Climate (terms)

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  • 1. Climate TermsClimate Terms
  • 2. Factors Affecting ClimateFactors Affecting Climate A. Low Latitudes (30° S. to 30° N) B. High Latitudes (60-90° N, 60-90° S.) C. Arctic Circle (66° N) D. Antarctic Circle (66° S) E. Mid Latitudes (30-60°, N & S)
  • 3. Factors Affecting ClimateFactors Affecting Climate Latitude plays a major role in climate. The farther one gets from the Equator, the cooler the climate. High elevations are generally cooler than the surrounding landscape. (The “rule of thumb” is 3.5 degrees for every 1,000 feet.) Other factors that help determine climate are wind and water currents, recurring phenomena such as El Nino, and large landforms.
  • 4. World Climate PatternsWorld Climate Patterns Geographers divide the world into major climate regions. The major climate regions are tropical, dry, midlatitude, high latitude and highland climates. Each of these can be broken down into smaller categories. Each climate region has its own characteristic natural vegetation. Climate patterns change over time as a result of both natural processes and human activity.
  • 5. Latitude, Elevation, and ClimateLatitude, Elevation, and Climate  Latitude and elevation affect theLatitude and elevation affect the angle of the sunangle of the sun’’s rays ands rays and temperatures on Earthtemperatures on Earth  Low latitudes include the Tropic ofLow latitudes include the Tropic of Capricorn, the Equator, and theCapricorn, the Equator, and the Tropic of Cancer.Tropic of Cancer.  The EarthThe Earth’’s polar areas ares polar areas are considered the high latitudes.considered the high latitudes.
  • 6. Latitude, Elevation, and ClimateLatitude, Elevation, and Climate (cont.)(cont.)  Mid latitudes:Mid latitudes:  Between 30 degrees N and 60Between 30 degrees N and 60 degrees N in the Northerndegrees N in the Northern Hemisphere, and between 30Hemisphere, and between 30 degrees S and 60 degrees S in thedegrees S and 60 degrees S in the Southern Hemisphere, areSouthern Hemisphere, are considered the mid latitudes.considered the mid latitudes.  The most variable weather is foundThe most variable weather is found here.here.
  • 7. Elevation:Elevation:  At all latitudes, elevation influencesAt all latitudes, elevation influences climate because of the relationshipclimate because of the relationship between the elevation of a place andbetween the elevation of a place and its temperature.its temperature.  As elevation increases, temperatureAs elevation increases, temperature decreasesdecreases The Influence of Elevation on Temperature
  • 8.  Why does thinner air retain lessWhy does thinner air retain less heat?heat?  A.A. It is more denseIt is more dense  B.B. It is less denseIt is less dense
  • 9. Winds and Ocean CurrentsWinds and Ocean Currents Wind and water combine with theWind and water combine with the effects of the sun to influenceeffects of the sun to influence EarthEarth’’s weather and climate.s weather and climate.  Wind Patterns:Wind Patterns: – Wind blows because of temperatureWind blows because of temperature differences on Earthdifferences on Earth’’s surface, withs surface, with tropical air moving toward the Polestropical air moving toward the Poles and polar air moving toward theand polar air moving toward the Equator.Equator.
  • 10. Winds and Ocean CurrentsWinds and Ocean Currents – Global winds blow in fairly constantGlobal winds blow in fairly constant patterns called prevailing winds.patterns called prevailing winds. – The Coriolis effect causes prevailingThe Coriolis effect causes prevailing winds to blow diagonally rather thanwinds to blow diagonally rather than along strict north-south or east-westalong strict north-south or east-west directions.directions.
  • 11. Winds and Ocean CurrentsWinds and Ocean Currents  The Horse Latitudes:The Horse Latitudes:  When sailors became stranded in theWhen sailors became stranded in the doldrums, they would lighten thedoldrums, they would lighten the load of the ships, including livestock,load of the ships, including livestock, so that a light breeze could moveso that a light breeze could move them.them.  These areas then became known asThese areas then became known as the horse latitudes.the horse latitudes.
  • 12. Ocean currents are caused byOcean currents are caused by factors such as:factors such as:  the Earththe Earth’’s rotations rotation  changes in air pressurechanges in air pressure  differences in water temperaturedifferences in water temperature  The Coriolis effect is observed inThe Coriolis effect is observed in ocean currents as well.ocean currents as well.  Ocean currents affect climate in theOcean currents affect climate in the coastal lands along which they flow.coastal lands along which they flow.
  • 13. Weather and Water CycleWeather and Water Cycle – Wind and water work together toWind and water work together to affect weather—driven byaffect weather—driven by temperature, condensation createstemperature, condensation creates precipitationprecipitation  El Niño is a periodic change in theEl Niño is a periodic change in the pattern of ocean currents, waterpattern of ocean currents, water temperatures and weather in thetemperatures and weather in the mid-Pacific region. It can influencemid-Pacific region. It can influence climates around the world.climates around the world.
  • 14. El NiñoEl Niño  A periodic reversal of the pattern ofA periodic reversal of the pattern of ocean currents and waterocean currents and water
  • 15. QuestionQuestion  A periodic change in the patternA periodic change in the pattern of ocean currents, waterof ocean currents, water temperatures, and weather intemperatures, and weather in the mid-Pacific region is knownthe mid-Pacific region is known as which term?as which term?  A.A. DoldrumsDoldrums  B.B. CurrentCurrent  C.C. Prevailing WindsPrevailing Winds  D.D. El NiñoEl Niño
  • 16. QuestionQuestion  Which climate would you preferWhich climate would you prefer to live in?to live in?  A.A. Tropical climateTropical climate  B.B. Dry climateDry climate  C.C. Midlatitude climateMidlatitude climate
  • 17. RegionsRegions Geographers divide the Earth intoGeographers divide the Earth into regions that have similarregions that have similar climates.climates.  Each of these divisions has its ownEach of these divisions has its own characteristic soils and naturalcharacteristic soils and natural vegetation.vegetation.
  • 18. Climate RegionsClimate Regions  Climates are organized into fiveClimates are organized into five regions:regions: – Tropical climates—these are found inTropical climates—these are found in or near the low latitudes—theor near the low latitudes—the Tropics.Tropics.  Tropical wetTropical wet  Tropical dryTropical dry
  • 19. More about ClimatesMore about Climates – Dry climates—there are two types ofDry climates—there are two types of dry climates—the desert and thedry climates—the desert and the steppe—which occur in low latitudessteppe—which occur in low latitudes or midlatitudes.or midlatitudes. – Midlatitude climates—this climateMidlatitude climates—this climate experiences variable weatherexperiences variable weather patterns and season changes thatpatterns and season changes that give rise to a variety of naturalgive rise to a variety of natural vegetation.vegetation.
  • 20. Temperate climate regionsTemperate climate regions  There are four temperate climateThere are four temperate climate regionsregions  Marine west coast climateMarine west coast climate  MediterraneanMediterranean  Humid subtropicalHumid subtropical  Humid continentalHumid continental
  • 21. High Latitude Climate RegionsHigh Latitude Climate Regions  High latitude climates—freezingHigh latitude climates—freezing temperatures are commontemperatures are common throughout the year because of thethroughout the year because of the lack of direct sunlight.lack of direct sunlight.  Three high altitude climate regionsThree high altitude climate regions are:are:  SubarcticSubarctic  TundraTundra  Ice capIce cap
  • 22. Rain ShadowRain Shadow  Warm air crosses the ocean and theWarm air crosses the ocean and the land picks up water vaporland picks up water vapor 1
  • 23. Rain ShadowRain Shadow  As the warm air filled with water vapor reachesAs the warm air filled with water vapor reaches UtahUtah’’s Mountains, climbs to go over mountain. airs Mountains, climbs to go over mountain. air rises, it cools and cannot hold as much waterrises, it cools and cannot hold as much water vapor. Vapor condenses and falls as rain or snowvapor. Vapor condenses and falls as rain or snow on mountains.on mountains. 2
  • 24. Rain ShadowRain Shadow  When air reaches the far side of theWhen air reaches the far side of the mountain it has already lost much of itsmountain it has already lost much of its water vapor. The dry side of thewater vapor. The dry side of the mountain is called the rain shadow.mountain is called the rain shadow. 3
  • 25. Prevailing WindPrevailing Wind Wind in a region that blows in aWind in a region that blows in a fairly constant directional patternfairly constant directional pattern
  • 26. Coriolis EffectCoriolis Effect  The resulting diagonal movement,The resulting diagonal movement, either north or south, of prevailingeither north or south, of prevailing winds caused by the Earthwinds caused by the Earth’’s rotations rotation
  • 27. DoldrumsDoldrums  A frequently windless area near theA frequently windless area near the EquatorEquator
  • 28. CurrentCurrent  Cold or warm stream of seawaterCold or warm stream of seawater that flows in the oceans, generally inthat flows in the oceans, generally in a circular patterna circular pattern
  • 29. WindwardWindward  Being in or facing the direction fromBeing in or facing the direction from which the wind is blowingwhich the wind is blowing
  • 30. WindwardWindward  being in or facing the direction frombeing in or facing the direction from which the wind is blowingwhich the wind is blowing
  • 31. LeewardLeeward  Being in or facing the directionBeing in or facing the direction toward which the wind is blowingtoward which the wind is blowing
  • 32. Rain Shadow EffectRain Shadow Effect  Result of a process by which dryResult of a process by which dry areas develop on the leeward sidesareas develop on the leeward sides of mountain rangesof mountain ranges
  • 33. Natural VegetationNatural Vegetation  Plant life that grows in a certain areaPlant life that grows in a certain area if people have not changed theif people have not changed the natural environmentnatural environment
  • 34. OasisOasis  Small area in a desert where waterSmall area in a desert where water and vegetation are foundand vegetation are found
  • 35. ConiferousConiferous  Referring to vegetation having conesReferring to vegetation having cones and needle-shaped leaves, includingand needle-shaped leaves, including many evergreens, that keep theirmany evergreens, that keep their foliage throughout the winterfoliage throughout the winter
  • 36. DeciduousDeciduous  Falling off or shed seasonally orFalling off or shed seasonally or periodically; trees such as oak andperiodically; trees such as oak and maple which lose their leaves inmaple which lose their leaves in autumnautumn
  • 37. Mixed ForestMixed Forest  Forest with both coniferous andForest with both coniferous and deciduous treesdeciduous trees
  • 38. PrairiePrairie  AAn inland grassland arean inland grassland area
  • 39. PermafrostPermafrost  PPermanently frozen layer of soilermanently frozen layer of soil beneath the surface of the groundbeneath the surface of the ground
  • 40. HypothesisHypothesis  A scientific explanation for an eventA scientific explanation for an event
  • 41. SmogSmog  Haze caused by the interaction ofHaze caused by the interaction of ultraviolet solar radiation withultraviolet solar radiation with chemical fumes from automobilechemical fumes from automobile exhausts and other pollution sourcesexhausts and other pollution sources
  • 42. Factors of ClimateFactors of Climate  LatitudeLatitude  ElevationElevation  ContinentalityContinentality  LandformsLandforms  Winds and currents (inc. El Nino)Winds and currents (inc. El Nino)