Fundamental aspects of language teaching

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  • 1. Applied Linguistics: The teaching practice Montse Irun mirun@dal.udl.cat
  • 2. Types of Learners Needs Analysis Fundamental Aspects of English Language Teaching
  • 3. Types of Learners  Analytic learners deductive approach being given the rule + examples  Holistic learners inductive approach examples + inferring the rule Fundamental Aspects of English Language Teaching
  • 4. Good Language Learners  Respond to the group dynamics  Seek out all opportunities to use FL  Attend to meaning rather than to form.  Supplement the learning from the interaction with the use of study techniques  Be an adolescent or an adult  Have analytic skills  Possess a strong reason for learning the L2  Take risks  Adapt to different learning conditions (Ellis 1985) Fundamental Aspects of English Language Teaching
  • 5. Learning Strategies  Metacognitive organising one’s learning, monitoring, etc.  Cognitive making comparison between languages, using a dictionary, etc.  Social asking for help, interacting with NS, etc. A more conscious, reflective language learner is a more effective language learner (Ellis & Sinclair, 1998) Fundamental Aspects of English Language Teaching
  • 6. A language teacher’s expertise Consists of:  language proficiency  language awareness  pedagogic skills Fundamental Aspects of English LanguageTeaching
  • 7. Needs Analysis. Purposes  To obtain input into the content, design and implementation of a programme.  To develop goals and contents.  To review and evaluate a programme.  To give accountability for the educational authorities Fundamental Aspects of English LanguageTeaching
  • 8. Fundamental Aspects of English Language Teaching
  • 9. Needs Analysis: Types  Target needs: what the learner needs to do in the target situation.  Necessities.  Lacks.  Wants.  Learning needs: what the learner needs to do in order to learn. Fundamental Aspects of English Language Teaching
  • 10. Receptive Skills: Reading and listening Fundamental Aspects of English LanguageTeaching
  • 11. Reading Fundamental Aspects of English Language Teaching
  • 12. About you?  What have you read in the last 24 hours?  Why did you read them?  How did you read them? Fundamental Aspects of English Language Teaching
  • 13. Techniques and strategies to help understanding  Cognates  Numbers  Knowledge of the language / symbols (“, ´, capital letters)  Visuals  Layout  Knowledge of the world SHOW STUDENTS HOW MUCHTHEY CAN UNDERSTAND!!!!! Fundamental Aspects of English LanguageTeaching
  • 14. SCHEMA THEORY Top down processing  RAT EHT WAS TAC EHT "He went into a restaurant. After the salad he felt better.“ Fundamental Aspects of English Language Teaching
  • 15. Schema theory  "Jane was invited to Jack's birthday party. She wondered if he would like a kite. She went to her room and shook her piggy - bank. It made no sound."  "Mary heard the ice-cream man coming down the street. She remembered her birthday money and rushed into the house ..." (Runnelhart 1977:265)  "... and locked the door" (Fillmore 1980). Fundamental Aspects of English LanguageTeaching
  • 16. Fundamental Aspects of English Language Teaching
  • 17. Fundamental Aspects of English Language Teaching
  • 18. Reading Strategies  Predicting  Getting the general picture (skimming)  Extracting specific information (scanning)  Inferring opinion and attitude  Deducing meaning from context  Recognising functions and discourse patterns and markers Fundamental Aspects of English Language Teaching
  • 19. Steps in a reading activity  Pre- reading activity  What they know  What they can guess before reading  Expectations  Purpose  While-reading activity  What they get from the text  Main idea  Detail  Post reading activity  Skills integration Fundamental Aspects of English Language Teaching
  • 20. Listening Fundamental Aspects of English Language Teaching
  • 21. Do you need to understand everything? What do you think the situation is? Who is talking? 1 ... single room ... two nights ... early morning call ... breakfast. 2 ... tomorrow ... scattered showers ... temperatures ... 16ºC 3 Welcome ... Captain ... cruising ... 14000 feet ... 4 Once ... time ... bears ....Daddy ... Fundamental Aspects of English Language Teaching
  • 22. Can you predict? 1 Shop assistant: "Can I help you?" Customer: "No, thanks. I'm just __________." 2 Traveller: "A ticket to Brighton, please." Clerk: "Single or ___________." 3 Bank Clerk: "How would you like the money?" Customer: "In __________" 4 Tourist: "Could you tell me the way to Regents Park?" Passer-by: "Sorry, I'm a __________" Fundamental Aspects of English Language Teaching
  • 23. Kinds of listening  Recordings  'Live' listening:  Teacher talk Fundamental Aspects of English Language Teaching
  • 24. Why?  Essential skill.  The more students listen, the better they become at listening.  The more students listen, the better their speaking becomes. Fundamental Aspects of English Language Teaching
  • 25. How?  Choice of material: natural & a variety of listening genres .  Preparation: predicting .  First time round: global understanding .  Second time round: specific information.  Follow up: follow-up questions Fundamental Aspects of English Language Teaching
  • 26. Characteristics  Pre-set purpose (purpose)  Contextualise and bring it to life (expectations)  Success-oriented.  Simple  Silent responses  Immediate feedback. Fundamental Aspects of English LanguageTeaching
  • 27. Writing Fundamental Aspects of English LanguageTeaching
  • 28. Purposes of Writing Activities  communication  consolidation of other learning Fundamental Aspects of English LanguageTeaching
  • 29. Characteristics of the good writer  is aware of the audience.  makes a plan or outline.  re-reads sections already written.  revises and modifies the text.  uses support strategies to solve problems as they come up  pays attention to:  Appropriacy  Coherence  Cohesion  Grammatical correction  Layout of the text. Fundamental Aspects of English LanguageTeaching
  • 30. Fundamental Aspects of English LanguageTeaching
  • 31. Stages in a writing activity  Pre-writing  What is the purpose of this writing? (function)  Who am I writing this for? (audience)  Analysing products  Writing and re-writing  First draft: what to say: get the content right first.  Redrafting: how to say it most effectively: correcting spelling, punctuation, grammar, etc.  Editing  How clear might the reader follow my ideas?  Check accuracy Fundamental Aspects of English LanguageTeaching
  • 32. Speaking Interacting Fundamental Aspects of English LanguageTeaching
  • 33. Speaking and interacting  Communication is  Speaking  Reading aloud  Interacting  Every time there is a message to convey (focus on the message). Monologue or dialogue  Every time there is an emphasis on the establishment or maintenance of the social relationships (focus on the social need) Fundamental Aspects of English LanguageTeaching
  • 34. Oral language in the secondary classrooms  No teaching tradition  Not developed outside the classroom.  Lack of confidence  No evaluation  New challenges? Fundamental Aspects of English Language Teaching
  • 35. Difficulties  Use of the mother tongue.  Students’ shyness  Students don’t know what to say / do.  Students worried about accuracy  Only a few participate  Students don’t know the language  Classroom management Fundamental Aspects of English Language Teaching
  • 36. Effective oral activities  Final tangible result  Real objective  Simple.  Interesting / motivating  High participation  Real communication  Acceptable level of accuracy  All students speak English Fundamental Aspects of English LanguageTeaching
  • 37. Classroom strategies  Interesting topic  Good management  Learning strategies  Learner training  Evaluation  Empathy  Show comprehension  Answer without judging  Patient Fundamental Aspects of English Language Teaching
  • 38. Classroom strategies  No interruptions  Listening to the person.  Encourage the use of English in the classroom  Praise those who speak in English  Make clear that errors are part of the learning process  Show they can use English  Give students a reason to speak  Use recordings  Cooperative atmosphere Fundamental Aspects of English Language Teaching
  • 39. Integration of skills Fundamental Aspects of English LanguageTeaching
  • 40. Comparison between skills Receptive skills Productive skills 1.- Wide range of language: Understanding of more than one dialect and registers, understanding of a large number of words 1.- Limited range of language: one language variety, limited number of words, 2.- No control over language. 2.- Control over language: the speaker chooses the language to use. 3.- Learned first. 3.- Depend on the receptive skills. One can only write or talk about the things you understand. 4.- Similar subskills: anticipation, inferring information, hypothesis formation, use of contextual information. 4.- Similar subskills: analysis of information, search for information, text planning, linguistic selection, adequacy to the audience. Fundamental Aspects of English LanguageTeaching
  • 41. The end mirun@dal.udl.cat Fundamental Aspects of English LanguageTeaching