1. ByDr. Montasser Mohamed AbdelwahabAssisstant ProfessorAl Imam Mohamed bin Saud University
2.  Translation consists of studying the lexis, grammaticalstructure, communication situation, and cultural context of thesource language text; all these are analyzed in order todetermine its meaning. This same meaning is then reconstructed using the lexicon andgrammatical structure which are appropriate in the targetlanguage and its cultural context.
3.  For example, if we use Arabic as a source language andEnglish as the target, “Ana Muslim” becomes the source textwhose lexicon, grammatical structure, communicationsituation and cultural context are analyzed in order todetermine its meaning.The meaning is then reconstructed using the lexicon andgrammatical structure which are appropriate in the targetlanguage. To that extent,“Ana Muslim” is restructured thus: ‘I am a Muslim’.
4. Skills needed in translationIn popular belief, to translate, a person only needs:• reasonable knowledge of a foreign language;• long and varied experience; and• a few good dictionaries
5.  It is in fact virtually impossible , except in extreme cases, todraw a line between what counts as a good translation andwhat counts as a bad translation. Every translation has points of strength and points ofweakness and every translation is open to improvement.
6.  Nida (1964) stated the following requirements of goodtranslation:(1) It must make sense.(2) It must convey the spirit and manner of the original.(3) It must have a natural and easy form of expression.(4) It must produce a similar response.
7.  Word for word translation Literal Translation Free translation Semantic translation Communicative translation.
8. . A form of literal translation which seeks to match the individualwords of the original as closely as possible to individual wordsof the target language.. The translator seeks to translate an original word by the sametarget word as much as possible (this is technically calledconcordance). In addition, the order of words of the originallanguage will be followed as closely as possible. It is often condemnned as bad translation pratice, especiallybetween languages of remote origins like English and Arabic. Word-for-word translation is not recognized as maturetranslation pracitce because it does not take· structuralmismatches such as word order and modification differencesbetween languages into consideration.
9.  By way of illustration, consider the following sentences and theirArabic word-for-word translations:a. I caught a small fish        ‫صغيرة‬ ‫سمكة‬ ‫اصطدت‬ ‫أنا‬b. Adel wanted to buy a new car.      ‫جديدة‬ ‫سسيارة‬ ‫يشتري‬ ‫أسن‬ ‫أراد‬ ‫عادل‬As can be seen, the word-for-word Arabic translations above areungrammatical and/or unnatural.
10.  It seeks to be transparent to the original text, letting the readersee as directly as possible the structure and meaning of theoriginal. Literal translation is where the forms of the original are retainedas much as possible, even if those forms are not the mostnatural forms to preserve the original meaning. Literaltranslation is sometimes called word-for-word translation (asopposed to thought-for-thought translation).The translatorsseeks as far as possible to capture the precise wording of theoriginal text and the personal style of each writer.2. literal translation
11. Literal translation is probably the oldest type of translation practice.It involves the conveyance of denotative meaning of phrases andsentences in a text from one language to another.Therefore, literal translation works where there is correspondencebetween the two languages in terms of semantics and structure ascan be illustrated by the following English sentences and their Arabictranslations:a. Ahmed went to the library last week.    ‫المكتبة‬ ‫إلى‬ ‫أحمد‬ ‫ةبتكملا ىلإ دمحأ بهذهب‬‫الماضي‬ ‫السبوع‬b. Hala is an old hard-hearted woman          ‫قاسية‬ ‫عجوز‬ ‫امرأة‬ ‫هالة‬‫القلب‬
12.  A literal translation of words, idioms, figures of speech etc. resultsin unclear, unnatural and sometimes nonsensical translations andhas little communication value. For example, in translating Arabic questions to English; ‫اسمك؟‬ ‫ما‬ What name yours? ‫جئت؟‬ ‫أين‬ ‫من‬ From where you come? This literal translation makes little sense in English. Therefore, theappropriate translation would be. What is your name? Where did you come from?
13.  Notably, literal translation often falters, especially in the case of multi-word units like collocations and idioms as can be illustrated below(The appropriate Arabic expressions are parenthesized):to pay a visit (‫بزيارة‬ ‫)يقوم‬ ‫زيارة‬ ‫يدفع‬to take after (‫لـ‬ ‫)يشبه/يطلع‬ ‫بعد‬ ‫يأخذ‬to rain cats and dogs (‫بغزارة‬ ‫)تمطر‬ ‫ا‬ً ‫كلب‬ ‫و‬ ‫ا‬ً ‫قطط‬ ‫تمطر‬strong tea (‫ثقيل‬ ‫)شاي‬ ‫قوي‬ ‫شاي‬However, literal translation may sometimes work in the case of multi-word units as can be illustrated below:to take a decision ‫ا‬ً ‫قرار‬ ‫يتخذ‬ war and peace ‫و‬ ‫الحرب‬‫السلم‬crocodile tears ‫التماسيح‬ ‫دموع‬ the cold war ‫الباردة‬ ‫الحرب‬day and night ‫نهار‬ ‫ليل‬
14. 3. Free translationFree translation is one which preserves the meaning of the original butuses natural forms of the target language, including normal word orderand syntax, so that the translation can be naturally understood. Freetranslation is a kind of idiomatic translation.Free translation is the kind of translation that has additional extraneousinformation which is not included in the source text. However, this kind oftranslation is not totally considered acceptable and normal. It is, however,usually used to bring a kind of humor and special response from the targetlanguage speakers. And it also emphasizes on the reaction of thosereading or hearing it and the meaning is not necessarily the same as thatof the source language.Free translation produces the Target Language text without the style,form, or content of the original.
15.  This kind of translation is sometimes called idiomatictranslation. Texts are translated based on their meaning notstructure. Interpretation and paraphrasing are two ways ofunderstanding and translating the text into the target language. For example, the English proverb “Do or die” can be freely into‫شيء‬ ‫كل‬ ‫أخسر‬ ‫أو‬ ‫أربح‬ ‫اما‬This English proverb refers to the notion that either you aregoing to do this or a second chance may never occur, do it nowor do it never.
16.  Another example, in one translation, the source said:“ It was a glooming day, when the Nigerian got an independencefrom white men. And since then, the Nigerian has been liberated andlived in harmonious and luxurious life.It was translated as follows;“ That day was a fantastic and laconic day for white men when theNigerian sought for relievement in order to free himself from thebondage of white men ….”
17. Communicative translation is freer, and gives priority to theeffectiveness of the message to be communicated. It focuses onfactors such as readability and naturalness, and is appropriate totranslations of “pragmatic” texts where the actual form of theoriginal is not closely bound to its intended meaning. These are textslike advertisements, tourist brochures, product descriptions andinstructions, manuals.“Communicative translation attempts to render the exact contextualmeaning of the original text in such a way that both content andlanguage are readily acceptable and comprehensible to thereadership. The communicative strategy is more concerned with theoverall sense of the text.
18. The translation of the public notices like”No Smoking” ‫التدخين‬ ‫ممنوع‬ , respectsthe Target language grammar and culture.The Target text is as close as possible tothe source text, functionally andpragmatically.
19.  Semantic translation is closer, more literal; it gives highpriority to the meaning and form of the original, and isappropriate to translations of source texts that have highstatus, such as religious texts, legal texts, literature, perhapsministerial speeches. It is presumed that the translation has the same meaning asthe original text. No change of information is possible. Thepresumption of semantic identity between Source Text andTarget Text is based on the various degrees of equivalence oftheir meanings. The translator usually tries to produce inTarget Language the closest possible equivalent to SourceText.
20.  The translator sticks to the source text ignoringthe real usage in the target culture. For example,to translate the Arabic proverb ‫عليك‬ ‫ويوم‬ ‫لك‬ ‫يوم‬one can say: “ A day for you, a day against you”. This is grammatically and semantically correct,but it is not typically used in the Target Language. The equivalent proverb should be: “You win, youlose some”, which is totally different from theoriginal phrase.