The Study of Geography

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The Study of Geography

  1. 1. Unit 1 – The Study of Geography
  2. 2. • What is Geography?
  3. 3. • Geography (vocab.) – The study of Earth’s physical features, environments, people and places.
  4. 4. Class Motto: Knowledge is Power!
  5. 5. K.I.P. Harvard Boston Univ. Self-educated Self-educated Boston Univ. Self-educated Princeton Univ. Tennessee State Univ.
  6. 6. • World Geography Class Goals (objectives)
  7. 7. 1. Appreciate what you have!!! Clothing Shelter Food Family
  8. 8. New Delhi - India Costa Rica
  9. 9. 2. Build self-esteem (ex. ancestors, culture, history, etc). Frida Kahlo
  10. 10. 3. Have acceptance and empathy for others. Strive for acceptance.
  11. 11. 4. Think critically about the world, your surroundings and issues. Syria Somalia North Korea http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rmx4twCK3_I
  12. 12. 5. Understand how you are connected to the rest of the world.
  13. 13. 6. Prepare yourself for college!!!!
  14. 14. 17 Where do you live?
  15. 15. • Continent What continent are you from?
  16. 16. • Country What country are you from?
  17. 17. • Region (vocab.) What region are you from?
  18. 18. • States What state are you from? Canada/Spain/Argentina/South Africa – provinces Guatemala/Columbia/Cameroon – departments Japan/Greece – prefectures Italy/France – regions U.K. – counties USA/Mexico/Brazil/Germany/Australia - states
  19. 19. • County What county are you from?
  20. 20. • Cities What city are you from?
  21. 21. TextRegionsRegions
  22. 22. Some Characteristics of Natural Landscapes (aka-regions) • Ethnicity • Physical features/natural boundaries • Religion • Economics Ex. The South: Hot, Southern Drawl, Christianity, Cotton Plantations
  23. 23. • Major Regions - The Middle East Western Hemisphere Eastern Hemisphere What makes this a region?
  24. 24. - Central America Western Hemisphere
  25. 25. What makes this a region?
  26. 26. • Region in a city East Bench (Wasatch Hollows) - SLC Sugarhouse - SLC
  27. 27. With a Partner • What are regional characteristics of Utah and Cottonwood Heights/Sandy? List these elements. • Name another region you are familiar with and explain what factors make it a region.
  28. 28. What’s On Earth?
  29. 29. • Seven Continents - North America - South America - Europe - Africa - Asia - Australia - Antarctica
  30. 30. Europe Asia
  31. 31. What are some major landforms on earth?
  32. 32. • Oceans - Atlantic Text - Pacific - Indian - Arctic - Southern Pacific Ocean Indian Ocean What ocean is the largest?
  33. 33. • Major Mountain Ranges - Andes (S. America) - Himalayas (Asia) - Rockies (N. America) Andes Mts. – Cuernos Del Paine
  34. 34. Andes HimalayasRockies
  35. 35. • Notable Mountain - Mount Everest 29,029 ft. (tallest mountain in the world) Mt. Everest, Himalayas Nepal/Tibet (China)
  36. 36. Andes Himalayas
  37. 37. Mt. Everest
  38. 38. • Major Rivers - Amazon (S. America) - Nile (Africa) Nile River, Africa
  39. 39. Amazon River
  40. 40. • Other notable water features: - Caribbean Sea - Mediterranean Sea Caribbean Sea
  41. 41. • Major Desert - Sahara Mediterranean SeaAtlantic Ocean
  42. 42. 48 What Tools Help Us Understand Our Location in Relation to Other Locations?
  43. 43. • The Study of Maps! Is there bias, prejudice or self absorption here?
  44. 44. • Cartography – the art of map making
  45. 45. • Map (vocab.) – a representation of an area. slc
  46. 46. • Types of Maps 1. Political (vocab.) - names and boundaries of countries, cities, etc.
  47. 47. 2. Physical (vocab.) - show physical features.
  48. 48. - Relief Map – shows the elevations of a land surface. (type of physical map)
  49. 49. Topographic Relief Map of Kings Peak - Utah
  50. 50. 57 3. Reference Maps • Shows location of places and geographic features • Absolute location Ex. Roadmap
  51. 51. 58 4. Thematic Maps • Tells the story of the degree of an attribute, the pattern of its distribution or its movement. Relative Location
  52. 52. • Map Projections – Representing Earth on a flat sheet of paper. 1. Mercator, Robinson, Winkel and Goode Mercator Robinson Winkel Goode It is impossible to accurately portray a round object on a flat piece of paper. sstrength-minor distortion; weakness-flat poles Strength-shows true directions and shapes Weakness-distorts size and distance Used most Little distortion, most balanced Shows true size & shape but distance is distorted
  53. 53. 6060
  54. 54. 6161
  55. 55. • Map Elements 1. Key/legend (vocab.) a. Explains lines, symbols and colors 2. Scale bar (vocab.) a. Shows distance-ratio of actual ground distance to that shown on map
  56. 56. 3. Compass Rose – circle that shows directions on a map.
  57. 57. - Cardinal Directions (vocab.) – north, south, east and west. (write) outside?
  58. 58. • The sun rises in the east . . . Wasatch Mountains east of Sandy.
  59. 59. . . . and sets in the west. Downtown SLC
  60. 60. Sunrise on the Indian Ocean . . . are you looking east or west? Sunset on the Sahara Desert . . . are you looking east or west? You are looking west . . . sunrise or sunset? You are looking east . . . sunrise or sunset?
  61. 61. • On a map, North is up and South is down (generally). Ogden is up and Provo is down.
  62. 62. Idaho is up and Arizona is down.
  63. 63. Where is BHS located and what are the cardinal directions?
  64. 64. • Atlas (vocab.) – a collection of maps in a book.
  65. 65. Greek Mythology: Atlas was a Titan and when the Titans and the Olympians went to war, the Olympians won. His punishment was to hold up the heavens for eternity. So he really doesn’t hold up earth.
  66. 66. • Globe (vocab.) – a spherical representation of Earth.
  67. 67. Direct Route Which route is longer/shorter?
  68. 68. • Great Circle Route - Imaginary line that follows the curve of earth. - Who uses it and why?
  69. 69. The Great Circle Route looks longer, however, it is actually a shorter route. Airline pilots Benefits – reduce travel time and saves fuel. http://www.youtube.com/watch? v=1XBwjQsOEeg&feature=related
  70. 70. • Mental Mapping (vocab.) – A map in your head..
  71. 71. TextIsIs there bias here?
  72. 72. -Geographic Information Systems aka-GIS • First, data is gathered from MAPS, SATELLITE IMAGES, PRINTED TEXT and STATISTICS • Next, GIS converts data into digital code and arranges it in data base. • Last, Cartographers program the GIS to process the data and produce maps. p. 15 in text
  73. 73. 83
  74. 74. • Earth BTW - Earth is moving at 67,000 mph around the sun (Nicolaus Copernicus 1473 - 1543 AD). - Earth is spinning (rotating) 1,037 mph at the equator & 0 mph at the poles. - Thank you gravity!!!! (natural force that pulls everything down to the ground) and Sir Isaac Newton 1642 – 1727 AD.
  75. 75. A sphere is a round geometrical object in 3-dimentional space. Please write down When was Earth discovered to be round (sphere)?
  76. 76. • The ancient Greeks knew that Earth was round (sphere) about 2,000 years before Columbus. - Aristotle 384 - 322 BC Parthenon in Athens, Greece - Pythagoras c. 570 - c. 495 BC Pythagoras – “All celestial bodies are spherical” Aristotle – “Only a sphere can cast a shadow in every direction.” (referencing an eclipse)
  77. 77. • Father of Geography - Eratosthenes (Greek c. 276 – c. 195 BC)
  78. 78. Eratosthenes was the first person to calculate (with incredible accuracy) the circumference of earth, at 25,000 miles, by measuring angles of shadows. Actually, earth is 24,901 miles at the equator & 24,859 through the poles (centrifugal force). Eratosthenes was only off by 99 miles (equator). obelisk Alexandria and Syene are both in Egypt.
  79. 79. Eratosthenes wannabe
  80. 80. A Greek named Posidonius, who lived 100 years after Eratosthenes, measured earth at 18,000 miles. Columbus, in 1492 AD, used Posidonius instead of Eratosthenes measurement (Columbus did know that Earth was round before his famous voyage). As a result, he thought that he would get to “India” much faster than he did.
  81. 81. • Location 1. Absolute Location - exact location of a place on Earth (address). a. Latitude and Longitude (vocab.) - Imaginary lines marking positions on earth. Eratosthenes was, also, the first to use the word “geography” and he invented the concept of latitude and longitude. At an old age, Eratosthenes became blind and he died of self-induced starvation. Eratosthenes some dude dog?
  82. 82. The ancient Babylonians, actually, assigned numbers to a circle. Ptolemy, however, incorporated them into the longitude and latitude coordinates.
  83. 83. Ptolemy (Greek & Roman citizen who lived in Egypt c. 90 AD – c. 168 AD) – he assigned coordinates to all of the places and geographic features he knew . . . in a grid.
  84. 84. 1. Latitude (flatitude) a. Equator - 0 degrees latitude. b. Tropic of Cancer (North) and Capricorn (South) - 23.5 degrees
  85. 85. The Seasons: Revolution of Earth around the Sun and the tilt of Earth’s axis (revolution and rotation). http://www.youtube.com/watch? v=NydSuHoQZqk&feature=related&safety_mode=tru e&persist_safety_mode=1&safe=active Eratosthenes was,also, the first to accurately calculate the tilt of Earth’s axis at 23.5 degrees. Where is the Arctic Circle?
  86. 86. c. Arctic (North) and Antarctic Circles (South) - 66.5 degrees
  87. 87. Equator 0 Tropic of Capricorn 23.5 S Tropic of Cancer 23.5 N Arctic Circle 66.5 N Antarctic Circle 66.5 S Hemispheres? How to remember: Latitude = Flatitude
  88. 88. 2. Longitude 1. Prime Meridian - 0 degrees longitude. a. Old Royal Observatory in Greenwich, England (U.K.)
  89. 89. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-0c1idtn3e8&safety_mode=true&persist_safety_mode=1 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cKT16DjHo_8&safety_mode=true&persist_safety_mode=1 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YGdw2743vKc&safety_mode=true&persist_safety_mode=1 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_JtnNQ6NQhc&safety_mode=true&persist_safety_mode=1 All the lines of longitude meet at the north and south poles.
  90. 90. • Grid System – straight lines that intersect.
  91. 91. • Hemisphere (vocab.) - “half sphere” 1. Northern and Southern 2. Eastern - “Old World” & Western - “New World”
  92. 92. NW NE SW SE Earths quadrants P ri m e M e ri d i a n Equator 0 degrees 0 degrees
  93. 93. NW SW NE SE
  94. 94. • Latitude – N & S • Longitude – E & W
  95. 95. 2. Relative Location a. Where a place is located in relation to other places. 1. Example: NYC is east of Chicago, Illinois.
  96. 96. • Time on Earth 1. Standard Time (since 1884) a. Based on the Prime Meridian. 1. Greenwich Mean Time (GMT)
  97. 97. • Time Zone (vocab.) – one of the 24 regions or divisions of Earth’s surface used to determine local time in a given locality. Why do we have them?
  98. 98. • Because the sun’s rays are hitting Earth at different times and in different places. How many time zones are there worldwide?
  99. 99. 1. 24 time zones worldwide a. One time zone = about 15 degrees longitude. 1. U.S. Time Zones a. East to west - Eastern, Central, Mountain, Pacific, Alaska and Hawaii China – one time zone Russia – eleven time zones
  100. 100. The difference between each line of longitude is15 degrees. There are 24 increments of 15 degrees of longitude. How many hours in a day?
  101. 101. http://24timezones.com/ http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kDWHM00sZJc&safety_mode=true&persist_safety_mode=1
  102. 102. Hoover Dam
  103. 103. Lake Mead Lake Mead is right on the border between Arizona and Nevada. The two states are in different time zones (at least for part of the year).
  104. 104. • East (add time) -- West (subtract time)
  105. 105. • Daylight Savings Time - “Spring Forward” and “Fall Back” - There are two states with no daylight savings . . . What are they? - November 3rd 2013 - March 9th 2014
  106. 106. - States with no daylight savings - Hawaii and Arizona Hawaii Arizona
  107. 107. • International Dateline 1. Marks the place where each day officially begins. 2. The west side of the line is always one day ahead of the east side. http://www.youtube.com/watch? v=Ra4nHwdTQ4Y&safety_mode=true&persist_safety_mode=1 http://www.youtube.com/watch? v=qlmpIuaOBNY&NR=1&safety_mode=true&persist_safety_mo http://www.youtube.com/watch? v=1jbZoTlnmEA&feature=related&safety_mode=true&persist_safety_ Add Subtract

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