Proprietary Operating system GROUP 1 Group leader: Marivic Montiero Group member: Arlyn Madera Jennifer Era Jennylyn Casino Alvin Cadsawan
<ul><li>Proprietary software includes freeware and shareware . Software distributions considered as proprietary may in fact incorporate a "mixed source" model including both free and non-free software in the same distribution. Most if not all so-called proprietary UNIX distributions are mixed source software, bundling open source components like BIND , Sendmail , X Window System , DHCP , and others along with a purely proprietary kernel and system utilities. For some free software , the same laws used by proprietary software are used to preserve the rights to use, copy and modify the software. This technique is called copyleft </li></ul>Proprietary
<ul><li>It was a semi-professional system aimed at engineering and laboratory users, but its price was low enough, at around £80, to appeal to the more serious enthusiast as well. It was a very small machine built on two cards, one with an LED display, keypad, and cassette interface (the circuitry to the left of the keypad), and the other with the rest of the computer (including the CPU ). Almost all CPU signals were accessible via a Eurocard connector. </li></ul>ACORN
Arthur (operating system) <ul><li>It was bundled with a primitive desktop graphical user interface (GUI). It features a colour-scheme typically described as " technicolour ". Its earlier revisions were very buggy , and was only really meant to be a placeholder until RISC OS 2 (a name chosen instead of Arthur 2) was completed. </li></ul><ul><li>The graphical desktop runs on top of a command-line driven operating system derived from Acorn's earlier MOS operating system for its BBC Micro range of 8-bit microcomputers. </li></ul>
ARX <ul><li>ARX was a pre-emptive multitasking , multithreading , multi-user operating system. Much of the OS ran in user mode and as a result suffered performance problems due to switches into kernel mode to perform mutexes , which led to the introduction of the SWP instruction to the instruction set of the ARM3 version of the ARM processor. This suggests that ARX had a microkernel -type design. </li></ul>
MOS <ul><li>Machine Operating System was a computer operating system used in the Acorn BBC computer range. It included support for four-channel sound and graphics, file system abstraction, and digital and analogue I/O including a daisy-chained fast expansion bus. The implementation was single-tasking, monolithic and non re-entrant. </li></ul>
RISC OS <ul><li>Single user, co-operative multitasking , Single Threaded - While most current desktop operating systems use pre-emptive multitasking (PMT) and multithreading , RISC OS remains with co-operative multitasking system. Although this is preferential for RISC OS' many embedded applications, many users have called for the OS to migrate to PMT. The OS also has only rudimentary memory protection </li></ul>
RISC IX <ul><li>RISC iX was a Unix-like operating system designed to run on the Acorn Archimedes . Heavily based on 4.3BSD , it was initially completed in 1988 — a year after Arthur but prior to RISC OS . Its relationship to ARX is unknown. </li></ul><ul><li>The native file system implemented a transparent file compression mechanism and the console featured a two-cursor text copying mechanism inspired by Acorn's own earlier 8-bit range including the BBC Micro . </li></ul>
<ul><li>The Amiga was a family of personal computers originally developed by Amiga Corporation . </li></ul><ul><li>The Amiga provided a significant upgrade from 8-bit computers such as the Commodore 64 , and the Amiga quickly grew in popularity among computer enthusiasts, especially in Europe , and sold approximately 6 million units. </li></ul>AMIGA
AMIGA OS <ul><li>AmigaOS is the default native operating system of the Amiga personal computer. It was developed first by Commodore International , and initially introduced in 1985 with the Amiga 1000 . It runs on the Motorola 68k series of 16-bit and 32-bit microprocessors , except for AmigaOS 4 which runs on PowerPC microprocessors. </li></ul><ul><li>AmigaOS can be divided into two parts: the Kickstart ( ROM ) and Workbench disks. </li></ul>
AMIGA OS VERSIONS <ul><li>The first AmigaOS was nicknamed Workbench from the name of its GUI Interface, due to an error of Commodore Marketing and Sales Department, which labeled the OS disk just with the name "Workbench Disk" and not with the correct name "AmigaOS Disk (Workbench)". </li></ul>
AMIGAOS 4 <ul><li>AmigaOS 4 (OS4, AOS4) is a line of Amiga operating systems which runs on PowerPC microprocessors. </li></ul><ul><li>The first AmigaOS was nicknamed Workbench from the name of its Graphical user interface (GUI), due to an error of Commodore Marketing and Sales Department, which labeled the OS disk just with the name "Workbench Disk" and not with the correct name "AmigaOS Disk (Workbench)". </li></ul>
AMIGA 4.1 <ul><li>JXFS filesystem with the support for drives and partitions of multiple terabyte size </li></ul><ul><li>New and improved DOS functionality (full 64 bit support, universal notification support, automatic expunge and reload of updated disk resources) </li></ul><ul><li>Improved 3D hardware accelerated screen-dragging </li></ul><ul><li>Intelligent memory paging </li></ul><ul><li>Hardware compositing engine ( Radeon R1xx and R2xx family) </li></ul><ul><li>Implementation of the Cairo device-independent 2D rendering library </li></ul><ul><li>Improved Workbench functionality </li></ul><ul><li>Reworked Warp3D Radeon drivers with new functionality </li></ul><ul><li>Reworked AmiDock with true transparency </li></ul>
AMIGA UNIX <ul><li>Unlike Apple 's A/UX , Amiga Unix contained no compatibility layer to allow AmigaOS applications to run under Unix. </li></ul><ul><li>Amiga Unix included the source code to the vendor-specific enhancements and platform-dependent device drivers (essentially any part that wasn't owned by AT&T), allowing interested users to study or enhance those parts of the system. However this source code was subject to the same license terms as the binary part of the system - it was not open source . </li></ul>
APOLLO <ul><li>Along with Symbolics and Sun Microsystems , Apollo was one of the first vendors of graphical workstations in the 1980s </li></ul><ul><li>Apollo machines used a proprietary operating system, Aegis/Domain during a period when Unix was becoming standard for machines of this class . </li></ul>
AEGIS <ul><li>AEGIS was similar to other workstations of the time, in that it used a high-resolution graphics screen and mouse to provide a type of GUI which, however, lacked almost all the tools (such as a directory browser) taken for granted today - the single exception being a Notepad -like text editor . Instead, the user was given a command line window . </li></ul>
DOMAIN OS <ul><li>Domain/OS implemented functionality derived from both System V and early BSD Unix systems. It improved on AEGIS by providing a core OS upon which the user could install any or all of three environments ; AEGIS, System V Unix, and BSD Unix. </li></ul>
APPLE <ul><li>Apple Computer, Inc. , is an American multinational corporation which designs and manufactures consumer electronics and software products. The company's best-known hardware products include Macintosh computers, iPod portable media players, and the iPhone . Apple software includes the Mac OS X operating system , the iTunes media browser, the iLife suite of multimedia and creativity software, and Final Cut Studio , a suite of professional audio- and film-industry software products. </li></ul>
APPLE DOS <ul><li>The original Apple II operating system was only the built-in BASIC interpreter contained in ROM ; most commercial Apple II software on disk, e.g. educational games and productivity programs, booted directly on the hardware and either had no operating system or incorporated one of its own (which was usually invisible to the user.) </li></ul>
APPLE ProDos <ul><li>ProDOS was marketed by Apple as meaing Professional Disk Operating System , and became the most popular operating system for the Apple IIs eries of computers 10 months after its release in January 1983. </li></ul><ul><li>ProDOS also supported a RAM disk on machines with 128K or more of RAM. </li></ul>
APPLE GS/OS <ul><li>GS/OS is an operating environment developed by Apple Computer for its Apple IIGS personal computer that uses the ProDOS filing system. It provides facilities for accessing the file system , controlling input/output devices, loading and running program files, and a system allowing programs to handle interrupts and signals. </li></ul>
APPLE 111 <ul><li>The Apple III was powered by a 2 MHz SynerTek 6502A 8-bit CPU and, like some of the more advanced machines in the Apple II family, used bank switching techniques to address up to 256 KB of memory (512 KB with a third-party upgrade). </li></ul>
APPLE SOS <ul><li>SOS was a single-tasking operating system. A single program is loaded at boot time, called the interpreter. Once running, the interpreter could then use the SOS API to make requests of the system. The SOS API was divided into four main areas: </li></ul><ul><li>1.File Calls - create, destroy, rename, open, close, read, write files; set, get prefix (current working directory); set, get file information; get volume information; set, set mark, EOF, and level of files </li></ul><ul><li>2.Device Calls - get status, device number, information of a device; send device control data </li></ul><ul><li>3.Memory Calls - Request, find, change, release memory segment;get segment information; set segment number </li></ul><ul><li>4.Utility Calls - get, set fence (event threshold); get, set time; get analog (joystick) data; terminate. </li></ul>
APPLE LISA <ul><li>The Lisa was a more advanced (and far more expensive) system than the Macintosh of that time in many respects, such as its inclusion of protected memory , cooperative multitasking , a generally more sophisticated hard disk based operating system , a built-in screensaver , an advanced calculator with a paper tape and RPN , support for up to 2 megabytes of RAM , expansion slots, and a larger higher resolution display. </li></ul>
MACINTOSH <ul><li>Macintosh , commonly shortened to Mac , is a brand name which covers several lines of personal computers designed, developed, and marketed by Apple Inc. The Macintosh was introduced on January 24 , 1984 ; it was the first commercially successful personal computer to feature a mouse and a graphical user interface rather than a command line interface . </li></ul>
MAC OS <ul><li>Mac OS is the trademarked name for a series of graphical user interface -based operating systems developed by Apple Inc. (formerly Apple Computer, Inc.) for their Macintosh line of computer systems . The Macintosh user experience is credited with popularizing the graphical user interface. The original form of what Apple would later name the "Mac OS" was the integral and unnamed system software first introduced in 1984 with the original Macintosh , usually referred to simply as the System software. </li></ul>
SYSTEM 1, 2, 3 & 4 <ul><li>System 1.0, 1.1, and 2.0 used a flat file system with only one kludged level of folders, called Macintosh File System (MFS); its support for folders (subdirectories) was incomplete. System 2.0 added support for AppleTalk and the newly introduced LaserWriter to use it. System 2.1 (Finder 5.0) introduced the HFS (Hierarchical File System) which had real directories . </li></ul>
<ul><li>System 3.0 was introduced with the Mac Plus , officially implementing HFS and 800K startup drives and adding support for several new technologies including SCSI and AppleShare and introducing Trash "bulging" (i.e., when the Trash contained files, it would gain a bulged appearance). System 4.0 came with the Mac SE and Macintosh II , which required additional support for the first expansion slots , the Apple Desktop Bus (ADB), internal hard drives and on the Mac II, color, larger displays and the first Motorola 68020 processor.  </li></ul>
MAC OS 8 <ul><li>. A multi-threaded Finder was included, enabling better multi-tasking. The GUI was changed in appearance to a new shaded greyscale look called Platinum , and the ability to change the appearance themes (also known as skins ) was added with a new control panel. This capability was provided by a new "appearance" API layer within the OS, one of the few significant changes </li></ul>
MAC OS 9 <ul><li>. Mac OS 9 added some transitional technologies to help application developers adopt some Mac OS X features before the introduction of the new OS to the public, again easing the transition. These included new APIs for the file system , and the bundling of the Carbon library that apps could link against instead of the traditional API libraries — apps that were adapted to do this can be run natively on Mac OS X as well. Other changes were made in Mac OS 9 to allow it to be booted in the "classic environment" within Mac OS X. </li></ul>
MAC OS X <ul><li>Mac OS X (pronounced /mæk oʊ ɛs tɛn/ )  is the line of graphical operating systems developed, marketed, and sold by Apple Inc. which succeeded the original Mac OS, which had been Apple's primary operating system since 1984. Unlike the earlier Macintosh operating system, Mac OS X is a Unix -based operating system  built on technology developed at NeXT from the second half of the 1980s until early 1997, when Apple purchased the company. </li></ul>
UNIX-LIKE <ul><li>A Unix-like (sometimes shortened to *nix to circumvent trademark issues) operating system is one that behaves in a manner similar to a Unix system, while not necessarily conforming to or being certified to any version of the Single UNIX Specification . </li></ul>
A/UX <ul><li>A/UX (from A pple U ni x ) was Apple Computer 's implementation of the Unix operating system for some of their Macintosh computers. The later versions of A/UX ran on the Macintosh II , Quadra and Centris series of machines as well as the SE/30 . A/UX was first released in 1988, with the final version (3.1.1) released in 1995. A/UX required a 68k -based Macintosh with an FPU and a paged memory management unit (PMMU). </li></ul>
MkLinux <ul><li>MkLinux is an open source computer operating system started by the OSF Research Institute and Apple Computer in February 1996 to port Linux to the PowerPC platform, and Macintosh computers. </li></ul><ul><li>MkLinux was officially announced at The 1996 World Wide Developers Conference (WWDC). A free CD containing a binary distribution of MkLinux was handed out to the attendees. </li></ul>
MAC OS X <ul><li>Mac OS X is the successor to the original or "classic" Mac OS , which had been Apple's primary operating system since 1984. Unlike its predecessors, Mac OS X is a Unix -based operating system,  built on technologies developed at NeXT between the second half of the 1980s and Apple's purchase of the company in early 1996. Version 10.5, while running on Intel processors, is certified UNIX 03 . </li></ul>
MAC OS x v10.1 (cheetah) <ul><li>Apple released Mac OS X v10.0 (internally codenamed Cheetah).  The initial version was slow, not feature complete, and had very few applications available at the time of its launch, mostly from independent developers. </li></ul>
MAC OS x v10.1( puma) <ul><li>It was discovered that the upgrade CDs were actually full install CDs that could be used with Mac OS 9 systems by removing a specific file; Apple later re-released the CDs in an actual stripped-down format that did not facilitate installation on such systems.  </li></ul>
MAC OS x v10.2 (jaguar) <ul><li>It brought great performance enhancements, a sleeker look, and many powerful enhancements (over 150, according to Apple), including Quartz Extreme for compositing graphics directly on an ATI Radeon or Nvidia GeForce2 MX AGP-based video card with at least 16 MB of VRAM, a system-wide repository for contact information in the new Address Book , and an instant messaging client named iChat . </li></ul>
MAC OS x v10.3 (panther) <ul><li>. Panther included as many or more new features as Jaguar had the year before, including an updated Finder, incorporating a brushed-metal interface, Fast User Switching , Exposé (Window manager), FileVault , Safari , iChat AV (which added video-conferencing features to iChat), improved Portable Document Format (PDF) rendering and much greater Microsoft Windows interoperability.  Support for some early G3 computers such as "beige" Power Macs and "WallStreet" PowerBooks was discontinued. </li></ul>
MAC OS x v10.4 (tiger) <ul><li>Tiger introduced Spotlight , Dashboard , Smart Folders , updated Mail program with Smart Mailboxes, QuickTime 7, Safari 2, Automator , VoiceOver , Core Image and Core Video . The initial release of the Apple TV used a modified version of Tiger with a different graphical interface and fewer applications and services. </li></ul>
MAC OS x v10.5 (leopard) <ul><li>Leopard supports both PowerPC - and Intel x86 -based Macintosh computers, however support for the G3 processor was dropped and the G4 processor required a minimum clock speed of 867 MHz. The single DVD works for all supported Macs (including 64-bit machines). New features include a new look, an updated Finder, Time Machine , Spaces , Boot Camp pre-installed, full support for 64-bit applications (including graphical applications), new features in Mail and iChat , and a number of new security features </li></ul>
MAC OS SERVER <ul><li>Mac OS X Server is the operating system included on Xserve , Apple's 1U rack mount server. Mac OS X Server is also sold separately for use on Apple desktop computers including Mac Pro , iMac and Mac mini . Mac OS X Server is commonly found in small business, education and large enterprise organizations. </li></ul>
DARWIN <ul><li>Darwin is built around XNU , a hybrid kernel that combines the Mach 3 microkernel , various elements of BSD (including the process model, network stack , and virtual file system ),  and an object-oriented device driver API called I/O Kit . </li></ul>
iPHONE OS <ul><li>iPhone OS or OS X iPhone is the operating system developed by Apple Inc. for the iPhone and iPod Touch . Like Mac OS X , from which it was derived, it uses the Darwin foundation.iPhone OS has four abstraction layers : the Core OS layer, the Core Services layer, the Media layer, and the Cocoa Touch layer. The operating system takes less than half a gigabyte (GB) of the device's total memory storage. </li></ul>
APPLE NEWTON <ul><li>Newton OS was written entirely in C++ and trimmed to be low power consuming and use the available memory efficiently. Much like the first Apple Macintosh a lot of applications were written in the ROM of the Newton to save DRAM and flash space for user applicationsFeatures. </li></ul>
ATARI <ul><li>The original Atari Inc. was founded in 1972 by Nolan Bushnell and Ted Dabney . It was a pioneer in arcade games , home video game consoles , and home computers . The company's products, such as Pong and the Atari 2600 , helped define the computer entertainment industry from the 1970s to the mid 1980s. </li></ul>
ATARI DOS <ul><li>Atari DOS is the disk operating system used with the Atari 8-bit family of computers. Operating system extensions loaded into memory were required in order for an Atari computer to access a disk drive . These extensions to the operating system added the disk handler and other file management features. </li></ul>
ATARI TOS <ul><li>The Operating System (TOS)  is the operating system of the Atari ST range of computers. This range includes the 520ST, 1040ST and the F, FM and E variations (e.g.1040STE). Later, 32-bit machines ( TT , Falcon030 ) were developed using a new version of TOS , called MultiTOS , which allowed multitasking . More recently, users have developed TOS further into FreeMiNT </li></ul>
<ul><li>TOS consisted of the following : </li></ul><ul><li>Desktop - The main interface loaded after bootup. </li></ul><ul><li>GEM - Graphical Environment Manager </li></ul><ul><ul><li>AES - Application Environment Service </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>VDI - Virtual Device Interface (screen drivers only, other drivers loaded using GDOS) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>GEMDOS - GEM Disk Operating System </li></ul><ul><li>BIOS - Basic Input/Output System </li></ul><ul><li>XBIOS - Xtended BIOS </li></ul><ul><li>Line-A - Low-level high-speed graphics calls. Obsolete </li></ul><ul><li>The following were extensions to TOS (loaded separately): </li></ul><ul><li>GDOS - Graphics Device Operation System </li></ul><ul><li>AHDI - Atari Hard Disk Interface (driver for Hard Drive) </li></ul>
MULTI TOS <ul><li>iNT ("MiNT is Now TOS") is a free software alternative operating system kernel for the Atari ST and its successors. Together with the free system components fVDI ( device drivers ), XaAES ( GUI widgets ), and TeraDesk (a file manager ), MiNT provides a free TOS compatible replacement OS that is capable of multitasking . </li></ul>
<ul><li>Nowadays the official name has been changed to "FreeMiNT" upon request by Eric Smith. The reason for this was to be able to distinguish it from the versions that were released by Atari. </li></ul>
<ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>BAE SYSTEMS </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
XTS-400 <ul><li>The XTS-400 is a multi-level secure computer system. It is multi-user and multi-tasking . It works in networked environments and supports Gigabit Ethernet and both IPv4 and IPv6 . </li></ul>
<ul><li>The XTS-200 was designed as a general-purpose operating system supporting a Unix-like application and user environment. XTS-200 completed evaluation in 1992 at the "B3" level. </li></ul>
BeOS <ul><li>BeOS was an operating system for personal computers which began development by Be Inc. in 1991. It was first written to run on BeBox hardware. BeOS was optimized for digital media work and was written to take advantage of modern hardware facilities such as symmetric multiprocessing by utilizing modular I/O bandwidth, pervasive multithreading , preemptive multitasking </li></ul>
<ul><li>Initially designed to run on AT&T Hobbit -based hardware, BeOS was later modified to run on PowerPC -based processors </li></ul><ul><li>In 1997, Power Computing began bundling BeOS (on a CD for optional installation) with its line of PowerPC-based Macintosh clones . These systems could dual boot either the Mac OS or BeOS, with a startup screen offering the choice. </li></ul>
Products using BeOS <ul><li>Edirol DV-7 video editors from Roland corporation which run on top of a modified BeOS  and the TuneTracker radio automation software that runs on BeOS and Zeta, but is also sold as a “Station-in-a-Box” - </li></ul>
<ul><li>The Casablanca- KRON from MacroSystem  runs a modified version of BeOS 5. A dedicated computer built to edit video and audio, using a built in hard disk, CD-R(W)/DVD-R(W), and SD capabilities included to store media for later use and/or presentation. </li></ul>
ZETA <ul><li>magnussoft ZETA , previously yellowTAB ZETA , was an operating system formerly developed by yellowTAB of Germany based on the Be Operating System developed by Be Inc. ; because of yellowTAB's insolvency, ZETA was later being developed by an independent team of which little was known, and distributed by magnussoft . As of February 28 , 2007 the current version of ZETA is 1.5. On March 28 , 2007 , magnussoft announced that it has discontinued funding the development of ZETA by March 16 , because the sales figures had fallen far short of the company's expectations, so that the project was no longer economically viable.  A few days later, the company also stopped the distribution of ZETA in reaction to allegations that ZETA constituted a pirated copy of BeOS. </li></ul>
MCP <ul><li>Master Control Program) </li></ul>
<ul><li>is the proprietary operating system of the Burroughs large systems including the Unisys Clearpath/MCP systems. Originally written in 1961 in ESPOL (Executive Systems Programming Language), which itself was an extension of Burroughs Extended ALGOL , in the 1970s it was converted to NEWP , a better structured, more robust, and more secure form of ESPOL. The MCP was the first operating system to manage multiple processors and the first commercial implementation of virtual memory, among numerous other advances. </li></ul>
<ul><li>Convergent Technologies was a company formed by a small group of people who left Intel Corporation and Xerox PARC in 1979. </li></ul>
<ul><li>Convergent Technologies' first product was the IWS (Integrated Workstation) tower based on the Intel 8086 , which ran Convergent Technologies Operating System - their first operating system. The next product was a cost-reduced desktop version called the AWS (Advanced Workstation). Both of these workstations ran in an RS-422 clustered environment under a proprietary operating system known as CTOS . </li></ul>
<ul><li>The Convergent Technologies Operating System , also known variously as CTOS , BTOS and STARSYS , was a modular, message-passing , multi-process based operating system . </li></ul>
<ul><li>-OS/8 provided a simple operating environment that was commensurate in complexity and scale with the PDP-8 computers on which it ran. I/O was supported via a series of supplied drivers which used polled (not interrupt-driven) techniques. The device drivers had to be cleverly written as they could only occupy one or two memory pages of 128 12-bit words, and had to be able to run in any page in field 0. This often required considerable cleverness, such as the use of the OPR instruction (7XXX) for small negative constants. </li></ul>
<ul><li>ITS, the Incompatible Timesharing System (named in comparison with the Compatible Time-Sharing System also in use at MIT), was an early, revolutionary, and influential time-sharing operating system from MIT ; it was developed principally by the Artificial Intelligence Laboratory at MIT, with some help from Project MAC . </li></ul>
<ul><li>MPE (Multi-Programming Executive) is an late 1970/early 1980s era business-oriented minicomputer operating system made by Hewlett-Packard . </li></ul><ul><li>It runs the HP 3000 family computers, which originally used HP custom CISC CPUs and were later migrated to PA-RISC . The original version of MPE was written in SPL; later the name of the OS was changed to MPE/iX to indicate Unix interoperability. The product line is in deep maintenance mode as of 2003 [update] - or mature as HP likes to call this - and will be completely ended in a few years; the user-base is much smaller than that of its old competitors OS/400 and VMS and no further product introductions are expected. </li></ul>
<ul><li>The TOPS-10 System ( Timesharing / Total OPerating System ) was a computer operating system from Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC) for the PDP-10 (or DECsystem-10) mainframe computer launched in 1967. TOPS-10 evolved from the earlier "Monitor" software for the PDP-6 and -10 computers; this was renamed TOPS-10 in 1970. </li></ul><ul><li>TOPS-10 supported shared memory and allowed the development of one of the first true multiplayer computer games . The game was called DECWAR  and was a text-oriented Star Trek type game. Users at terminals typed in commands and fought each other in real time. </li></ul>
<ul><li>-WAITS was a heavily-modified variant of Digital Equipment Corporation 's Monitor operating system (later renamed to, and better known as TOPS-10 ) for the PDP-6 and PDP-10 mainframe computers, used at the Stanford Artificial Intelligence Laboratory (SAIL) up until 1990; the mainframe computer it ran on also went by the name of "SAIL". </li></ul>
<ul><li>- TENEX operating system, using special paging hardware. The system is almost entirely unrelated to the similarly-named TOPS-10 but shipped with the PA1050 TOPS-10 Monitor Calls emulation facility which allowed most, but not all, TOPS-10 executables to run unchanged. As a matter of policy DEC did not update PA1050 to support later TOPS-10 additions except where required by DEC software. TOPS-20 was preferred by most PDP-10 users over TOPS-10 (at least by those who were not ITS or WAITS partisans In the 1960s BBN was involved in a number of LISP -based artificial intelligence projects for DARPA , many of which had very large (for the era) memory requirements. One solution to this problem was to add paging software to the LISP language, allowing it to write out unused portions of memory to disk for later recall if needed. One such system had been developed for the PDP-1 at MIT by Daniel Murphy before he joined BBN. Early DEC machines were based on an 18-bit word, allowing addresses to encode for a 262kword memory. The machines were based on expensive core memory and included nowhere near the required amount. The pager used the otherwise unused bits of the address to store a key into a table of blocks on a magnetic drum that acted as the pager's backing store , and the software would fetch the pages if needed and then re-write the address to point to the proper area of RAM . </li></ul>
<ul><li>RSTS (pronounced as "RIST-ess" or "RIST-uhs") is a multi-user time-sharing operating system , developed by Digital Equipment Corporation ("DEC"), (now part of Hewlett Packard ) for the PDP-11 series of 16-bit minicomputers . The first version of RSTS (RSTS-11, Version 1 ) was implemented in 1970 by DEC software engineers that developed the TSS-8 time-sharing operating system for the PDP-8 . The last version of RSTS (RSTS/E, Version 10.1 ) was released in September of 1992. RSTS-11 and RSTS/E are usually referred to just as "RSTS" and this article will generally use the shorter form. </li></ul>
<ul><li>RSX-11 is a family of real-time operating systems mainly for PDP-11 computers created by Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC), common in the late 1970s and early 1980s. RSX-11D first appeared on the PDP-11/40 in 1972. It was designed for and much used in process control, but was also popular for program development. </li></ul>
<ul><li>OpenVMS (Open Virtual Memory System),  previously known as VAX-11/VMS , VAX/VMS or (informally) VMS , is the name of a high-end computer server operating system that runs on the VAX  and Alpha  families of computers, developed by Digital Equipment Corporation of Maynard , Massachusetts (DEC was later purchased by Compaq , and is now owned by Hewlett-Packard ), and most recently on Hewlett-Packard systems built around the Intel Itanium  CPU. </li></ul>
<ul><li>Domain/OS is the operating system used by the Apollo/Domain line of workstations manufactured by Apollo Computer , Inc. during the late 1980s, as the successor to the one previously used, AEGIS. It was one of the early distributed operating systems .  Hewlett-Packard supported the operating system for a short time after they purchased Apollo, but they later ended the product line in favor of their HP-UX Unix variant. HP ended final support for Domain/OS on January 1, 2001 </li></ul>
<ul><li>RTÉ is a statutory body run by an authority appointed by the Irish Government . General management of the organisation is in the hands of the Executive Board headed by the Director-General </li></ul>
<ul><li>Fujitsu is a Japanese company specializing in semiconductors , air conditioners , computers ( supercomputers , personal computers , servers ), telecommunications , and services , and is headquartered in Minato , Tokyo </li></ul><ul><li>Fujitsu employs around 160,000 people and has 500 subsidiary companies. Internationally, Fujitsu considers IBM to be it main competitor. Its historical domestic rival is NEC . </li></ul>
The slogan "The possibilities are infinite" can be found below the company's logo on major advertising and ties up with the small logo above the letters J and I of the word Fujitsu.
<ul><li>The company was established on June 20 , 1935 under the name Fuji Tsūshinki Seizō( Fuji Telecommunications Equipment Manufacturing), </li></ul><ul><li>a spin off of the Fuji Electric Company , this in turn being a joint venture between the Furukawa Electric Company and German conglomerate Siemens founded in 1923. Despite its connections to the Furukawa zaibatsu , Fujitsu escaped the Allied occupation of Japan mostly unscathed. </li></ul>
<ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>TOWN OS </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
<ul><li>The Fujitsu Towns OS was a color Graphical User Interface desktop + mouse type similar to Microsoft Windows and Macintosh GUIs and designed specifically for the proprietary FM Towns PC architecture. </li></ul><ul><li>It was bootable from its CD media in 1989, something the standard CD-ROM drive in every FM Towns computer made possible. </li></ul>
<ul><li>Green Hills Software is a privately owned company that builds operating systems and development tools for embedded systems .The company was founded in 1982 by Dan O'Dowd and Carl Rosenberg. They are headquartered in Santa Barbara, California . </li></ul>
<ul><li>Green Hills Software provides a family of operating system products including the µ-velOSity real-time microkernel, the velOSity RTOS and the advanced INTEGRITY RTOS. This family of operating systems provides developers with a seamless migration path for future designs that grow in complexity and requirements. In addition, Green Hills Software has integrated the MULTI and AdaMULTI Integrated Development Environments and optimizing compilers with other leading embedded operating systems. </li></ul>
<ul><li>The INTEGRITY ® RTOS is a secure, maximum reliability, royalty-free Real-Time Operating System intended for use in mission critical embedded systems. The INTEGRITY Real-Time Operating System uses hardware memory protection to isolate and protect itself and user tasks from incorrect operation caused by accidental errors or malicious tampering . </li></ul>
<ul><li>The INTEGRITY®-178B operating system is the most secure operating system in the world having been certified by the NSA-managed NIAP lab to EAL6+ High Robustness. No other commercial operating system has attained his level of security. No other commercial operating system has entered into an evaluation at EAL6+ High Robustness. </li></ul>
<ul><li>In the past, Safety Critical software systems with multiple levels of safety criticality have been deployed on federated systems, where each function executes on a dedicated processor. The need to lower maintenance costs and reduce the size/weight/power of older embedded computer systems, combined with the availability of modern processor technology, has created the demand for a commercial run-time system that permits multiple programs at different safety levels to execute on a single processor. In addition, the run-time system must be certifiable to a level of criticality as high or higher than that of any program running on the processor. </li></ul>
<ul><li>The µ-velOSity real-time microkernel is the smallest of Green Hills Software’s family of royalty-free operating systems. It is implemented as a C library so it can be easily ported to a number of target architectures. Its simple design as well as integration with the best-in-class MULTI tools make µ-velOSity both easy to learn and simple to use. </li></ul>
<ul><li>With 20% faster instruction execution, 50% smaller memory footprint, and 80% fewer CPU cycles required to boot, µ-velOSity is the best choice for any cost-sensitive and resource - constrained embedded development application. </li></ul>
<ul><li>The Hewlett-Packard Company ( NYSE : HPQ ), commonly referred to as HP, is a technology corporation headquartered in Palo Alto , California , United States. HP is the largest technology company in the world and operates in nearly every country. HP specializes in developing and manufacturing computing, storage, and networking hardware, software and services. Major product lines include personal computing devices, enterprise servers, related storage devices, as well as a diverse range of printers and other imaging products Other product lines, including electronic test equipment and systems,medical electronic equipment, solid state components and instrumentation for chemical analysis were spun off as Agilent Technologies in 1999. </li></ul>
<ul><li>MPE (Multi-Programming Executive) is an late 1970/early 1980s era business-oriented minicomputer operating system made by Hewlett-Packard . </li></ul><ul><li>It runs the HP 3000 family computers, which originally used HP custom CISC CPUs and were later migrated to PA-RISC . The original version of MPE was written in SPL; later the name of the OS was changed to MPE/iX to indicate Unix interoperability. The product line is in deep maintenance mode as of 2003 – or mature as HP likes to call this – and will be completely ended in a few years; the user-base is much smaller than that of its old competitors OS/400 and VMS and no further product introductions are expected. </li></ul>
<ul><li>HP-UX 11i (Hewlett Packard UniX) is Hewlett-Packard 's proprietary Implementation of the Unix operating system , based on System V (initially System III ). It runs on the HP 9000 PA-RISC -based range of Processors and HP Integrity Intel 's Itanium -based systems, and was also available for later Apollo/Domain systems. Earlier versions also ran on the HP 9000 Series 200, 300, and 400 computer systems based on the Motorola 68000 series of processors, as well as the HP 9000 Series 500 computers based on HP's proprietary FOCUS processor architecture.. </li></ul>
<ul><li>HP-UX was the first Unix to use access control lists for file access Permissions rather than the standard Unix permissions system HP-UX was also among the first Unix systems to include a built-in logical volume manager . HP has had a long partnership with Veritas Software , and uses VxFS as the primary file system .HP-UX is currently credited with leadership in integrated mission-critical virtualization , observed performance, high availability and manageability. </li></ul><ul><li>In 2008, the current shipping release is HP-UX 11i v3 with Update 3 (0809). </li></ul>
IRMX: Intel Real time Multitasking eXecutive (OS, Intel), This provides a migration path for real-time applications to move to modern Windows technology. iRMX for Windows uses the same virtual machine technology as our INtime software so real-time and non-real-time applications run in separate virtual machines on a single computer, for cost-effective, reliable control that is easy to develop and maintain.
Intel 8080 was an early microprocessor designed and manufactured by Intel . The 8-bit CPU was released in April 1974 running at 2 MHz (at up to 500,000 instructions per second ), and is generally considered to be the first truly usable microprocessor CPU design. It was implemented using non-saturated enhancement-load NMOS , demanding extra voltages.
IBM stands for International Business Machines
IBSYS was the tape based operating system that IBM supplied with its IBM 7090 and IBM 7094 computers. IBSYS itself was really a basic monitor program, that read control card images placed between the decks of program and data cards of individual jobs. An IBSYS control card began with a "$" in column 1, immediately followed by a Control Name that selected the various IBSYS utility programs needed to set up and run the job.
BOS/360 (Basic Operating System/360) was an early IBM operating system . It came in 2 versions, 4K BOS and 8K BOS. The latter evolved into DOS/360 which some suggest was really version 6 of BOS. BOS in turn was preceded by BPS, Basic Programming Support. The first 360s to be shipped were the models 30 and 40.BOS was the first disk based operating system and was released in early 1965.Thus BOS was the only disk based operating system available at launch for a machine that was marketed as disk based.
TOS/360 (Tape Operating System/360) was an IBM operating system for the System/360 , used in the early days around 1965 to support the IBM 360 model 30 and similar platforms. TOS was a predecessor to IBM's DOS/360 . TOS died out quickly as disks such as the IBM 2311 and IBM 2314 became common with the System/360, whereas they had been an expensive luxury on the IBM 7090 .
Dis k Operating System/360 , also DOS/360 , or simply DOS , was an operating system for IBM mainframes . It was announced by IBM on the last day of 1964, and it was first delivered in June 1966.
DOS/360 was a single-job system, i.e. it did not support multitasking (although a version with limited multitasking, requiring 32 kB of memory, was later released). It used three memory partitions, but had little protection against programs overwriting other partitions. The three partitions were not specialised, but frequently one was used for spooling punched cards to disk, one for batch job execution, and one for spooling from disk to printers. Despite its limitations,DOS/360 became the most widely used operating system for processors with less than 256 KB of memory,
z/VSE (Virtual Storage Extended) is an operating system for IBM mainframe computers, the latest one in the DOS/360 lineage , which originated in 1965. It is less common than prominent z/OS and is mostly used on smaller machines. Primary z/VSE development occurs in IBM's Böblingen labs in Germany. VSE originally supported 24-bit addressing. As the underlying hardware evolved, VSE acquired support for 31-bit addressing. IBM released z/VSE Version 4 in 2007. z/VSE Version 4 requires 64-bit z/Architecture hardware and supports 64-bit real mode addressing.
A Real-Time Operating System ( RTOS) is a multitasking operating system intended for real-time applications. Such applications include embedded systems (programmable thermostats, household appliance controllers), industrial robots , spacecraft, industrial control (see SCADA ), and scientific research equipment. An RTOS will typically use specialized scheduling algorithms in order to provide the real-time developer with the tools necessary to produce deterministic behavior in the final system.
Operating System/Virtual Storage 1 , or OS/VS1 , was an IBM mainframe computer operating system designed to be run on IBM System/370 hardware. It was the successor to the System/360 's operating system MFT (Multiprogramming with a Fixed number of Tasks), a variant of OS/360 . OS/VS1, in comparison to its predecessor, was supporting virtual memory (then called virtual storage )
OS/VS2 was initially just OS/MVT plus virtual memory and VSAM. But in 1974 IBM released what it described as OS/VS2 release 2 but which was really a new operating system that was upwards-compatible with OS/VS2 release
MUSIC/SP (Multi-User System for Interactive Computing / System Product; originally "McGill University System for Interactive Computing") was developed at McGill University in the late 1960s from an IBM system called RAX (Remote Access).
OS/390 is an IBM operating system for the System/390 IBM mainframe computers .OS/390 was introduced in late 1995 in an effort, led by the late Randy Stelman, to simplify the packaging and ordering for the key, entitled elements needed to complete a fully functional MVS operating system package.
z/OS is a 64-bit operating system for mainframe computers , created by IBM . It is the successor to OS/390 , which in turn followed MVS and combined a number of formerly separate, related products. z/OS offers the attributes of modern operating systems but also retains much of the functionality originating in the 1960s and each subsequent decade that is still found in daily use.
CP/CMS was a time-sharing operating system of the late 60s and early 70s, known for its excellent performance and advanced features.
CMS , the Cambridge Monitor System and also Console Monitor System – but renamed Conversational Monitor System
three distinct versions: CP-40 /CMS, an important "one-off" research system that established the CP/CMS virtual machine architecture CP-67 /CMS, a reimplementation of CP-40/CMS for the IBM System/360-67 , and the primary focus of this article CP-370 /CMS, a reimplementation of CP-67/CMS for the System/370 – never released as such, but instead becoming the foundation of IBM's VM/370 operating system (announced in 1972 and still in use)
In addition to its role as the ancestor of the VM family, CP/CMS played an important role in the development of operating system theory, in the design of IBM's System/370 and later product lines, in the creation of the time-sharing industry, and in the creation of a self-supporting user community that anticipated today's free software movement
z/VM is the current version in IBM's VM family of virtual machine operating systems . z/VM was first released in October 2000 and remains in active use and development as of 2008.
The IBM System/34 was a minicomputer marketed by IBM from 1978 to 1983. It was a multi-user, multi-tasking successor to the single-user System/32 . Most notably, it included two very different processors, one based on System/32 and the second based on older System/3 .
The IBM System/36 was a minicomputer marketed by IBM from 1983 to 2000. It was a multi-user, multi-tasking successor to the System/34 .
OS/400 is IBM's operating system for its AS/400 and AS/400e line of business computers. Because OS/400 is closely attuned to the AS/400 hardware design and generally comes as part of the basic package, there is no alternative operating system to compete with it.
i5/OS is the name IBM has given to its newest release of OS/400 V5R3. i5/OS runs on IBM's i5 servers, which are based on IBM's Power5 microprocessors.
AIX ( Advanced Interactive eXecutive ) is the name given to a series of proprietary operating systems sold by IBM for several of its computer system platforms, based on UNIX System V with 4.3BSD -compatible command and programming interface extensions.
IBM PC DOS is a DOS operating system for the IBM Personal Computer , sold throughout the 1980s and 2000s. Official product name of "PC DOS" are as below: IBM Personal Computer Disk Operation System 1.0 (short-name: PC DOS 1.0) IBM Personal Computer Disk Operation System 2.0 (short-name:PC DOS 2.0) IBM Personal Computer Disk Operation System 3.0 (short-name:PC DOS 3.0) IBM DOS 4.0 (IBM changed product name) IBM DOS 5.0 IBM PC DOS 6.1 (IBM changed product name again. "PC DOS" is not short-name.) IBM PC DOS 6.3 IBM PC DOS 7 IBM PC DOS 2000 (IBM's last version)
OS/2 Warp=>In October 1994 IBM released OS/2 Warp, the most popular version of OS/2 and arguably one of the coolest operating systems ever (Warp Connect even said so on the box - "The totally cool way to run and network your computer" so it must be true). It was so good that some people use it even today - not me though, or at least not seriously. Its underpinnings weren't all that different from OS/2 version 2.11 but it was a great leap forward in terms of usability.
eComStation is a PC operating system based on OS/2 , published by Serenity Systems , USA. It includes several additions and accompanying software.
DPCX ( D istributed P rocessing C ontrol e X ecutive) was an operating system for the IBM 8100 . IBM hoped it would help their installed base of IBM 3790 customers migrate to the 8100 and the DPPX operating system. It was mainly deployed to support a word processing system, DOSF which was derived from the earlier IBM 3730 word processing system.
Like DPPX, it was written in the PL/S -like PL/DS language. The applications, including much of DOSF, however, were written an interpreted language that was "compiled" using the System/370 assembler macro facility. Distributed Processing Programming Executive was an operating system introduced by IBM, pre-installed on selected computer models in the 1980s.
K42 is an open-source research operating system for cache-coherent 64-bit multiprocessor systems. It was developed primarily at IBM Thomas J. Watson Research Center in collaboration with University of Toronto and University of New Mexico . The main focus of this OS is to address performance and scalability issues of system software on large-scale, shared memory ,
The IBM Series/1 Event Driven Language (EDL) was a computer language created for the Series/1 Event Driven Executive (EDX) operating system. The output was machine code for IBM Series/3 or Series/7, and interpreted on Series/1 by an emulator.
Although the Series/1 was grossly underpowered by today's standards, a robust multiuser operating environment (RPS) was available along with several additional high level languages for the RPS OS.
ICL I nternational Computers Ltd was a large British computer hardware , computer software and computer services company that operated from 1968 until 2002, when it was renamed Fujitsu Services Limited after its parent company, Fujitsu .
International Computers and Tabulators or ICT was formed in 1959 by a merger of the British Tabulating Machine Company (BTM) and Powers-Samas . In 1963 it also added the business computer divisions of Ferranti .
GEORGE was the name given to a series of operating systems released by International Computers and Tabulators (ICT) in the 1960s, for the ICT 1900 series of computers.
VME ( Virtual Machine Environment ) is a mainframe operating system developed by the UK company International Computers Limited (ICL).