Chapter 10 key 2

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Chapter 10 key 2

  1. 1. An Introduction to Human Geography The Cultural Landscape, 8e James M. Rubenstein Chapter 10 Agriculture PPT by Abe Goldman
  2. 2. Agriculture in Less Developed Countries- Issue 2 • Shifting cultivation – Characteristics of shifting cultivation – Future of shifting cultivation • Pastoral nomadism – Characteristics of pastoral nomadism – Future of pastoral nomadism • Intensive subsistence agriculture – Intensive subsistence with wet rice dominant – Intensive subsistence with wet rice not dominant
  3. 3. Agriculture in Less Developed Countries- Issue 2 • Shifting Cultivation/Slash & Burn – Characteristics of shifting cultivation • Practiced in humid low-latitude climates with high temps. and much rainfall. Amazon in S. America, S. & West Africa, Southeast Asia, Indochina, Indonesia and New Guinea are locations for it. • Farmers “slash & burn” local plant life and debris to enrich the soil. The swidden is used only for a few years until the soil is depleted, then they leave it fallow for years before returning. • The garden is usually group owned. Plants are aligned in circles. A variety of crops are planted. Crops are maintained by hand. – Future of shifting cultivation • Shifting cultivation is being replaced by logging, ranching, and the cultivation of cash crops.
  4. 4. Agriculture in Less Developed Countries- Issue 2 • Shifting Cultivation / Slash & Burn
  5. 5. Agriculture in LDCs- Issue 2 • Pastoral nomadism – Characteristics of pastoral nomadism • It is a type of agriculture based on the herding of domesticated animals. It is adapted to dry climates where planting crops is impossible. Lands include North Africa, the Middle East, and parts of Central Asia. • Camels, sheep and goats are common. Transhumance, the seasonal migration between mountains and lowland pasture, is common. • Animals provide milk, which can be made into yogurts and cheeses. Skins provide clothing and tent cover. • Herd size reflects wealth and prestige and animals are rarely slaughtered. • Trading for grain and other needs is common. – Future of pastoral nomadism • Modern communications and transportation has challenged the trading that have been a part of nomadism. Governments have also tried to settle nomadic groups.
  6. 6. Agriculture in Less Developed Countries- Issue 2 • Pastoral Nomadism
  7. 7. Agriculture in LDCs- Issue 2 • Intensive subsistence agriculture – The tern intensive implies that farmers must work more intensively to subsist on a parcel of land. – Intensive subsistence with wet rice dominant • In East, South, and Southeast Asia farmers own several fragmented plots, and they must produce enough to feed their family. No space is wasted, paths are narrow. • Fields are worked by family hands, with animal power for plow. Seedlings are grown on dry land and then planted in the “paddy” when they are ready. Terracing and double-cropping are common. – Intensive subsistence with wet rice not dominant • Ag. in the interior of India and in northeast China is devoted to crops other than wet rice. • Wheat is the most common crop followed by Barley. • Other “intense” characteristics apply. Crop rotation allows for multiple crops a year.
  8. 8. Future of Intensive Subsistence • As plots get smaller (sharing with family), it gets harder to feed the family • With urbanization, more and more people are leaving the farms and moving to the cities for better (or perceived better) economic opportunities
  9. 9. Agriculture in LDCs- Issue 2 • Intensive Subsistence Agriculture
  10. 10. Plantation Agriculture • Commercial agriculture located in tropics and subtropics—esp. Latin America, Africa and Asia • Mostly owned by Europeans or North Americans and grown for sale to MDC • Specializes in one or two crops • Examples: sugarcane, coffee, rubber, tobacco, cocoa, jute, bananas, tea, coconuts, palm oil • Workers are imported—work is spread evenly throughout the year to make use of large labor force (who are provided with food, housing and social services)

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