English Speaking Countries Fig. 5-1: English is the official language in 42 countries, including some in which it is not the most widely spoken language. It is also used and understood in many others.
Invasions of England 5 th –11 th centuries Fig. 5-2: The groups that brought what became English to England included Jutes, Angles, Saxons, and Vikings. The Normans later brought French vocabulary to English.
Old and Middle English Dialects Fig. 5-3: The main dialect regions of Old English before the Norman invasion persisted to some extent in the Middle English dialects through the 1400s.
Dialects in the Eastern U.S. Fig. 5-4: Hans Kurath divided the eastern U.S. into three dialect regions, whose distribution is similar to that of house types (Fig. 4-9).
Key Issue 2 Why is English Related to Other Languages?
English is part of the INDO-EUROPEAN language family
A language family is collection of languages related through a common ancestor long before recorded history
Indo-European is the worlds most extensively spoken language with 3 billion speaking an Indo-European language.
Within the Indo-European languages there are 4 main branches. A language branch is a group of languages within a family that have similar ancestors several thousand years ago.
After we look at the branches of the Indo-European languages we will look at the Origin and diffusion of Indo-European languages
There are two main theories. The Kurgan and the Anatolian
This is divided up into two groups, Indic and Iranian
Indo-Indic which includes languages used in India, Pakistan, and Bangladesh.
There are many different Hindi language dialects, which led to 18 official languages in India.
Urdu is spoken in Pakistan, and Bengali in Bangladesh.
Indo-Iranian is the second group. These are the languages spoken by people in Iran and neighboring countries. In Iran they speak Persian, sometimes called Farsi. Pathan, and Kurdish are other languages spoken from this branch
South Asian Languages and Language Families Fig. 5-7: Indo-European is the largest of four main language families in South Asia. The country of India has 18 official languages.
Slavic was once one language, but in the seventh century slaves from Asia migrated to eastern Europe and now it is divided into West and East.
East Slavic languages include Russian, Ukrainian and Belorusian.
Russian increased in importance with the rise of the Soviet Union.
West and South Slavic groups include Polish, Czech, and Slovak in the West, and Serbo-Croatian and Bulgarian in the South.
Slavic languages are fairly similar, however since the breakup of the former Yugoslavia, Bosnia and Croatia have begun to develop their own identity and because of isolation from each other could become completely different.
Evolved from the Latin language spoken by Romans 2,000 years ago.
Spanish, Portuguese, French, and Italian are the four main romance languages
Romanian is the 5 th important romance language but is separated by the rest by Slavic speakers.
Other Romance languages include Romansh of Switzerland, Catalan of Andorra, and Sardinian from the Island of Sardinia.
Read the section about the Origin and Diffusion of the Romance Languages (pg 160-162 Rubenstein) and Romance language Dialects in your Text and summarize it here in your notes (homework)
Romance Branch of Indo-European Fig. 5-8: The Romance branch includes three of the world’s 12 most widely spoken languages (Spanish, French, and Portuguese), as well as a number of smaller languages and dialects.
Indo-European Language Family Fig. 5-5: The main branches of the Indo-European language family include Germanic, Romance, Balto-Slavic, and Indo-Iranian.
II Origin and Diffusion of Indo-European Languages
Origin of the Indo-European Language
It can not be proven that there was a single ancestor to the Indo-European language family but there is evidence that a Proto-Indo-European language did exist.
Evidence is found in similar words in different languages such as oak, bear, deer, and pheasant and other words that could have been a part of daily life.
Indo-European languages share similar words for winter and snow, but not for ocean. Linguists believe that the Proto-Indo-European language came from a cold climate that did not have contact with the ocean.
There are two theories about the diffusion of the language.
First is called the Kurgan theory named after the Kurgan people who lived in 4300 B.C. they came from the steppes near the boarder of Russia and Kazakhstan. They were nomads who domesticated the horse and cattle and moved west in search of grasslands. They used the horse as a weapon to conquer Southwest Asia and the Balkan peninsula.
The other theory is that it came from eastern Anatolia, or present day Turkey. This idea believes the language spread by agricultural practices through Greece, Italy, up into central and western Europe
We are not sure which is correct but both theories have valid points. One spread by military means, the other through contact of better agricultural practices.
Kurgan Theory of Indo-European Origin Fig. 5-9: In the Kurgan theory, Proto-Indo-European diffused from the Kurgan hearth north of the Caspian Sea, beginning about 7,000 years ago.
Anatolian Hearth Theory of Indo-European Origin Fig. 5-10: In the Anatolian hearth theory, Indo-European originated in Turkey before the Kurgans and diffused through agricultural expansion.
Language Families of the World Fig. 5-11: Distribution of the world’s main language families. Languages with more than 100 million speakers are named.
Major Language Families Percentage of World Population Fig. 5-11a: The percentage of world population speaking each of the main language families. Indo-European and Sino-Tibetan together represent almost 75% of the world’s people.
Hebrew is a rare case where it went basically extinct then it was revived.
Bible was mostly written in Hebrew and Aramaic. Hebrew lost popularity in the 4 th century BC and only Jews remained using it for religious use.
Eliezer Ben-Yehuda is one person who led the way to revive Hebrew after Israel became independent. He wrote the first Hebrew dictionary, and created over 4,000 new Hebrew words for modern things that did not exist.
Belgium is divided between the French speaking Walloons in the South and the Flemish (Dutch) in the north.
Historically the French speakers were wealthier and ran politics. From pressure from the Flemish they divide the country into two regions. Each ran independently.
Mayor of Voeren (Fouroms) caused prime minister to resign when he refused to speak Dutch in Flanders.
Today many amendments have been added to the constitution to give each region more autonomy (self rule)
Language Divisions in Belgium Fig. 5-16: There has been much tension in Belgium between Flemings, who live in the north and speak Flemish, a Dutch dialect, and Walloons, who live in the south and speak French.