West Siberian Plain world’s largest area of flat land (1 million square miles)
Located . . . 60° N. 75° E.
Turan Lowland mostly kums (deserts), but not entirely
Located . . . 43° N. 60° E.
Caucasus Mountains form the Russian Frontier with Azerbaijan & Georgia— includes some of the world’s largest glaciers
Located . . . 44° N. 41° E.
Ural Mountains mineral rich, worn down by erosion, divide European Russia and Siberia summer winter
Located . . . 65° N. 59° E.
Tien Shan means “heavenly mountains” in Chinese—covers much of Kyrgyzstan
Located . . . 42° N. 78° E.
Ob River 5 th longest river in the world—often frozen
Located . . . 64° N. 67° E.
Irytsh River 9 th longest river in the world
Located … 58° N. 70° E.
Yenisei (or Yenisey) 7 th longest river in the world
Located . . . 68° N. 86° E.
Lena River 12 th longest river in the world
Located . . . 69° N. 124° E.
Volga River longest river in European Russia—frozen 4-6 months of the year
Located . . . 48° N. 46° E.
Black Sea warm water
Located . . . 43° N. 35° E.
Caspian Sea largest inland body of water in the world—salt water lake
Located . . . 42° N. 50° E.
Lake Baikal oldest and deepest lake in the world— holds 1/5 of the earth’s total freshwater supply—5,500 feet deep summer winter
Baikalian Sponges Golomyan fish in Lake Baikal
Located . . . 52° N. 105° E.
Baltic Sea 45% frozen during winter—special ships called icebreakers keep the ports open
Located . . . 55° N. 20° E.
Aral Sea incredible amount of shrinking since 1960— due to human/environment interaction (This is desertification!)
Located . . . 45° N. 60° E.
At one time the Aral Sea was the 4 th largest lake in the world. It has been shrinking since 1960 when water began to be diverted because the USSR wanted to make Uzbekistan a cotton-growing region. In the 60s, the water level dropped 8” a year (for a total of 80”). In the 70s, the level dropped 24” a year (for a total of 240”). In the 80s it dropped almost 40” a year (for a total of 400”). This is a perfect example of desertification. It’s interesting to note that although the cost to the environment has been astronomical, the USSR did achieve its aim—Uzbekistan today is a large exporter of cotton.
There used to be an island called Vozrozdeniya in the Aral Sea. The Soviets used this island as a biological weapons facility. Now that it is now longer an island, and instead is part of the mainland, these biological hazards seem to be migrating. The people in this area have 9 times the world’s average rate for throat cancer and the infant mortality rate is the highest of all the former Soviet republics. Tuberculosis and eye diseases are rising alarmingly.
Almost every mineral used in industry is found in Russia and/or the Eurasian Republics
Russia is the 2 nd largest producer of gold in the world. Anyone know who #1 is?
There are only 2 countries in the world that produce more oil a day than the Tyumen field on the West Siberian Plain. Anyone know what countries produce more?
Answers to Previous Slide
South Africa is the world’s largest producer of gold.
The United States and Saudi Arabia produce more oil each day than the Tyumen field in Russia.
In northeast Siberia, temperatures reach 90 degrees below zero!!!