally imposed documents.
        • A document representation of a condition or capability as in 1 or 2.
      WHAT Requirements Management (RM) ?
      • Levels of Requirements
      WHAT Requirements Management (RM) ? BUSINESS USER FUNCTIONAL Functional Non-Functional Business Req.
      • Statement Of Work (SOW), RFP
      • Vision & scope document
      • Project charter
      • Market Req. Doc.
      Functional Req. User Req.
      • Use cases
      • Scenario descriptions.
      • Software Requirements Specs
      • ( the system shall ……. )
      Business Rules Quality Attributes External Interfaces Constraints System Req.
      • Example: Levels of Requirements
      WHAT Requirements Management (RM) ? BUSINESS USER FUNCTIONAL
        • In a word processing program:
        • Find spelling errors.
        • Add word to global dictionary.
        • The spell checker shall find & highlight misspelled words.
        • The spell checker shall display a dialog box with suggested replacements.
        • The Spell checker shall have the capability to replace the misspelled word globally.
        • The word processor includes a “Spell Checker”.
        • The program will allow users to correct spelling in document efficiently
      • RM Process Goals
      • Goal 1:
        • Project stakeholders’ needs, expectations, constraints, and interfaces are elicited, analyzed, and stated as clear requirements, which are refined and elaborated to develop validated SRS
      WHAT Requirements Management (RM) ?
      • Goal 2:
        • Requirements are administrated and tracked to all product components during project phases
    • WHAT Requirements Management (RM) ?
    • AGENDA
      • WHAT Requirements Management (RM)?
      • WHY Requirements Management (RM)?
      • HOW Requirements Management (RM)?
        • Requirements Planning
        • Requirements Elicitation
        • Requirements Analysis
        • Requirements Development
        • Requirements Validation
        • Requirements Acceptance
        • Requirements Administration
      • Requirements Engineering Best Practices
      • Implications of Bad Requirements
      • Rework .. Rework .. Rework
        • Cost of rework: 30% to 50% of development cost
        • 70% to 85% of rework cost come from requirements errors
        • 80-80 syndrome: the project is 80% complete 80% of the time
      WHY Requirements Management (RM) ?
      • Characteristics of Good Requirements
      • Complete
        • Each requirement must fully describe the functionality to be delivered
      • Correct
        • Each requirement must accurately describe the functionality to be built
      • Feasible
        • It must be possible to implement the functionality
      • Necessary
        • Each requirement should document a capability that is really needed
      • Prioritized
        • Assign priorities to respond to budget cuts, time, …
      • Unambiguous
        • All readers must arrive to the same understanding
      • Verifiable
        • Can be tested, inspected, reviewed, …
      WHY Requirements Management (RM) ?
      • Risks Associated with Requirements
      • Requirements gathering and elicitation are not planned
      • Suitable stakeholders are not involved in the elicitation phase
      • Requirements are not documented or well analyzed
      • Inexperience, lack of training of the requirements engineering team
      • Difficulty in defining requirements.
      • Requirements specifications are not well defined and not well validated
      • Requirements and their changes are not accepted by customer and senior management
      WHY Requirements Management (RM) ?
      • Why Should I care?
      • Fewer requirements defects
      • Reduce development rework
      • Fewer unnecessary features
      • Lower enhancement costs
      • Faster development
      • Fewer miscommunications
      • Reduced scope creep
      • Reduced project Chaos
      • More accurate system testing estimates
      • High customer and team members satisfaction
      WHY Requirements Management (RM) ? Project Closure تسليم المشروع & Customer Satisfaction
    • AGENDA
      • WHAT Requirements Management (RM)?
      • WHY Requirements Management (RM)?
      • HOW Requirements Management (RM)?
        • Requirements Planning
        • Requirements Elicitation
        • Requirements Analysis
        • Requirements Development
        • Requirements Validation
        • Requirements Acceptance
        • Requirements Administration
      • Requirements Engineering Best Practices
      • Analyst Role & Stakeholders
      HOW Requirements Management (RM)? Req. Producers Req. Consumers Project Sponsor (Customer) Project Management User Representative Development Testing Other Stakeholders Size and complexity Business Requirements User Requirements Exceptions and constraints Functional and non functional requirements Functional and non functional requirements
      • The Analyst Tasks & Skills
      HOW Requirements Management (RM)? SOFTWARE REQUIRMENTS TASKS Define Identify stakeholders and user classes Elicit Analyze Write SRS Model Validate Prioritize Manage & Administrate SKILLS Listening Interview and questioning Analytical Facilitation Observation Writing Organization Modeling Interpersonal Creativity
    • AGENDA
      • WHAT Requirements Management (RM)?
      • WHY Requirements Management (RM)?
      • HOW Requirements Management (RM)?
        • Requirements Planning
        • Requirements Elicitation
        • Requirements Analysis
        • Requirements Development
        • Requirements Validation
        • Requirements Acceptance
        • Requirements Administration
      • Requirements Engineering Best Practices
      • Requirements Planning Procedure
      • Objective
        • - Guide the enactment of the requirements elicitation process
        • Establishing an agreement among project stakeholders:
          • Roles and responsibilities.
          • Deployment Schedule
      HOW Requirements Management (RM)? [Planning] Requirements Administration Planning Elicitation Analysis Development Validation Acceptance Initial Planning Monitoring & Control
      • Entry & Exit Criteria
      HOW Requirements Management (RM)? [Planning]
      • Entry Criteria (OR):
      • Partial PMP Approval
      • Rework from Requirements Elicitation Procedure
      • Exit Criteria:
      • Requirements Elicitation Plan Approval
      • Input:
      • Request for proposal (RFP)
      • Proposal (and Pre-Sales Documents)
      • Statement of Work (SOW) (Project initiation documents)
      • Approved partial PMP
      • Historical Database
      • Output:
      • Approved Requirements Elicitation Plan
      Requirements Planning Procedure
      • Process Activities
      • Assign a person to engineer and manage requirements for the project.
      • Review the given “Problem Description” to gain understanding of the required product.
      • Identifies the individuals and/or groups with a stake in the success of the project
        • Favored/ Un-favored/ Ignored User Classes
      • Identify acceptance criteria and document acceptance criteria for requirements elicitation procedures.
      • Develop a plan for requirements elicitation and document it
      • (DOC: Requirements Elicitation Plan )
      HOW Requirements Management (RM)? [Planning]
      • Process Activities (Cont.)
      • Risks to the project development should be identified and assessed
        • Market Competition/ Timing/ User Acceptance/ Implementation Issue
      • Review the plan to reach consensus on its contents.
      • Communicate the plan to the customer and make needed updates.
      • Review the elicitation plan.
      • Add output to the CM repository.
      • Monitor the progress.
      • Approve the outputs of the procedure
        • Funding Resource for the plan deployment
      HOW Requirements Management (RM)? [Planning]
    • AGENDA
      • WHAT Requirements Management (RM)?
      • WHY Requirements Management (RM)?
      • HOW Requirements Management (RM)?
        • Requirements Planning
        • Requirements Elicitation
        • Requirements Analysis
        • Requirements Development
        • Requirements Validation
        • Requirements Acceptance
        • Requirements Administration
      • Requirements Engineering Best Practices
      • Requirements Elicitation Procedure
      • Objective
        • - Discover and capture candidate software requirements (both functional and non-functional) by communicating with the customer and/or end users and others who have stake in the system development
      HOW Requirements Management (RM)? [Elicitation] Requirements Administration Planning Elicitation Analysis Development Validation Acceptance Initial Planning Monitoring & Control
      • Entry & Exit Criteria
      HOW Requirements Management (RM)? [Elicitation]
      • Entry Criteria:
      • Requirements Elicitation Plan Approval
      • Exit Criteria:
      • Approved Candidate Requirements
      • Input:
      • Approved Requirements Elicitation Plan
      • Output:
      • Candidate Requirements Approval
      • Requirements Planning
      Requirements Elicitation Procedure
      • Process Activities
      • Acquire the application domain knowledge.
      • Identify candidate functional and non-functional requirements with its rationale (if possible).
        • Requirements may be arbitrary broken into sub-groups to facilitate collection.
      • Record requirements in Req. DB and procedures to establish RTM
      • (DOC: Requirements Management ).
      • Review the documented requirements.
      • Monitor the progress.
      • Approve the outputs of the procedure
      HOW Requirements Management (RM)? [Elicitation]
      • Elicitation Techniques
      • Interactive
        • Interviews
        • Elicitation workshops (Facilitated meetings)
          • Tips : Establish ground rules/ Stay in Scope/ Time-box discussion/ Keep team small and include right participants/ Keep everyone engaged/ Talk Once Comment Once Technique.
        • Focus Groups
      • Passive
        • Prototypes
        • Scenarios
        • Observations
      HOW Requirements Management (RM)? [Elicitation]
      • Are we done yet?
      • Perhaps we are done if:
        • The user can’t think of any more use cases.
        • Users proposed new use cases you have already covered by other use case.
        • User repeat issues covered in previous discussions
        • Suggested new features, functions, requirements are all out of scope.
        • Proposed new requirements are all low priority.
      HOW Requirements Management (RM)? [Elicitation]
    • AGENDA
      • WHAT Requirements Management (RM)?
      • WHY Requirements Management (RM)?
      • HOW Requirements Management (RM)?
        • Requirements Planning
        • Requirements Elicitation
        • Requirements Analysis
        • Requirements Development
        • Requirements Validation
        • Requirements Acceptance
        • Requirements Administration
      • Requirements Engineering Best Practices
      • Requirements Analysis Procedure
      • Objective
        • Further understand the requirements to solve conflicts and inconsistencies and to ensure that they meet the required quality attributes and reflect the customer needs .
        • Repeated procedure until an agreement is reached
      HOW Requirements Management (RM)? [Analysis] Requirements Administration Planning Elicitation Analysis Development Validation Acceptance Initial Planning Monitoring & Control
      • Entry & Exit Criteria
      HOW Requirements Management (RM)? [Analysis]
      • Entry Criteria (OR):
      • Baselined Project Management Plan
      • Rework From Requirements Development
      • Rework from Requirements Validation
      • Calling from Requirements Administration
      • Exit Criteria:
      • Clear Traceable Requirements
      • Input:
      • Approved Candidate Requirements
      • Output:
      • Approved Clear Traceable Requirements
      Requirements Analysis Procedure
      • Process Activities
      • Examine requirements to classify the difficulties and risks.
      • Assess risks and prioritize requirements.
      • Review and identify traceability
      • Negotiate conflicts with stakeholders.
      • Communicate with customer and solve any issue
      • Conduct peer review
      • Conduct QA audit and CM activities
      • Monitor the progress.
      • Approve the outputs of the procedure
      HOW Requirements Management (RM)? [Analysis]
    • AGENDA
      • WHAT Requirements Management (RM)?
      • WHY Requirements Management (RM)?
      • HOW Requirements Management (RM)?
        • Requirements Planning
        • Requirements Elicitation
        • Requirements Analysis
        • Requirements Development
        • Requirements Validation
        • Requirements Acceptance
        • Requirements Administration
      • Requirements Engineering Best Practices
      • Requirements Development Procedure
      • Objective
        • Transform identified requirements into a formal software requirement specification (SRS), which is used to communicate requirements among all stakeholders.
      HOW Requirements Management (RM)? [Development] Requirements Administration Planning Elicitation Analysis Development Validation Acceptance Initial Planning Monitoring & Control
      • Entry & Exit Criteria
      HOW Requirements Management (RM)? [Development]
      • Entry Criteria (OR):
      • Clear Traceable Requirements Approval
      • Rework from Requirements Validation
      • Calling from Requirements Administration
      • Exit Criteria:
      • Clear Traceable Requirements
      • Input:
      • Approved Clear Traceable Requirements
      • Output:
      • Updated RTM
      • Approved SRS
      Requirements Development Procedure
      • Process Activities
      • Review the available traceable requirements to gain understanding of requirements.
      • Develop and document precise (function/ non-functional) specification.
      • Develop and document any further related customer specs.
      • Develop and document precise (User interface/ SW and HW interface)
      • Develop and document precise list of associated product documentation materials.
      • Develop an document precise Acceptance criteria
      • Develop and documents any other required information
      HOW Requirements Management (RM)? [Development]
      • Process Activities – (Cont.)
      • Update the Traceability matrix
      • Conduct peer review
      • Conduct QA audit and CM activities
      • Monitor the progress.
      • Approve the outputs of the procedure
      • (DOC: Software Requirements Specification - SRS ).
      HOW Requirements Management (RM)? [Development]
      • The SRS Audience
        • Customers
        • Project Managers
        • Software development team
        • The testing group
        • Maintenance ad support staff,
        • Documentation writers
        • Training personnel
        • Legal staff ensure
        • Subcontractor
      HOW Requirements Management (RM)? [Elicitation]
    • AGENDA
      • WHAT Requirements Management (RM)?
      • WHY Requirements Management (RM)?
      • HOW Requirements Management (RM)?
        • Requirements Planning
        • Requirements Elicitation
        • Requirements Analysis
        • Requirements Development
        • Requirements Validation
        • Requirements Acceptance
        • Requirements Administration
      • Requirements Engineering Best Practices
      • Requirements Validation Procedure
      • Objective
        • Ensure that the developed SRS reflects the customer requirements.
        • Process involves communicating the SRS to all stakeholders and facilitating agreement among them
      HOW Requirements Management (RM)? [Validation] Requirements Administration Planning Elicitation Analysis Development Validation Acceptance Initial Planning Monitoring & Control
      • Entry & Exit Criteria
      HOW Requirements Management (RM)? [Validation]
      • Entry Criteria (OR):
      • SRS Approval
      • Calling from Requirements Administration
      • Exit Criteria:
      • Requirements Baselined
      • Requirements Development Rework
      • Requirements Analysis Rework
      • Input:
      • Updated RTM
      • Approved SRS
      • Output:
      • Baselined SRS & RTM
      Requirements Validation Procedure
      • Process Activities
      • Assess SRS to ensure SRS meets its required qualities
      • Confirm traceability
      • Document findings in a deficiency report
      • Assess the reported defect to classify and assign priorities.
      • Delegate defects that have to be corrected
      • Correct the delegated defects and report the type of the defect.
      • Close the corrected defect
      • Conduct peer review
      • Conduct QA audit and CM activities
      • Conduct functional/physical configuration audit
      • Baseline all planning outputs
      HOW Requirements Management (RM)? [Validation]
      • Process Activities (Cont.)
      • Monitor the progress.
      • Approve the outputs of the procedure
      • (DOC: Requirements Management ).
      • (DOC: Software Requirements Specification - SRS ).
      HOW Requirements Management (RM)? [Validation]
      • Validation Techniques
      • Peer Review
      • Prototyping
      • Model Validation
      HOW Requirements Management (RM)? [Validation]
    • AGENDA
      • WHAT Requirements Management (RM)?
      • WHY Requirements Management (RM)?
      • HOW Requirements Management (RM)?
        • Requirements Planning
        • Requirements Elicitation
        • Requirements Analysis
        • Requirements Development
        • Requirements Validation
        • Requirements Acceptance
        • Requirements Administration
      • Requirements Engineering Best Practices
      • Requirements Acceptance Procedure
      • Objective
        • Confirm that the baseline requirements reflect the project’s acceptance criteria
        • This process can be used as a milestone to report progress to the customer and senior management
      HOW Requirements Management (RM)? [Acceptance] Requirements Administration Planning Elicitation Analysis Development Validation Acceptance Initial Planning Monitoring & Control
      • Entry & Exit Criteria
      HOW Requirements Management (RM)? [Acceptance]
      • Entry Criteria (OR):
      • Requirements Baselined
      • Calling from Requirements Administration
      • Exit Criteria:
      • Customer and Senior Management Acceptance
      • Input:
      • Baselined SRS and RTM
      • Measurement Data
      • Output:
      • Accepted Baselined Requirements
      Requirements Acceptance Procedure
      • Process Activities
      • Present baselined requirements, SRS and associated measurements to senior management.
      • Obtain customer approval of the baselined requirements.
      • Go through the formal change management process and requirements administration process id any modifications are needed.
      • Monitor the progress
      HOW Requirements Management (RM)? [Acceptance]
    • AGENDA
      • WHAT Requirements Management (RM)?
      • WHY Requirements Management (RM)?
      • HOW Requirements Management (RM)?
        • Requirements Planning
        • Requirements Elicitation
        • Requirements Analysis
        • Requirements Development
        • Requirements Validation
        • Requirements Acceptance
        • Requirements Administration
      • Requirements Engineering Best Practices
      • Requirements Administration Procedure
      • Objective
        • Ensure that all requirements are traceable and under control
        • The procedure is needed when any changes to the approved SRS occur.
      HOW Requirements Management (RM)? [Admin.] Requirements Administration Planning Elicitation Analysis Development Validation Acceptance Initial Planning Monitoring & Control
      • Entry & Exit Criteria
      HOW Requirements Management (RM)? [Admin]
      • Entry Criteria:
      • Change Request Approval
      • Exit Criteria:
      • Close Change Request Approval
      • Input:
      • Approved Change Request
      • Requirements Database
      • Baselined RTM
      • Approved baselined SRS
      • Output:
      • Approved Close Change Request
      Requirements Administration Procedure
      • Process Activities
      • Use Requirements Planning Procedure
      • Use Requirements Elicitation Procedure
      • Use Requirements Analysis Procedure
      • Use Requirements Development Procedure
      • Use Requirements Validation Procedure
      • Use Requirements Acceptance Procedure
      • Close the change request
      • Monitor the progress
      • Approve the output of the procedure
      HOW Requirements Management (RM)? [Admin]
    • AGENDA
      • WHAT Requirements Management (RM)?
      • WHY Requirements Management (RM)?
      • HOW Requirements Management (RM)?
        • Requirements Planning
        • Requirements Elicitation
        • Requirements Analysis
        • Requirements Development
        • Requirements Validation
        • Requirements Acceptance
        • Requirements Administration
      • Requirements Engineering Best Practices
      • Three Categories of Req. Best Practices
      Requirements Engineering Best Practices Knowledge The Requirements Process Project Management
      • (1) Knowledge
        • Train requirements analysts.
        • Educate user representatives and managers about requirements .
        • Create a glossary
      Requirements Engineering Best Practices
    • Requirements Engineering Best Practices
      • (2) The Requirements Process
        • Define a requirements process
        • Adopt Software Requirements Specs (SRS) template
        • Create requirements traceability matrix (RTM)
        • Validate Requirements
        • Baseline and manage version of requirements
        • Measure requirements and track its status
        • Establish change control board (CCB) with a defined process
        • Identify user classes
        • Hold facilitated elicitation workshops
        • Observer users performing their jobs
        • Reuse requirements
      • (2) The Requirements Process (Cont.)
        • Analyze feasibly
        • Create data dictionary
        • Create prototypes
        • Define acceptance criteria
      Requirements Engineering Best Practices
      • (3) Project Management
        • Select appropriate life cycle
        • Best plans on requirements
        • Renegotiate commitments
        • Manage requirements risks
        • Track requirements effort
        • Review past lessons learned
      Requirements Engineering Best Practices
      • Thanks For Your Attention
      • Any Questions ?