• States What state are you from?
Canada/Spain/Argentina/South Africa – provinces
Guatemala/Columbia/Cameroon – departments
Japan/Greece – prefectures
Italy/France – regions
U.K. – counties
USA/Mexico/Brazil/Germany/Australia - states
3. Reference Maps
• Shows location of places and geographic
• Absolute location
4. Thematic Maps
• Tells the story of the degree of an
attribute, the pattern of its distribution or
• Map Projections – Representing Earth on a
flat sheet of paper.
1. Mercator, Robinson, Winkel and Goode
It is impossible to accurately portray a round
object on a flat piece of paper.
sstrength-minor distortion; weakness-flat poles
directions and shapes
Little distortion, most balanced
Shows true size & shape but
distance is distorted
Sunrise on the Indian Ocean . . .
are you looking east or west?
Sunset on the Sahara Desert . . . are you looking
east or west?
You are looking west . . . sunrise or
You are looking east . . . sunrise
• On a map, North is up and South is down
Ogden is up and Provo is down.
• Great Circle Route - Imaginary line that
follows the curve of earth.
- Who uses it and why?
The Great Circle Route looks longer, however, it is actually a shorter route.
Benefits – reduce travel time and saves
• Mental Mapping (vocab.) – A map in your head..
-Geographic Information Systems
• First, data is gathered from MAPS,
SATELLITE IMAGES, PRINTED TEXT
• Next, GIS converts data into digital code
and arranges it in data base.
• Last, Cartographers program the GIS to
process the data and produce maps.
p. 15 in text
- Earth is moving at 67,000 mph
around the sun (Nicolaus
Copernicus 1473 - 1543 AD).
- Earth is spinning (rotating) 1,037
mph at the equator & 0 mph at the
- Thank you gravity!!!! (natural force
that pulls everything down to the
ground) and Sir Isaac Newton
1642 – 1727 AD.
A sphere is a round geometrical
object in 3-dimentional space.
Please write down
When was Earth discovered
to be round (sphere)?
• The ancient Greeks knew that Earth was round
(sphere) about 2,000 years before Columbus.
- Aristotle 384 - 322 BC
Parthenon in Athens, Greece
- Pythagoras c. 570 - c. 495 BC
Pythagoras – “All celestial bodies are spherical”
Aristotle – “Only a sphere can cast a shadow in
every direction.” (referencing an eclipse)
• Father of Geography
- Eratosthenes (Greek c. 276 – c. 195 BC)
Eratosthenes was the first person to calculate (with incredible accuracy) the circumference of earth,
at 25,000 miles, by measuring angles of shadows. Actually, earth is 24,901 miles at the equator &
24,859 through the poles (centrifugal force).
was only off by
Syene are both in
A Greek named Posidonius,
who lived 100 years after
Eratosthenes, measured earth
at 18,000 miles. Columbus, in
1492 AD, used Posidonius
instead of Eratosthenes
measurement (Columbus did
know that Earth was round
before his famous voyage). As
a result, he thought that he
would get to “India” much
faster than he did.
1. Absolute Location - exact location of a
place on Earth (address).
a. Latitude and Longitude (vocab.) - Imaginary lines marking
positions on earth.
Eratosthenes was, also,
the first to use the word
“geography” and he
invented the concept of
latitude and longitude. At
an old age, Eratosthenes
became blind and he died
of self-induced starvation.
The ancient Babylonians,
actually, assigned numbers
to a circle. Ptolemy,
them into the longitude and
Ptolemy (Greek &
Roman citizen who
lived in Egypt c. 90 AD
– c. 168 AD) – he
to all of the places and
geographic features he
knew . . . in a grid.
1. Latitude (flatitude)
a. Equator - 0 degrees latitude.
b. Tropic of Cancer (North) and
Capricorn (South) - 23.5 degrees
Revolution of Earth
around the Sun and the
tilt of Earth’s axis
(revolution and rotation).
was,also, the first to
the tilt of Earth’s axis
at 23.5 degrees.
Where is the
c. Arctic (North) and Antarctic Circles
(South) - 66.5 degrees
Tropic of Capricorn 23.5 S
Tropic of Cancer 23.5 N
Arctic Circle 66.5 N
Antarctic Circle 66.5 S
How to remember:
Latitude = Flatitude
1. Prime Meridian - 0 degrees longitude.
a. Old Royal Observatory in
Greenwich, England (U.K.)
All the lines of longitude meet at the north and south poles.
• Grid System – straight lines that intersect.
2. Relative Location
a. Where a place is located in relation to
1. Example: NYC is east of Chicago,
• Time on Earth
1. Standard Time (since 1884)
a. Based on the Prime Meridian.
1. Greenwich Mean Time (GMT)
• Time Zone (vocab.) – one of the 24 regions or divisions of Earth’s surface
used to determine local time in a given locality. Why do we have them?
• Because the sun’s rays are hitting Earth at
different times and in different places.
How many time
zones are there
1. 24 time zones worldwide
a. One time zone = about 15 degrees
1. U.S. Time Zones
a. East to west - Eastern, Central,
Mountain, Pacific, Alaska and Hawaii
China – one time zone
Russia – eleven time zones
The difference between each line of longitude is15 degrees. There are 24
increments of 15 degrees of longitude. How many hours in a day?
• Daylight Savings Time
- “Spring Forward” and “Fall Back”
- There are two states with no daylight savings . . . What are they?
- November 3rd
- March 9th
- States with no daylight savings
- Hawaii and Arizona
• International Dateline
1. Marks the place where each day officially begins.
2. The west side of the line is always one day ahead
of the east side.