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Applied Linguistics: The teaching
practice
Montse Irun
mirun@dal.udl.cat
Types of Learners
Needs Analysis
Fundamental Aspects of English Language
Teaching
Types of Learners
 Analytic learners deductive approach
being given the rule + examples
 Holistic learners inductive app...
Good Language Learners
 Respond to the group dynamics
 Seek out all opportunities to use FL
 Attend to meaning rather t...
Learning Strategies
 Metacognitive organising one’s learning,
monitoring, etc.
 Cognitive making comparison between
lang...
A language teacher’s expertise
Consists of:
 language proficiency
 language awareness
 pedagogic skills
Fundamental Asp...
Needs Analysis. Purposes
 To obtain input into the
content, design and
implementation of a
programme.
 To develop goals ...
Fundamental Aspects of English Language
Teaching
Needs Analysis: Types
 Target needs: what the learner needs to do in the
target situation.
 Necessities.
 Lacks.
 Want...
Receptive Skills:
Reading and listening
Fundamental Aspects of English LanguageTeaching
Reading
Fundamental Aspects of English Language
Teaching
About you?
 What have you read in the last 24
hours?
 Why did you read them?
 How did you read them?
Fundamental Aspect...
Techniques and strategies to help
understanding
 Cognates
 Numbers
 Knowledge of the language / symbols (“, ´, capital ...
SCHEMA THEORY
Top down processing
 RAT EHT WAS TAC EHT
"He went into a restaurant. After
the salad he felt better.“
Fund...
Schema theory
 "Jane was invited to Jack's birthday party. She
wondered if he would like a kite. She went to
her room and...
Fundamental Aspects of English Language
Teaching
Fundamental Aspects of English Language
Teaching
Reading Strategies
 Predicting
 Getting the general picture (skimming)
 Extracting specific information (scanning)
 In...
Steps in a reading activity
 Pre- reading activity
 What they know
 What they can guess before reading
 Expectations
...
Listening
Fundamental Aspects of English Language
Teaching
Do you need to understand everything?
What do you think the situation is? Who is talking?
1 ... single room ... two nights...
Can you predict?
1 Shop assistant: "Can I help you?"
Customer: "No, thanks. I'm just __________."
2 Traveller: "A ticket t...
Kinds of listening
 Recordings
 'Live' listening:
 Teacher talk
Fundamental Aspects of English Language
Teaching
Why?
 Essential skill.
 The more students listen, the better they
become at listening.
 The more students listen, the b...
How?
 Choice of material: natural & a variety of
listening genres .
 Preparation: predicting .
 First time round: globa...
Characteristics
 Pre-set purpose (purpose)
 Contextualise and bring it to life
(expectations)
 Success-oriented.
 Simp...
Writing
Fundamental Aspects of English LanguageTeaching
Purposes of Writing Activities
 communication
 consolidation of other learning
Fundamental Aspects of English LanguageTe...
Characteristics of the good writer
 is aware of the audience.
 makes a plan or outline.
 re-reads sections already writ...
Fundamental Aspects of English LanguageTeaching
Stages in a writing activity
 Pre-writing
 What is the purpose of this writing? (function)
 Who am I writing this for? ...
Speaking
Interacting
Fundamental Aspects of English LanguageTeaching
Speaking and interacting
 Communication is
 Speaking
 Reading aloud
 Interacting
 Every time there is a message to co...
Oral language in the secondary
classrooms
 No teaching tradition
 Not developed outside the
classroom.
 Lack of confide...
Difficulties
 Use of the mother tongue.
 Students’ shyness
 Students don’t know what to say / do.
 Students worried ab...
Effective oral activities
 Final tangible result
 Real objective
 Simple.
 Interesting / motivating
 High participati...
Classroom strategies
 Interesting topic
 Good management
 Learning strategies
 Learner training
 Evaluation
 Empathy...
Classroom strategies
 No interruptions
 Listening to the person.
 Encourage the use of English in the classroom
 Prais...
Integration of skills
Fundamental Aspects of English LanguageTeaching
Comparison between skills
Receptive skills Productive skills
1.- Wide range of language:
Understanding of more than one
di...
The end
mirun@dal.udl.cat
Fundamental Aspects of English LanguageTeaching
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Transcript of "Fundamental aspects of language teaching"

  1. 1. Applied Linguistics: The teaching practice Montse Irun mirun@dal.udl.cat
  2. 2. Types of Learners Needs Analysis Fundamental Aspects of English Language Teaching
  3. 3. Types of Learners  Analytic learners deductive approach being given the rule + examples  Holistic learners inductive approach examples + inferring the rule Fundamental Aspects of English Language Teaching
  4. 4. Good Language Learners  Respond to the group dynamics  Seek out all opportunities to use FL  Attend to meaning rather than to form.  Supplement the learning from the interaction with the use of study techniques  Be an adolescent or an adult  Have analytic skills  Possess a strong reason for learning the L2  Take risks  Adapt to different learning conditions (Ellis 1985) Fundamental Aspects of English Language Teaching
  5. 5. Learning Strategies  Metacognitive organising one’s learning, monitoring, etc.  Cognitive making comparison between languages, using a dictionary, etc.  Social asking for help, interacting with NS, etc. A more conscious, reflective language learner is a more effective language learner (Ellis & Sinclair, 1998) Fundamental Aspects of English Language Teaching
  6. 6. A language teacher’s expertise Consists of:  language proficiency  language awareness  pedagogic skills Fundamental Aspects of English LanguageTeaching
  7. 7. Needs Analysis. Purposes  To obtain input into the content, design and implementation of a programme.  To develop goals and contents.  To review and evaluate a programme.  To give accountability for the educational authorities Fundamental Aspects of English LanguageTeaching
  8. 8. Fundamental Aspects of English Language Teaching
  9. 9. Needs Analysis: Types  Target needs: what the learner needs to do in the target situation.  Necessities.  Lacks.  Wants.  Learning needs: what the learner needs to do in order to learn. Fundamental Aspects of English Language Teaching
  10. 10. Receptive Skills: Reading and listening Fundamental Aspects of English LanguageTeaching
  11. 11. Reading Fundamental Aspects of English Language Teaching
  12. 12. About you?  What have you read in the last 24 hours?  Why did you read them?  How did you read them? Fundamental Aspects of English Language Teaching
  13. 13. Techniques and strategies to help understanding  Cognates  Numbers  Knowledge of the language / symbols (“, ´, capital letters)  Visuals  Layout  Knowledge of the world SHOW STUDENTS HOW MUCHTHEY CAN UNDERSTAND!!!!! Fundamental Aspects of English LanguageTeaching
  14. 14. SCHEMA THEORY Top down processing  RAT EHT WAS TAC EHT "He went into a restaurant. After the salad he felt better.“ Fundamental Aspects of English Language Teaching
  15. 15. Schema theory  "Jane was invited to Jack's birthday party. She wondered if he would like a kite. She went to her room and shook her piggy - bank. It made no sound."  "Mary heard the ice-cream man coming down the street. She remembered her birthday money and rushed into the house ..." (Runnelhart 1977:265)  "... and locked the door" (Fillmore 1980). Fundamental Aspects of English LanguageTeaching
  16. 16. Fundamental Aspects of English Language Teaching
  17. 17. Fundamental Aspects of English Language Teaching
  18. 18. Reading Strategies  Predicting  Getting the general picture (skimming)  Extracting specific information (scanning)  Inferring opinion and attitude  Deducing meaning from context  Recognising functions and discourse patterns and markers Fundamental Aspects of English Language Teaching
  19. 19. Steps in a reading activity  Pre- reading activity  What they know  What they can guess before reading  Expectations  Purpose  While-reading activity  What they get from the text  Main idea  Detail  Post reading activity  Skills integration Fundamental Aspects of English Language Teaching
  20. 20. Listening Fundamental Aspects of English Language Teaching
  21. 21. Do you need to understand everything? What do you think the situation is? Who is talking? 1 ... single room ... two nights ... early morning call ... breakfast. 2 ... tomorrow ... scattered showers ... temperatures ... 16ºC 3 Welcome ... Captain ... cruising ... 14000 feet ... 4 Once ... time ... bears ....Daddy ... Fundamental Aspects of English Language Teaching
  22. 22. Can you predict? 1 Shop assistant: "Can I help you?" Customer: "No, thanks. I'm just __________." 2 Traveller: "A ticket to Brighton, please." Clerk: "Single or ___________." 3 Bank Clerk: "How would you like the money?" Customer: "In __________" 4 Tourist: "Could you tell me the way to Regents Park?" Passer-by: "Sorry, I'm a __________" Fundamental Aspects of English Language Teaching
  23. 23. Kinds of listening  Recordings  'Live' listening:  Teacher talk Fundamental Aspects of English Language Teaching
  24. 24. Why?  Essential skill.  The more students listen, the better they become at listening.  The more students listen, the better their speaking becomes. Fundamental Aspects of English Language Teaching
  25. 25. How?  Choice of material: natural & a variety of listening genres .  Preparation: predicting .  First time round: global understanding .  Second time round: specific information.  Follow up: follow-up questions Fundamental Aspects of English Language Teaching
  26. 26. Characteristics  Pre-set purpose (purpose)  Contextualise and bring it to life (expectations)  Success-oriented.  Simple  Silent responses  Immediate feedback. Fundamental Aspects of English LanguageTeaching
  27. 27. Writing Fundamental Aspects of English LanguageTeaching
  28. 28. Purposes of Writing Activities  communication  consolidation of other learning Fundamental Aspects of English LanguageTeaching
  29. 29. Characteristics of the good writer  is aware of the audience.  makes a plan or outline.  re-reads sections already written.  revises and modifies the text.  uses support strategies to solve problems as they come up  pays attention to:  Appropriacy  Coherence  Cohesion  Grammatical correction  Layout of the text. Fundamental Aspects of English LanguageTeaching
  30. 30. Fundamental Aspects of English LanguageTeaching
  31. 31. Stages in a writing activity  Pre-writing  What is the purpose of this writing? (function)  Who am I writing this for? (audience)  Analysing products  Writing and re-writing  First draft: what to say: get the content right first.  Redrafting: how to say it most effectively: correcting spelling, punctuation, grammar, etc.  Editing  How clear might the reader follow my ideas?  Check accuracy Fundamental Aspects of English LanguageTeaching
  32. 32. Speaking Interacting Fundamental Aspects of English LanguageTeaching
  33. 33. Speaking and interacting  Communication is  Speaking  Reading aloud  Interacting  Every time there is a message to convey (focus on the message). Monologue or dialogue  Every time there is an emphasis on the establishment or maintenance of the social relationships (focus on the social need) Fundamental Aspects of English LanguageTeaching
  34. 34. Oral language in the secondary classrooms  No teaching tradition  Not developed outside the classroom.  Lack of confidence  No evaluation  New challenges? Fundamental Aspects of English Language Teaching
  35. 35. Difficulties  Use of the mother tongue.  Students’ shyness  Students don’t know what to say / do.  Students worried about accuracy  Only a few participate  Students don’t know the language  Classroom management Fundamental Aspects of English Language Teaching
  36. 36. Effective oral activities  Final tangible result  Real objective  Simple.  Interesting / motivating  High participation  Real communication  Acceptable level of accuracy  All students speak English Fundamental Aspects of English LanguageTeaching
  37. 37. Classroom strategies  Interesting topic  Good management  Learning strategies  Learner training  Evaluation  Empathy  Show comprehension  Answer without judging  Patient Fundamental Aspects of English Language Teaching
  38. 38. Classroom strategies  No interruptions  Listening to the person.  Encourage the use of English in the classroom  Praise those who speak in English  Make clear that errors are part of the learning process  Show they can use English  Give students a reason to speak  Use recordings  Cooperative atmosphere Fundamental Aspects of English Language Teaching
  39. 39. Integration of skills Fundamental Aspects of English LanguageTeaching
  40. 40. Comparison between skills Receptive skills Productive skills 1.- Wide range of language: Understanding of more than one dialect and registers, understanding of a large number of words 1.- Limited range of language: one language variety, limited number of words, 2.- No control over language. 2.- Control over language: the speaker chooses the language to use. 3.- Learned first. 3.- Depend on the receptive skills. One can only write or talk about the things you understand. 4.- Similar subskills: anticipation, inferring information, hypothesis formation, use of contextual information. 4.- Similar subskills: analysis of information, search for information, text planning, linguistic selection, adequacy to the audience. Fundamental Aspects of English LanguageTeaching
  41. 41. The end mirun@dal.udl.cat Fundamental Aspects of English LanguageTeaching

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