Fundamental aspects of language teaching

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Fundamental aspects of language teaching

  1. 1. Applied Linguistics: The teaching practice Montse Irun mirun@dal.udl.cat
  2. 2. Types of Learners Needs Analysis Fundamental Aspects of English LanguageTeaching - Montse Irun
  3. 3. Types of Learners  Analytic learners deductive approach being given the rule + examples  Holistic learners inductive approach examples + inferring the rule Fundamental Aspects of English Language Teaching - Montse Irun
  4. 4. Good Language Learners  Respond to the group dynamics  Seek out all opportunities to use FL  Attend to meaning rather than to form.  Supplement the learning from the interaction with the use of study techniques  Be an adolescent or an adult  Have analytic skills  Possess a strong reason for learning the L2  Take risks  Adapt to different learning conditions (Ellis 1985) Fundamental Aspects of English Language Teaching - Montse Irun
  5. 5. Learning Strategies  Metacognitive organising one’s learning, monitoring, etc.  Cognitive making comparison between languages, using a dictionary, etc.  Social asking for help, interacting with NS, etc. A more conscious, reflective language learner is a more effective language learner (Ellis & Sinclair, 1998) Fundamental Aspects of English Language Teaching - Montse Irun
  6. 6. A language teacher’s expertise Consists of:  language proficiency  language awareness  pedagogic skills Fundamental Aspects of English LanguageTeaching - Montse Irun
  7. 7. Needs Analysis. Purposes  To obtain input into the content, design and implementation of a programme.  To develop goals and contents.  To review and evaluate a programme.  To give accountability for the educational authorities Fundamental Aspects of English LanguageTeaching - Montse Irun
  8. 8. Fundamental Aspects of English Language Teaching - Montse Irun
  9. 9. Needs Analysis: Types  Target needs: what the learner needs to do in the target situation.  Necessities.  Lacks.  Wants.  Learning needs: what the learner needs to do in order to learn. Fundamental Aspects of English LanguageTeaching - Montse Irun
  10. 10. Receptive Skills: Reading and listening Fundamental Aspects of English LanguageTeaching - Montse Irun
  11. 11. Reading Fundamental Aspects of English LanguageTeaching - Montse Irun
  12. 12. About you?  What have you read in the last 24 hours?  Why did you read them?  How did you read them? Fundamental Aspects of English Language Teaching - Montse Irun
  13. 13. Techniques and strategies to help understanding  Cognates  Numbers  Knowledge of the language / symbols (“, ´, capital letters)  Visuals  Layout  Knowledge of the world SHOW STUDENTS HOW MUCHTHEY CAN UNDERSTAND!!!!! Fundamental Aspects of English LanguageTeaching - Montse Irun
  14. 14. SCHEMA THEORY Top down processing RAT EHT WAS TAC EHT Fundamental Aspects of English Language Teaching - Montse Irun
  15. 15. SCHEMA THEORY Top down processing “He went into a restaurant. After the salad he felt better.” Fundamental Aspects of English LanguageTeaching - Montse Irun
  16. 16. Schema theory  "Jane was invited to Jack's birthday party. She wondered if he would like a kite. She went to her room and shook her piggy - bank. It made no sound." Fundamental Aspects of English LanguageTeaching - Montse Irun
  17. 17. Schema theory "Mary heard the ice-cream man coming down the street. She remembered her birthday money and rushed into the house ..." (Runnelhart 1977: 265) Fundamental Aspects of English LanguageTeaching - Montse Irun
  18. 18.  "... and locked the door" (Fillmore 1980). Fundamental Aspects of English Language Teaching - Montse Irun
  19. 19. Fundamental Aspects of English Language Teaching - Montse Irun
  20. 20. Fundamental Aspects of English Language Teaching - Montse Irun
  21. 21. Fundamental Aspects of English Language Teaching - Montse Irun
  22. 22. Fundamental Aspects of English LanguageTeaching - Montse Irun
  23. 23. Reading Strategies  Predicting  Getting the general picture (skimming)  Extracting specific information (scanning)  Inferring opinion and attitude  Deducing meaning from context  Recognising functions and discourse patterns and markers Fundamental Aspects of English Language Teaching - Montse Irun
  24. 24. Steps in a reading activity  Pre- reading activity  What they know  What they can guess before reading  Expectations  Purpose  While-reading activity  What they get from the text  Main idea  Detail  Post reading activity  Skills integration Fundamental Aspects of English Language Teaching - Montse Irun
  25. 25. What happened? Which city is it? Where are the people? Why are people there? Fundamental Aspects of English Language Teaching - Montse Irun
  26. 26. What happened? Splash landing Fundamental Aspects of English Language Teaching - Montse Irun
  27. 27. Now read the text. Why is Chesley B. Sullenberger a hero? Fundamental Aspects of English Language Teaching - Montse Irun
  28. 28. Fundamental Aspects of English Language Teaching - Montse Irun Now match the paragraphs of the text with three of these headings. The right decision A terrible coincidence In the freezing water ‘Brace yourselves – we’re going down!’ Find words 1 -6 in the text and match them with the correct definition. 1 land 2 runway 3 take off 4 engine 5 crew The motor of a plane When the plane comes down The people who work on a plane When a plane goes up The place where a plane usually lands. Read the text again and answer these questions:  Where did the plane take off? Why did the engines fail?  Were the passengers calm while the plane was coming down?  Why did the pilot decide to land in the river?  Why didn’t most of the survivors get wet?  In your opinion, which of these people played a part in avoiding a disaster? Can you think of any other people who were involved?
  29. 29. Listening Fundamental Aspects of English Language Teaching - Montse Irun
  30. 30. Do you need to understand everything? What do you think the situation is? Who is talking? 1 ... single room ... two nights ... early morning call ... breakfast. 2 ... tomorrow ... scattered showers ... temperatures ... 16ºC 3 Welcome ... Captain ... cruising ... 14000 feet ... 4 Once ... time ... bears ....Daddy ... Fundamental Aspects of English Language Teaching - Montse Irun
  31. 31. Can you predict? 1 Shop assistant: "Can I help you?" Customer: "No, thanks. I'm just __________." 2 Traveller: "A ticket to Brighton, please." Clerk: "Single or ___________." 3 Bank Clerk: "How would you like the money?" Customer: "In __________" 4 Tourist: "Could you tell me the way to Regents Park?" Passer-by: "Sorry, I'm a __________" Fundamental Aspects of English Language Teaching - Montse Irun
  32. 32. Kinds of listening  Recordings  'Live' listening:  Teacher talk Fundamental Aspects of English Language Teaching - Montse Irun
  33. 33. Why?  Essential skill.  The more students listen, the better they become at listening.  The more students listen, the better their speaking becomes. Fundamental Aspects of English Language Teaching - Montse Irun
  34. 34. How?  Choice of material: natural & a variety of listening genres .  Preparation: predicting .  First time round: global understanding .  Second time round: specific information.  Follow up: follow-up questions Fundamental Aspects of English Language Teaching - Montse Irun
  35. 35. Characteristics  Pre-set purpose (purpose)  Contextualise and bring it to life (expectations)  Success-oriented.  Simple  Silent responses  Immediate feedback. Fundamental Aspects of English LanguageTeaching - Montse Irun
  36. 36. Writing Fundamental Aspects of English LanguageTeaching - Montse Irun
  37. 37. Purposes of Writing Activities  communication  consolidation of other learning Fundamental Aspects of English LanguageTeaching - Montse Irun
  38. 38. Characteristics of the good writer  is aware of the audience.  makes a plan or outline.  re-reads sections already written.  revises and modifies the text.  uses support strategies to solve problems as they come up  pays attention to:  Appropriacy  Coherence  Cohesion  Grammatical correction  Layout of the text. Fundamental Aspects of English LanguageTeaching - Montse Irun
  39. 39. Fundamental Aspects of English LanguageTeaching - Montse Irun
  40. 40. Stages in a writing activity  Pre-writing  What is the purpose of this writing? (function)  Who am I writing this for? (audience)  Analysing products  Writing and re-writing  First draft: what to say: get the content right first.  Redrafting: how to say it most effectively: correcting spelling, punctuation, grammar, etc.  Editing  How clear might the reader follow my ideas?  Check accuracy Fundamental Aspects of English LanguageTeaching - Montse Irun
  41. 41. Speaking Interacting Fundamental Aspects of English LanguageTeaching - Montse Irun
  42. 42. Speaking and interacting  Communication is  Speaking  Reading aloud  Interacting  Every time there is a message to convey (focus on the message). Monologue or dialogue  Every time there is an emphasis on the establishment or maintenance of the social relationships (focus on the social need) Fundamental Aspects of English LanguageTeaching - Montse Irun
  43. 43. Oral language in the secondary classrooms  No teaching tradition  Not developed outside the classroom.  Lack of confidence  No evaluation  New challenges? Fundamental Aspects of English Language Teaching - Montse Irun
  44. 44. Difficulties  Use of the mother tongue.  Students’ shyness  Students don’t know what to say / do.  Students worried about accuracy  Only a few participate  Students don’t know the language  Classroom management Fundamental Aspects of English Language Teaching - Montse Irun
  45. 45. Effective oral activities  Final tangible result  Real objective  Simple.  Interesting / motivating  High participation  Real communication  Acceptable level of accuracy  All students speak English Fundamental Aspects of English LanguageTeaching - Montse Irun
  46. 46. Classroom strategies  Interesting topic  Good management  Learning strategies  Learner training  Evaluation  Empathy  Show comprehension  Answer without judging  Patient Fundamental Aspects of English Language Teaching - Montse Irun
  47. 47. Classroom strategies  No interruptions  Listening to the person.  Encourage the use of English in the classroom  Praise those who speak in English  Make clear that errors are part of the learning process  Show they can use English  Give students a reason to speak  Use recordings  Cooperative atmosphere Fundamental Aspects of English Language Teaching - Montse Irun
  48. 48. Integration of skills Fundamental Aspects of English LanguageTeaching - Montse Irun
  49. 49. Comparison between skills Receptive skills Productive skills 1.- Wide range of language: Understanding of more than one dialect and registers, understanding of a large number of words 1.- Limited range of language: one language variety, limited number of words, 2.- No control over language. 2.- Control over language: the speaker chooses the language to use. 3.- Learned first. 3.- Depend on the receptive skills. One can only write or talk about the things you understand. 4.- Similar subskills: anticipation, inferring information, hypothesis formation, use of contextual information. 4.- Similar subskills: analysis of information, search for information, text planning, linguistic selection, adequacy to the audience. Fundamental Aspects of English LanguageTeaching - Montse Irun
  50. 50. Grammar and vocabulary Fundamental Aspects of English Language Teaching - Montse Irun
  51. 51. Why is it important to develop vocabulary and grammar?  Grammar allows for greater subtlety of meaning  Grammar makes language digestible  Learner’s expectations Fundamental Aspects of English Language Teaching - Montse Irun
  52. 52. Basic principles  Efficiency  Economy  Ease  Efficacy  Attention  Understanding  Memory  Appropriacy  Age,  level  Size  Context  etc Fundamental Aspects of English Language Teaching - Montse Irun
  53. 53. What is grammar, exactly? Fundamental Aspects of English Language Teaching - Montse Irun
  54. 54. How to teach grammar Fundamental Aspects of English LanguageTeaching - Montse Irun
  55. 55. Fundamental Aspects of English Language Teaching - Montse Irun
  56. 56. Fundamental Aspects of English Language Teaching - Montse Irun
  57. 57. Teaching grammar rules  The rule of context: in context  The rule of use: to facilitate comprehension and production of language  The rule of economy: economise on presentation. Maximum practice  The rule of relevance: grammar students have problems with  The rule of nurture: cyclically  The rule of appropriacy: according to level, interests, expectations and learning styles Fundamental Aspects of English Language Teaching - Montse Irun
  58. 58.  Using a dictionary  Recognizing word forms  Identifying affixes and roots  Understanding collocations  Guessing meaning from context Vocabulary development Fundamental Aspects of English Language Teaching - Montse Irun
  59. 59. The end mirun@dal.udl.cat Fundamental Aspects of English LanguageTeaching - Montse Irun

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