World Distribution of Religions Fig. 6-1: World religions by continent.
World Population by Religion Fig. 6-1a: Over two-thirds of the world’s population belong to Christianity, Islam, Hinduism, or Buddhism. Christianity is the single largest world religion.
Christian Branches in Europe Fig. 6-2: Protestant denominations, Catholicism, and Eastern Orthodoxy are dominant in different regions of Europe—a result of many historic interactions.
Christian Branches in the U.S. Fig. 6-3: Distribution of Christians in the U.S. Shaded areas are counties with more than 50% of church membership concentrated in Roman Catholicism or one of the Protestant denominations.
Diffusion of Universalizing Religions Fig. 6-4: Each of the three main universalizing religions diffused widely from its hearth.
Diffusion of Christianity Fig. 6-5: Christianity diffused from Palestine through the Roman Empire and continued diffusing through Europe after the fall of Rome. It was later replaced by Islam in much of the Mideast and North Africa.
Diffusion of Islam Fig. 6-6: Islam diffused rapidly and widely from its area of origin in Arabia. It eventually stretched from southeast Asia to West Africa.
Diffusion of Buddhism Fig. 6-7: Buddhism diffused gradually from its origin in northeastern India to Sri Lanka, southeast Asia, and eventually China and Japan.
Shintoism and Buddhism in Japan Fig. 6-8: Since Japanese can be both Shinto and Buddhist, there are many areas in Japan where over two-thirds of the population are both Shinto and Buddhist.
Jews, Christians, and Muslims have fought for 2,000 years for the same spot of land
Jews claim it as the Promised Land and trace roots back to biblical times. Their customs and rituals gained meaning there.
Christianity gained control after the life of Jesus and it is important because of the life and death of Jesus. Romans control area and call it Palestine
Islam considers Jerusalem the third holiest city after Makkah and Madinah. It is where Muhammad ascended to heaven. Muslims gained control of the area in the seventh century (late 600s) Many Christians converted to Islam.
The United Nations comes up with a plan to partition the area into two parts. One for Jews the other for Muslims. Jerusalem was to be an international city.
British withdraw in 1948 and Israel declares independence and accepts the UN partition.
The next day Israel is attacked by all Arab neighbors.
The War ends in 1949 with Israel gaining most of the land, and the other Arab countries controlling what was left. The Palestinians loose all territory.
Boundary Changes in Palestine/Israel Fig. 6-15: The UN partition plan for Palestine in 1947 contrasted with the boundaries that were established after the 1948–49 War. Major changes later resulted from the 1967 War.
After the Jews gained control of the West Bank and Gaza they started to build settlements to solidify their claim to the land.
Started slowly but increased in the 1980s and 90s.
Palestinians want most if not all settlements removed. Jews say settlements provide security and are needed to keep claim on area.
The West Bank: Political and Physical Geography Fig. 6-16: Political control of the West Bank has been split between Palestinians and Israelis (though under overall Israeli control). The West Bank includes many of the higher altitude areas of the region.
Palestinian Liberation Organization (PLO) is the major Muslim political organization. It was headed by Yassir Arafat until he died last year.
Many different groups of people call themselves Palestinians including refugees from the different wars, Muslim citizens of Israel, and citizens of other countries that had relatives at one time that were refugees.
Both sides have moderates that want compromise. However the peace process is made more difficult by the smaller fundamentalist on both sides who will not be happy unless the other side is eliminated.
Israel’s Security Zone in Lebanon Fig. 6-1-1: Israel established a security zone in southern Lebanon in 1982. When Israel withdrew in 2000, the UN helped draw the boundary between the countries.
This is between Protestant and Roman Catholics and the conflict has decreased in recent years as treaties and agreements have been reached.
Again some on both sides are not happy and there is always a possibility it will get worse again.
Read the book about this conflict and know what the why there is a conflict and what the IRA is.
Protestants in Northern Ireland Fig. 6-17: Percent Protestant population by district in Ireland, 1911. When Ireland became independent in 1937, 26 northern districts with large Protestant populations chose to remain part of the United Kingdom.