2. I LocationA Where something is on Earth can be identified in 4 ways 1. Mathematical Location (latitude and longitude) 2. Place Names (toponym) 3. Site (physical characteristics) 4. Situation (relative location)
3. II MathematicalA. Every spot on Earth has a coordinate using Latitude and LongitudeB. Latitude lines start with the equator which is 0 degrees. Called line of parallel, because every latitude line runs parallel with the equatorC. Longitude lines run from the North pole to the South pole, these are called MeridiansD. 0 degrees longitude is called the Prime MeridianE. Time zones are divided roughly by meridians. Each time zone is 15 degrees of Longitude.
4. Latitude and LongitudeA. Division of Latitude and Longitude 1. Degrees, Minutes, Seconds 2. 41° 15’ 214‖ N 3. 111° 31’ 135‖ WB. More on time zones!!!C. Some places, like China, don’t divide their country into time zones, they prefer to have the entire country on the same timeD. Russia has 11 time zones.
5. III Place NamesA. A Toponym is the name given to a place on Earth.B. Names are the most straightforward way to describe a particular locationC. Names can come from a wide variety of sources. Some examples include 1. People 2. History 3. Religions 4. Origins of settlers 5. Features of physical environment 6. Personal meaning to the people that name them 7. Place Names CAN change for popular or political reasons
6. IV SiteA. Site is the Physical Character of a placeB. Characteristics include climate, water sources, topography, soil, vegetation, latitude and elevation.C. A combination of physical features gives each place a unique characterD. Site is a key element in selecting a location for settlementsE. Humans often change or modify the characteristics of a site
7. V SituationA. Situation is the location of a place relative to other placesB. Situation is important for two main reasons. 1. Finding an unfamiliar place 2. Understanding its importance
8. VI RegionsA. A region is an area of earth defined by one or more unique characteristics.B. Defined by a combinations of cultural, economic and physical features which make up a cultural landscapeC. First defined by Carl Saur (natural area is medium, culture the agent, cultural landscape the result)
9. VII Cultural LandscapesA. Cultural landscape approach to the study of people is also called regional studiesB. In regional studies, a geographer recognizes that regions gain uniqueness from a combination of human and environmental traitsC. Main idea is that people are the most important agents of change on EarthD. Geographers try and sort out relationships between various characteristics that are found throughout the planet.
10. VIII Region TypesA. Formal Region 1. An area in which everyone shares a common characteristic. Many times this region has a boundary such as a state or city government. 2. Could also be based on a predominant social, economic, or cultural activity. Examples are corn belt, sun belt, bible beltB. Functional 1. Sometimes called a Nodal Region 2. Characteristic dominates a central spot and diminishes the further you get from that spot. Newspapers, TV stations etc.C. Vernacular/Perceptual 1. Based on perception. 2. A place that people believe exists based on their cultural identity 3. Based on Mental maps of people and how they perceive their world to be. The South was an example from the book
11. Cultural Ecology• Human-Environment Relationships (or interaction)• Environmental Determinism• Possibilism• Using, changing, adapting, abusing the environment
12. Physical Processes• Factors that affect cultural development (possibilism)• Factors that effect cultural development (environmental determinism)
13. Climate• Koppen System—5 main climate regions
14. Vegetation• Plant communities are called biomes• The location and extent of biomes are influenced by both climate and human activities – Forest biome – Savanna biome – Grassland biome – Desert biome
15. Soil• 12 orders• Sub-orders, great groups, subgroups, families, series.• More than 12,000 soil types in US alone!
16. Landforms• Mountains• Rivers• Lakes• Bays• Plains• Valleys• Deltas• Etc.
17. • With a partner complete the following – Describe The Site characteristics of the Salt Lake Valley in as much detail as you can – Describe the Situation Characteristics of Salt Lake Valley in as much detail as you can – Give examples of different regions Utah/Sandy/Draper are a part of. Make sure you include all three types of regions and list as many as you can. – List and explain as many different toponyms as you can in the Salt Lake valley – List elements in Salt Lake valley that make up our ―cultural landscape‖