Ch 2, key issue 1 & 2


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Ch 2, key issue 1 & 2

  1. 1. Chapter 2 Key 1 Where is the World’s Population Distributed?
  2. 2. I Where are the people <ul><li>People are not evenly distributed. Half live in cities (URBAN), the other half in rural areas. </li></ul><ul><li>9/10 live on 20% of land, half live on only 5%. Humans occupy only a small portion of the land on earth </li></ul><ul><li>There are 4 generalizations when it comes to how population distributed around our planet </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>1. 90% live north of the Equator and 2/3 live in the mid latitudes. </li></ul><ul><li>People live in low elevations. Between 50-60% of population lives below 1,000 ft. and nearly 80% live below 1650 ft. </li></ul><ul><li>People live near the coasts. 2/3 of all people live within 300 miles of an ocean. </li></ul><ul><li>People live near fertile land along rivers. </li></ul>
  4. 4. II 4 Areas of Large Populations <ul><li>A East Asia, including Japan, China, Korea, Taiwan, 25% of people on earth </li></ul><ul><li>B South Asia, including India, Pakistan, Bangladesh and Sri Lanka. 21% </li></ul><ul><li>C Europe contains another 12% </li></ul><ul><li>D Northeast USA and Southeast Canada </li></ul><ul><li>E other notable areas include Egypt, Java, S.E. South American coast and parts of Africa. </li></ul>
  5. 6. III Ecumene <ul><li>A. The ecumene is the part of the world that Is permanently inhabited. </li></ul><ul><li>B. People locally extend the ecumene through irrigation, terracing fields, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>C. Nonecumene is the uninhabited or sparsely occupied areas of earth. </li></ul><ul><li>D. 35 to 40% of all land does not have any significant human settlement. </li></ul>
  6. 7. IV Non-Ecumene <ul><li>Dry Lands </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Major deserts include the Sahara, Arabian, Thar, Takla Makan, Gobi, Atacama, S.W. USA, and much of Australia </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Wet Lands </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Amazon basin, Congo Basin, and along the Equator </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cold Lands </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Polar Regions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>High Lands </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Major Mountain ranges include Rockies, Alps, Himalayas, and Andes </li></ul></ul>
  7. 8. V Population Density <ul><li>A. Population density is the relationship between the number of inhabitants and the area they occupy. </li></ul><ul><li>B. There are three types of density figures that geographers look at </li></ul>
  8. 9. <ul><li>1. Crude density or Arithmetic density. Number of people per unit of land. This is easy to obtain, is only an average of total land, and often does not give a proper image of a place. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Physiological density is the number of people divided by the arable land (land that is good for farming) </li></ul><ul><li>3. Agricultural density only takes into account rural residents and arable land. </li></ul>
  9. 10. China Population Case Study <ul><li>Arithmetic density 350 people/square mile </li></ul><ul><li>physiological density 3,500 people/square mile. </li></ul><ul><li>Only 10% of China is cultivable, and 80% of the population lives on this land. </li></ul><ul><li>Distribution: western 2/3s of China (mostly minorities) is sparsely populated. </li></ul><ul><li>  Why? </li></ul>
  10. 12. Chapter 2 Key 2 Where Has the World’s Population Increased?
  11. 13. I Birth Rates <ul><li>A. CBR = Crude Birth Rate. How many babies are born for every 1000 people </li></ul><ul><li>B. TFR= Total Fertility Rate. How many babies the average woman of a country could expect to have. This gives a better idea of reproduction rates. </li></ul><ul><li>C. TFR of 2.1 to 2.3 is the replacement level of fertility. </li></ul>
  12. 15. II Death Rates <ul><li>A. CDR= Crude Death Rate. Also called mortality rate is deaths per 1000 people </li></ul><ul><li>B. Pre WWII, death rates were much higher in developing countries than developed countries. Post WWII, that is not true due to modern medicines. </li></ul><ul><li>C. Life expectancy is what age you can expect to live. In developing countries CDR has gone down while life expectancy has gone up. </li></ul><ul><li>D. Countries with high AIDS rates are the exception. </li></ul>
  13. 17. IV Natural Increase <ul><li>A. Rate of Natural Increase shows rate of population growth without factoring in migration </li></ul><ul><li>B. Figured by starting with birth rate and subtracting death rate. It is usually shown as a percentage. Example. CB is 22 and CD is 12, 22-12=10 Natural increase would be 1% (of 1000) </li></ul>
  14. 19. V Doubling Times <ul><li>A. Doubling time is the time it would take for a population to double at the current natural increase rate. </li></ul><ul><li>B. Populations grow exponentially rather than arithmetically. This is sometimes called a J-curve. </li></ul><ul><li>C. Doubling time predictions are almost never accurate because so much can change in a population over time. Immigration and emigration rates change as does life expectancy and social policies or practices. </li></ul>