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  • 1. 5 COMMON EMERGENCIESCardiac Arrest, Respiratory Arrest, Airway Obstruction, Burns, Soft-Tissue Injuries By: Monica Dennison
  • 2. CARDIAC ARREST• Unexpected loss of heart function, breathing and consciousness• Results from an electrical disturbance in your heart• Pumping action of the heart is disrupted• Blood flow to the rest of your body is stopped
  • 3. SYMPTOMS• Sudden collapse• No pulse• No breathing• Loss of consciousness • OTHER SIGNS MAY BE• Fatigue, fainting, blackouts, chest pain, shortness of breath, weakness, palpitations or vomiting• Often occurs with NO warning
  • 4. TREATMENT• If you experience any of these signs see a physician immediately• If you come across someone who is NOT breathing… ▫ Call 911 ▫ Perform CPR ▫ Use a portable defibrillator ▫ Continue this cycle until the patient regains consciousness or emergency medical technicians take over ▫ www.news-medical.net
  • 5. RESPIRATORY ARREST• When a person ceases to breath on their own they enter a state known as respiratory arrest• Caused by airway obstruction, respiratory muscle weakness, decreased respiratory drive• If respiratory arrest is prolonged, cardiac arrest will quickly follow
  • 6. SYMPTOMS• Absence of spontaneous breathing• Chest does not rise and fall• Skin color changes due to lack of oxygen• You will be unable to feel air coming from the mouth or nose
  • 7. TREATMENT• Remove any airway obstruction• Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR)• Intubation (medical professional)• Tracheotomy (medical professional)• www.buzzle.com
  • 8. AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION• Can be a partial or complete blockage of the breathing passages to the lungs• Can become completely obstructed by swollen anatomy or by a foreign object• If airway becomes completely blocked, the patient will not be able to make any sounds, cannot breath and will soon become unconscious• www.health.nytimes.com
  • 9. SYMPTOMS• 3 factors that greatly contribute to choking are… ▫ Alcohol ▫ Inattention to eating ▫ Laughing/talking while eating Coughing They may display the “Universal Choking Sign” or will become quiet and may leave the table to go to the bathroom
  • 10. TREATMENT• Encourage victim to cough• If stop or unable to cough/talk, ask if they are choking and if you can help them• If they say yes, perform the Heimlich maneuver• If unconscious, begin CPR• Continue cycle until blockage is removed or EMS arrives• www.wikibooks.org
  • 11. BURNS• 1ST Degree Burns- least serious. Only the outer layer is burned • SYMPTOMS ▫Redness ▫Swelling ▫Pain
  • 12. 2nd DEGREE BURNS• When the first layer of skin is burned through and the second layer is also burned• SYMPTOMS ▫ Blisters ▫ Skin is intensely reddened and splotchy ▫ Severe pain and swelling
  • 13. TREATMENT• Treatment for 1st and 2nd degree burns ▫ Cool the burn ▫ Cover with a sterile bandage ▫ Take an over-the-counter pain reliever ▫ WATCH FOR  Infection, swelling or oozing  Increased pain  Redness, fever
  • 14. 3rd DEGREE BURNS• Serious burns that involve all layers of the skin and cause permanent tissue damage• SYMPTOMS > areas may be charred black, difficulty breathing and exhaling
  • 15. TREATMENT• CALL 911• Check for signs of circulation• Elevate burned parts• Cover the burn• www.medicinenet.com
  • 16. SOFT – TISSUE INJURIES• The damage of muscles, ligaments and tendons throughout the body• Usually occur from a strain, sprain, contusion (bruise), overuse or stress injuries
  • 17. SOFT – TISSUE INJURIES• Can result in pain, swelling, bruising, and/or temporary loss of function  TREATMENT  R = rest the individual from activity that causes pain  I = ice the injury  C = apply compression to the injury  E = elevate injured area above the heart  IF PAIN IS SEVERE CONSULT A PHYSICIAN
  • 18. AUTOMATED EXTERNAL DEFIBRILLATOR (AED)• A portable electronic device that will automatically diagnose any potentially life threatening cardiac arrhythmias of ventricular fibrillation and ventricular tachycardia in a patient• Treats through defibrillation and allows the heart to reestablish an effective rhythm
  • 19. AED’s• Use simple audio and visual commands and are designed to be simple to use for the average person• The use of AED’s is taught in many first aid, first responder and CPR courses