Chapter 6 Religion PPT by Abe Goldman An Introduction to Human Geography The Cultural Landscape, 8e James M. Rubenstein
Distribution of Religions
Other ethnic religions
World Distribution of Religions Fig. 6-1: World religions by continent.
World Population by Religion Fig. 6-1a: Over two-thirds of the world’s population belong to Christianity, Islam, Hinduism, or Buddhism. Christianity is the single largest world religion.
Christian Branches in Europe Fig. 6-2: Protestant denominations, Catholicism, and Eastern Orthodoxy are dominant in different regions of Europe—a result of many historic interactions.
Christian Branches in the U.S. Fig. 6-3: Distribution of Christians in the U.S. Shaded areas are counties with more than 50% of church membership concentrated in Roman Catholicism or one of the Protestant denominations.
Variations in Distribution of Religions (1)
Origin of religions
Origin of universalizing religions
Origin of Hinduism
Diffusion of religions
Diffusion of universalizing religions
Lack of diffusion of ethnic religions
Diffusion of Universalizing Religions Fig. 6-4: Each of the three main universalizing religions diffused widely from its hearth.
Diffusion of Christianity Fig. 6-5: Christianity diffused from Palestine through the Roman Empire and continued diffusing through Europe after the fall of Rome. It was later replaced by Islam in much of the Mideast and North Africa.
Diffusion of Islam Fig. 6-6: Islam diffused rapidly and widely from its area of origin in Arabia. It eventually stretched from southeast Asia to West Africa.
Diffusion of Buddhism Fig. 6-7: Buddhism diffused gradually from its origin in northeastern India to Sri Lanka, southeast Asia, and eventually China and Japan.
Shintoism and Buddhism in Japan Fig. 6-8: Since Japanese can be both Shinto and Buddhist, there are many areas in Japan where over two-thirds of the population are both Shinto and Buddhist.
Variations in Distribution of Religions (2)
Holy places in universalizing religions
Holy places in ethnic religions
The calendar in ethnic religions
The calendar in universalizing religions
Holy Sites in Buddhism Fig. 6-9: Most holy sites in Buddhism are locations of important events in Buddha’s life and are clustered in northeastern India and southern Nepal.
Mecca, Islam’s Holiest City Fig. 6-10: Makkah (Mecca) is the holiest city in Islam and is the site of pilgrimage for millions of Muslims each year. There are numerous holy sites in the city.
Hindu Holy Places Fig. 6-11: Hierarchy of Hindu holy places: Some sites are holy to Hindus throughout India; others have a regional or sectarian importance, or are important only locally.
Organization of Space
Places of worship
Places of worship in other religions
Disposing of the dead
Religious place names
Administration of space
Locally autonomous religions
Place Names in Québec Fig. 6-12: Place names in Québec show the impact of religion on the landscape. Many cities and towns are named after saints.
Roman Catholic Hierarchy in U.S. Fig. 6-13: The Catholic Church divides the U.S. into provinces headed by archbishops. Provinces are divided into dioceses, headed by bishops.
Religion vs. government policies
Religion vs. social change
Religion vs. Communism
Religion vs. religion
Religious wars in the Middle East
Religious wars in Ireland
Religious Conflict in the Middle East
Jews, Christians, and Muslims have fought for 2,000 years for the same spot of land
Jews claim it as the Promised Land and trace roots back to biblical times. Their customs and rituals gained meaning there.
Christianity gained control after the life of Jesus and it is important because of the life and death of Jesus. Romans control area and call it Palestine
Islam considers Jerusalem the third holiest city after Makkah and Madinah. It is where Muhammad ascended to heaven. Muslims gained control of the area in the seventh century (late 600s) Many Christians converted to Islam.
Muslims, also called Arabs, capture most of the Middle East, Including Jerusalem and Palestine and brought Arabic language and Islam
Muslims made way into the Iberian peninsula and capture Spain and France but were stopped by Charles Martel in France. Muslims did control much of Spain Until 1492
In the East the capture Constantinople (Istanbul, Turkey) and make way into Balkan Peninsula in the 1450s. The wars in Bosnia and Serbia in the 1990s stem from these Muslim advances.
In 1099 Christians launch a series of military campaigns in an attempt to conquer the Holy Land.
They Capture holy land in 1099, lose it again in 1187 as part of the third crusade
Regained it in 1229 as part of a treaty ending the sixth crusade
Loose if the final time in 1244
Jews Vs. Muslims Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire controls most of Middle East starting in 1516.
They are weak when WWI breaks out and join sides with the German Side.
During the war different treaties were negotiated as to what to do with the area after the war.
After WWI the area was divided up with mandates from the league of Nations with Great Britain controlling Palestine.
One Land, Two People
Between WWI and WWII G.B allowed some Jews to come back to the area, but restricted it in 1930 because of Pressure form Arabs.
During this time the British told the Palestinians that they deserved to rule themselves, but also told the Jews they had a right to a homeland.
Zionist movement (the return of Jews) picks up just before WWII.
After WWII there is world wide sympathy for a homeland for the Jews
British announce they don’t know how to solve the problem and are returning control to the United Nations.
Creation of Israel
The United Nations comes up with a plan to partition the area into two parts. One for Jews the other for Muslims. Jerusalem was to be an international city.
British withdraw in 1948 and Israel declares independence and accepts the UN partition.
The next day Israel is attacked by all Arab neighbors.
The War ends in 1949 with Israel gaining most of the land, and the other Arab countries controlling what was left. The Palestinians loose all territory.
Boundary Changes in Palestine/Israel Fig. 6-15: The UN partition plan for Palestine in 1947 contrasted with the boundaries that were established after the 1948–49 War. Major changes later resulted from the 1967 War.
Three more wars take place. The wars of 1956, 1967, and 1973 further divide the land.
War of 1967, or Six-Day War was critical because Israel gained land from all their neighbors
West Bank and Jerusalem from Jordan
Golan Heights from Syria
Gaza Strip from Egypt
Sinai Peninsula from Egypt (later returned)
Four Points of Conflict 1. Refugees
During the Wars millions of Palestinians fled the area for safety as Jews destroyed many Muslim towns.
Many Muslims living in surrounding countries consider themselves Palestinians even though they have never lived there.
Palestinians want these refugees to be able to return, the Jews feel this would cause an imbalance in population they could not overcome.
#2 Settlements in the West Bank and Gaza
After the Jews gained control of the West Bank and Gaza they started to build settlements to solidify their claim to the land.
Started slowly but increased in the 1980s and 90s.
Palestinians want most if not all settlements removed. Jews say settlements provide security and are needed to keep claim on area.
The West Bank: Political and Physical Geography Fig. 6-16: Political control of the West Bank has been split between Palestinians and Israelis (though under overall Israeli control). The West Bank includes many of the higher altitude areas of the region.
Both sides see the other as a major threat to security. The Israel Army, supplied by America and G.B. is far superior to the Palestinian force.
As a response, Palestine often uses terrorism to make points. When one side does something, the other is sure to retaliate.
Palestine has struggled to form unified government, so when one group such as the PLO or Hamas make a treaty, the other often breaks it.
The access and control of Jerusalem is a problem that has no easy solution
Both sides want control to their Holy sites, which are spread through out the city, and sometimes right on top of each other.
Neither side feels comfortable in any sort of compromise in regards to Jerusalem and neither will give up their claim to it.
The Christian influence makes it difficult as well.
Jerusalem Fig. 6-14: The Old City of Jerusalem contains holy sites for Judaism, Christianity, and Islam.
Added problem: Physical Geography
The lack of size and the topography make Israel and Palestine a difficult area to compromise on.
Major Jewish cities are very close to Palestinian lands, and Muslim terrorists often use hilly west bank as shelter and bases for attacks
Other Info to Know
Palestinian Liberation Organization (PLO) is the major Muslim political organization. It was headed by Yassir Arafat until he died last year.
Many different groups of people call themselves Palestinians including refugees from the different wars, Muslim citizens of Israel, and citizens of other countries that had relatives at one time that were refugees.
Both sides have moderates that want compromise. However the peace process is made more difficult by the smaller fundamentalist on both sides who will not be happy unless the other side is eliminated.
Israel’s Security Zone in Lebanon Fig. 6-1-1: Israel established a security zone in southern Lebanon in 1982. When Israel withdrew in 2000, the UN helped draw the boundary between the countries.
Conflict in Ireland
This is between Protestant and Roman Catholics and the conflict has decreased in recent years as treaties and agreements have been reached.
Again some on both sides are not happy and there is always a possibility it will get worse again.
Read the book about this conflict and know what the why there is a conflict and what the IRA is.
Protestants in Northern Ireland Fig. 6-17: Percent Protestant population by district in Ireland, 1911. When Ireland became independent in 1937, 26 northern districts with large Protestant populations chose to remain part of the United Kingdom.