South America\ S History And Culture Powerpoint

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  • 1. South America’s History and Culture World Geography
  • 2. Early History
    • Most researchers believed the first people in South America entered from the North 12,000 years ago.
    • The first settlers were hunter-gatherers.
    • Farming began there 5,000 years ago.
  • 3. Early Cultures
    • In the Colombian Andes, the Chibcha developed gold-working skills.
  • 4. The Incas
    • The Inca founded South America’s greatest early civilization.
    • The Inca Empire stretched from Ecuador to Chile.
    • They built paved roads, suspension bridges, stone buildings and terraced fields.
    • They were taken over by Francisco Pizarro and the Spanish in the 1530’s.
  • 5. Spanish Settlement in South America
    • The Spanish wanted to settle on the west side of the Continent because that is where the Inca had been.
    • The Portuguese come and the Spanish agree to take the west side of South America and the Portuguese take the east side.
    • The Spanish establish many land estates and forced the Indians to work on them.
    • The Europeans also brought disease that leave only a fraction of the Indians there alive.
    • The Spanish spread from Peru to Bolivia to Chile and Paraguay and Argentina.
  • 6. What do the Spanish take?
    • The Spanish begin latifundias which were large land estates.
    • They get the Guarani indians to help them with ideas and work to make their settlements grow.
  • 7. Portuguese Settlements
    • The Portuguese begin their settlements along the east side of South America.
    • They begin plantations to grow brazilwood and sugarcane.
    • After the Indians die because of disease, many plantation owners brought enslaved Africans to work.
    • The Portuguese settlements move inward and lead to mineral discoveries and the development of Sao Paolo and Rio de Janiero.
  • 8. Colonial Era and Independence
    • Most South American countries gained their independence between 1810 and 1830.
    • The countries began isolated and different.
    • The borders of countries followed the colonial lines.
    • Uruguay was formed when land between Argentina and Brazil was formally divided.
    • Uruguay is a buffer state.
  • 9. More countries, More Independence
    • Brazil gained its independence when its King went back to Portugal.
    • The British and Dutch Guianas only recently gained their independence.
    • Independence did little to help South Americans.
  • 10. South American Governments Today
    • Independence did little to help South American governments.
    • Most still experience revolutions.
    • Several countries are ruled by dictators.
    • Bolivia has had 200 coups since they gained their independence.
    • A coup is a governmental overthrow.
  • 11. South American Languages and People
    • Languages in South America are primarily determined by the country that settled them. Most western South Americans speak Spanish and eastern South Americans speak Portuguese.
    • On the border of Uruguay and Brazil, a language called Portunol is spoken. It’s a mix of Portuguese and Spanish.
    • The people have very different ethnicities.
  • 12. Settlement Patterns
    • Most of South America’s population lies on the coasts and stretch a few hundred miles inland.
    • Many cities are seaports and many are high in the Andes.
    • The interior of South America is not very populated.
  • 13. Religion and Traditions
    • Most people in South America are Roman Catholic; however there are Hindu temples and many Indian religions that are still practiced.
    • Islamic mosques are there are well.
  • 14. Traditions
    • Some rainforest people have had little contact with the outside world.
    • They raise bananas, manoic, yams and other crops.
    • They hunt with bows and arrows and dart guns.
    • Many are ranchers called gauchos.