Basic Concepts Chapter 1
How Do Geographers Describe Where Things Are? Key Issue #1:
Maps as Tools <ul><li>A. Maps are the major tool geographers  use to identify regions and analyze  their content. </li></u...
Maps as tools cont. <ul><li>Types of Distortion (depends on Projection) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Shape </li></ul></ul><ul><ul...
<ul><li>Maps and their functions </li></ul><ul><li>Map Scale </li></ul><ul><li>Map Projections </li></ul><ul><li>The Grid ...
What are Maps and what are their functions <ul><li>What can maps be used for? </li></ul><ul><li>In what ways do maps disto...
Two Types of Maps: <ul><li>Reference Maps </li></ul><ul><li>Show locations of places and geographic features </li></ul><ul...
Reference Map
Thematic  Map What story about median income in the Washington, DC area is this map telling?
Maps and their functions <ul><li>Cartography = The art of map making </li></ul><ul><li>Reference Map = that used for navig...
Map Scale <ul><li>Is the ratio between actual distance on the ground and the length given on the map </li></ul><ul><ul><li...
The Grid System <ul><li>What function does the Grid System Serve? </li></ul><ul><li>What are the key aspects of the Grid s...
Grid stuff to know…
Map Projections <ul><li>Why are there different map projections? </li></ul><ul><li>Which ones do I need to know? </li></ul...
3 Categories of Projections <ul><li>Planar (azimuthal) </li></ul><ul><li>Cylindrical </li></ul><ul><li>Conic </li></ul><ul...
AZIMUTHAL
Peters
FULLER
ROBINSON
MERCATOR
Map Symbols <ul><li>Dots </li></ul><ul><li>Tones/shades/colors </li></ul><ul><li>Isolines </li></ul><ul><li>Symbols </li><...
<ul><li>Mental Maps:   </li></ul><ul><li>maps we carry in our minds of places we have been and places we have heard of. </...
Aspects of a Mental Map <ul><li>Nodes </li></ul><ul><li>Edges </li></ul><ul><li>Paths </li></ul><ul><li>Landmarks </li></ul>
Discussion Questions <ul><li>List as many type of maps and purposes for maps as you can. </li></ul>
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Ch 1, key issue 1

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Ch 1, key issue 1

  1. 1. Basic Concepts Chapter 1
  2. 2. How Do Geographers Describe Where Things Are? Key Issue #1:
  3. 3. Maps as Tools <ul><li>A. Maps are the major tool geographers use to identify regions and analyze their content. </li></ul><ul><li>B. Maps make the large world easy to observe. </li></ul><ul><li>C. All maps have strengths, weaknesses, and limitations </li></ul><ul><li>D. All maps distort or misrepresent the real world. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Maps as tools cont. <ul><li>Types of Distortion (depends on Projection) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Shape </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Distance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Relative size </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Direction </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Maps and their functions </li></ul><ul><li>Map Scale </li></ul><ul><li>Map Projections </li></ul><ul><li>The Grid system </li></ul><ul><li>Symbols on Maps </li></ul>
  6. 6. What are Maps and what are their functions <ul><li>What can maps be used for? </li></ul><ul><li>In what ways do maps distort?...Why? </li></ul><ul><li>How do maps show bias? </li></ul>
  7. 7. Two Types of Maps: <ul><li>Reference Maps </li></ul><ul><li>Show locations of places and geographic features </li></ul><ul><li>Absolute locations </li></ul><ul><li>What are reference maps used for? </li></ul><ul><li>Thematic Maps </li></ul><ul><li>Tell a story about the degree of an attribute, the pattern of its distribution, or its movement. </li></ul><ul><li>Relative locations </li></ul><ul><li>What are thematic maps used for? </li></ul>
  8. 8. Reference Map
  9. 9. Thematic Map What story about median income in the Washington, DC area is this map telling?
  10. 10. Maps and their functions <ul><li>Cartography = The art of map making </li></ul><ul><li>Reference Map = that used for navigating… ie. Road Map </li></ul><ul><li>Thematic Map: One used to illustrate a particular them </li></ul><ul><li>Mental Maps: Those that exist in one’s mind (Cognitive maps) </li></ul><ul><li>Topographic Maps… use lines to show contour. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Map Scale <ul><li>Is the ratio between actual distance on the ground and the length given on the map </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Which scale would show a smaller portion of the earth, 1/1,000,000… or 1/1,000? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Larger scale = more zoomed in </li></ul><ul><li>Why are different scales needed in mapping the world? </li></ul>
  12. 12. The Grid System <ul><li>What function does the Grid System Serve? </li></ul><ul><li>What are the key aspects of the Grid system? </li></ul>
  13. 13. Grid stuff to know…
  14. 14. Map Projections <ul><li>Why are there different map projections? </li></ul><ul><li>Which ones do I need to know? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Azimuthal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Peters </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fuller / Dymaxion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Robinson </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mercator </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What are the strengths and weaknesses? </li></ul><ul><li>For what are they most commonly used? </li></ul>
  15. 15. 3 Categories of Projections <ul><li>Planar (azimuthal) </li></ul><ul><li>Cylindrical </li></ul><ul><li>Conic </li></ul><ul><li>(look in page 6 of the World Geography and Culture book) </li></ul>
  16. 16. AZIMUTHAL
  17. 17. Peters
  18. 18. FULLER
  19. 19. ROBINSON
  20. 20. MERCATOR
  21. 21. Map Symbols <ul><li>Dots </li></ul><ul><li>Tones/shades/colors </li></ul><ul><li>Isolines </li></ul><ul><li>Symbols </li></ul>
  22. 22. <ul><li>Mental Maps: </li></ul><ul><li>maps we carry in our minds of places we have been and places we have heard of. </li></ul><ul><li>can see: terra incognita, landmarks, paths, </li></ul><ul><li>and accessibility </li></ul><ul><li>Activity Spaces: </li></ul><ul><li>the places we travel to routinely in our rounds of daily activity. </li></ul><ul><li>How are activity spaces and mental maps related? </li></ul>
  23. 23. Aspects of a Mental Map <ul><li>Nodes </li></ul><ul><li>Edges </li></ul><ul><li>Paths </li></ul><ul><li>Landmarks </li></ul>
  24. 24. Discussion Questions <ul><li>List as many type of maps and purposes for maps as you can. </li></ul>
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