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Copper and copper alloys
 

Copper and copper alloys

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copper production. extraction its alloys and uses in daily as well as in different era of life and research

copper production. extraction its alloys and uses in daily as well as in different era of life and research

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    Copper and copper alloys Copper and copper alloys Presentation Transcript

    • “COPPER AND COPPER ALLOYS” ( PROPERTIES, EXTRACTION, PRODUCTION, USES AND APPLICATIONS)
    • GROUP MEMBERS MUHAMMAD NAVEED ALAM (2011-MM-06) ABDUL RAHMAN (2011-MM-12) MUHAMMAD EHSAN UL HAQ (2011-MM-18) MUHAMMAD SHAHJAHAN (2011-MM-24) TALHA NAFEES (2011-MM-55)
    • AREAS OF DISCUSSION: • INTRODUCTION TO COPPER (PHYSICAL PROPERTIES, OCCURRENCE, DEPOSITS, ORES, PRODUCTION) • MINING AND REFINING OF COPPER (EXTRACTION TECHNIQUES) • INTRODUCTION TO COPPER ALLOYS (CLASSIFICATION, PROPERTIES) • IMPORTANT CLASSES OF COPPER ALLOYS (BRASSES, BRONZES, SPECIAL ALLOYS) • USES AND APPLICATIONS OF PURE COPPER AND COPPER ALLOYS
    • COPPER: • Copper (Cu) atomic weight 63.546 is a soft, malleable and ductile metal with very high thermal and electrical conductivity from the group of Coinage metals in the modern periodic table. • There are 29 isotopes of copper. 63Cu and 65Cu are stable, with 63Cu comprising approximately 69% of naturally occurring copper. The other isotopes are radioactive.
    • COLOUR Reddish orange in pure form MELTING POINT 1084.62˚C BOILING POINT 2927˚C CRYSTAL STRUCTURE Face centered cubic (F.C.C) SPECIFIC GRAVITY 8.96 g/cm3 THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY 401 W/mk SHEAR MODULUS 48GPa MODULUS OF ELASTICITY 110-128 GPa (YOUNG’s MODULUS) HARDNESS AT MOHs SCALE 3.0
    • ORES OF COPPER: ORES CHEMICAL FORMULA COPPER CuFeS2 PYRITE/CHALCOPYRITE CHALCOCITE/ COPPER Cu2S GLANCE MALACHITE CuCO3.Cu(OH)2 AZURITE Cu3(CO3)2(OH)2 BORNITE/PEACOCK ORE 3Cu2S.Fe2S3 MELACONITE CuO COVELINE CuS CHALCOSINE Cu2S CHRYSCOLLA Cu2FeS
    • OCCURRENCE OF COPPER: • Copper is present in the Earth's crust at a concentration of about 50 parts per million (ppm) • Copper occurs as native copper or in mineral such as the copper sulfides chalcopyrite and chalcocite, copper carbonates azurite and malachite and the copper(I) oxide mineral cuprite. • The largest mass of elemental copper discovered weighed 420 tonnes and was found in 1857 on the Keweenaw Peninsula in Michigan US. • In Pakistan large copper deposits are discovered in Reko Diq (Baluchistan) and Saindak town in Chagai District. • The total amount of copper on Earth is vast i.e. around 1014 tons just in the top kilometer of Earth's crust.
    • WORLDWIDE PRODUCTION OF COPPER
    • EXTRACTION TECHNIQUES FOR COPPER • Copper ore is mined both underground and on the surface. Large excavations formed by surface mining are called open-pit mines. • Most of the copper ores mined today are oxide or sulfide ores. • HYDROMETALLURGICAL operations are required for treating very poor grade oxide ores (LEACHING) • PYROMETALLURGICAL treatments are given to the sulphide ores for their smelting and roasting. • ELECTROMETALLURGICAL techniques are employed for the electro refining of blister copper or copper scrap.
    • EXTRACTION OF COPPER FROM SULPHIDE ORES • Copper is extracted usually from the sulphide ore chalcopyrite (CuFeS2) by smelting process. • Ores containing 4% or more copper are treated by smelting process. • There are following steps for the Pyrometallurgical extraction of copper from Chalcopyrite. 1. CONCENTRATION 2. ROASTING 3. SMELTING 4. BESSEMERIZATION
    • CONCENTRATION BY FROTH FLOTATION “Crushed ore is suspended in water containing pine oil. The pine oil binds to the copper compounds, but not to the unwanted rocky material. A blast of air is passed through the suspension. The particles of ore get wetted by oil and floats as a froth which is skimmed. The gangue sinks to the bottom.”
    • ROASTING The concentrated ore is roasted in the furnace in the presence of oxygen. Sulphur is oxidized to SO2 and impurities of arsenic and antimony are removed as volatile oxides. The following reactions take place: 2CuFeS2 + O2 S + O2 Cu2S + 2FeS + SO2 SO2 4As + 3O2 2As2O3 4Sb + 3O2 2Sb2O3 Cu2S + O2 Cu2O + SO2 FeS + O2 FeO + SO2
    • SMELTING The roasted ore is mixed with coke and silica sand (SiO2) and is introduced into a blast furnace. The hot air is blasted and FeO is converted into ferrous silicate (FeSiO3) FeO + SiO2 Cu2O + FeS FeSiO3 Cu2S + FeO FeSiO3 (slag) floats over the molten matte of copper. The resulting product of smelting is the combination of copper sulfate and iron sulfide called matte (Copper matte).
    • BESSEMERIZATION Copper metal is extracted from molten matte through bessemerization . The matte is introduced in to Bessemer converter which uphold by tuyeres. The air is blown through the molten matte. Blast of air converts Cu 2S partly into Cu2O which reacts with remaining Cu2S to give molten copper. 2Cu2S + 3O2 2Cu2O + Cu2S 2Cu2O + 2SO2 6Cu + SO2
    • BLISTER COPPER The product of Bessemerization is called as “Blister Copper” because, as it solidifies, SO 2 hidden in it escapes out producing blister on its surface.
    • REFINING OF BLISTER COPPER • Blister copper is refined by electrolysis. The blister copper then undergoes "fire refining.“ • Air and natural gas are blown through the copper to remove any remaining sulfur and oxygen. • The copper is cast into copper anodes and placed in an electrolytic cell. Once charged, the pure copper collects on the cathode and is removed as 99% pure. • Blocks of blister copper are used as anodes and thin sheets of pure copper act as cathodes. The cathode plates are coated with graphite in order to remove depositing copper. • The electrolyte is copper sulphate (CuSO4) mixed with a little amount of H2SO4 to increase the electrical conductivity. • Optimum potential difference is 1.3 volt for this electrolytic process.
    • ELECTROLYTIC TANK FOR REFINING Cu Cu+2+2eCu+2+2eCu Fe(s) → Fe2+(aq) + 2e– Zn(s) → Zn2+(aq) + 2e–
    • EXTRACTION OF PRECIOUS METALS FROM ANODE SLUDGE Impurities, such as Ag, Au, and Pt, are less easily oxidized than Cu. These remain in metallic form and fall to the bottom of the cell, forming “anode sludge” from which they can later be recovered. The anode sludges from copper-refining cells provide one fourth of U.S. silver production and about one eighth of U.S. gold production.
    • ALLOYS OF COPPER
    • CLASSIFICATION OF COPPER AND COPPER ALLOYS
    • DESIGNATED OF ALLOYS wrought alloys designated C16000 - C79999 forged,rolled,hot and cold work can be done Generic name Wrought alloys UNS numbers Composition Coppers C10100-C15760 >99%Cu High-copper alloys C16200-C19600 >96%Cu Brasses C20500-C28580 Cu-Zn Leaded brasses C31200-C38590 Cu-Zn-Pb Tin brasses C40400-C49080 Cu-Zn-Sn-Pb Phosphor bronzes C50100-C52400 Cu-Sn-P Leaded phosphor bronzes C53200-C54800 Cu-Sn-Pb-P Copper-phosphorus and coppersilver phosphorus alloys C55180-C55284 Cu-P-Ag Aluminum bronzes C60600-C64400 Cu-Al-Ni-Fe-Si-Sn Silicon bronzes C64700-C66100 Cu-Si-Sn Other copper-zinc alloys C66400-C69900 Copper-nickels C70000-C79900 Cu-Ni-Fe Nickel silvers C73200-C79900 Cu-Ni-Zn Unified Numbering System(UNS) Three digit xxx UNS of five digits xxxxx Starts with C
    • CAST ALLOYS designated C81300 - C99999 these alloys can be casted Cast alloys Coppers C80100-C81100 >99%Cu High-copper alloys C81300-C82800 >96%Cu Red and leaded red brasses C83300-C85800 Cu-Zn-Sn-Pb(75-89%Cu) Yellow and leaded yellow brasses C85200-C85800 Cu-Zn-Sn-Pb(57-74%Cu) Manganese bronzes and leaded manganese bronzes C86100-C86800 Cu-Zn-Mn-Fe-Pb Silicon bronzes, silicon brasses C87300-C87900 Cu-Zn-Si Tin bronzes and leaded tin bronzes C90200-C94500 Cu-Sn-Zn-Pb Nickel-tin bronzes C94700-C94900 Cu-Ni-Sn-Zn-Pb Aluminum bronzes C95200-C95810 Cu-Al-Fe-Ni Copper-nickels C96200-C96800 Cu-Ni-Fe Nickel silvers C97300-C97800 Cu-Ni-Zn-Pb-Sn Leaded coppers C98200-C98800 Cu-Pb Miscellaneous alloys C99300-C99750
    • CLASSIFICATION OF COPPER ALLOYS  There are five different classification of copper alloys 3)Bronze 1)Unalloyed Copper 2)Brasses • • • • Copper – Tin alloys Copper – Aluminium alloys Copper – Silicon alloys Copper – Beryllium alloys Copper – Zinc alloys Copper – Lead alloys Copper – Zinc alloys with Tin and Aluminium additions 4) Cu-Ni based 5) Nickel silver • Cupronickel (CuNi) • Nickel silver (CuNi-Zn
    • 1)UNALLOYED COPPER • Copper content > 99.3% Roughly classify into three categories • Electrolytic tough pitch This copper contains 99.9% Cu with 0.045 O content • Oxygen – free Oxygen-free copper is produced from electrorefined cathode copper which is melt and cast in a reducing atmosphere of CO and N to prevent O. • Phosphorus deoxidized Phosphorus is sufficiently added to produce phosphoruspentoxide P2O5
    • 2) BRASS: There are two Class of brass • The alpha alloys with less than 37% Zinc. These alloys are ductile and can be cold worked. • Families of Brass • Cast alloy brasses • Copper-Tin-Zinc alloys (red, semi-red and yellow brasses) • Cast Copper-Bismuth and CopperBismuth-Selenium alloys. • Copper-Zinc-Silicon alloys (Silicon brasses and bronzes) • The alpha/beta or duplex alloys with 37-45% Zinc. These alloys have limited cold ductility and are typically harder and stronger • wrought alloy brasses • Copper-Zinc alloys • Copper-Zinc-Tin alloys (Tin brasses) • Copper-Zinc-Lead alloys (Leaded brasses)
    • 3) BRONZE FAMILIES OF BRONZE ARE • Cast bronze alloys • Wrought alloys • Copper-Tin alloys (Tin Bronzes) • Copper-TinPhosphorus alloys (Phosphor Bronzes) • Copper-Tin-Lead alloys (Leaded and high leaded Tin Bronzes) • Copper-Tin-LeadPhosphorus alloys (Leaded Phosphor Bronzes) • Copper-Tin-Nickel alloys (nickel-tin bronzes) • Copper-Aluminium alloys (Aluminium Bronzes) • Copper-Aluminium alloys (Aluminium Bronzes)
    • ALLOYING ELEMENT  Strength  Color  Electrical and thermal conductivity  Machinability  Corrosion resistant  Wear resistant
    • ALLOYING ADDITIONS IN COPPER
    • SPECIAL ALLOYS WHICH DON'T FALL IN ANY CATEGORY WHICH ARE MENTIONED • FREE MACHINING COPPERS • COPPERTUNGSTEN ALLOY
    • CLASSIFICATION 1. Brasses 2. Bronzes 3. Cupronickels (Alloys of Copper & Nickel) 4. Nickel silver (Alloys of copper, Zinc & Nickel)
    • BRASSES-GENERAL Alpha Brasses (Alloys containing 36 % Zinc) • Yellow Alpha Brasses • Red Alpha Brasses Alpha + Beta Brasses (54-62% copper) • Defects in Brasses • Intergranuler corrosion (Seasonal Cracking) • Dezincification
    • PHASE DIAGRAM
    • BRONZES • Tin Bronzes • Al Bronzes • Silicon Bronzes • Beryllium Bronzes
    • TIN BRONZES • Alloys of copper and tin • Other Alloying Elements may also be present With The Exception of Zinc • Also called Phosphor bronzes • Phosphorus content (0.01-0.5%) • Tin Content (1-11%) • High corrosion resistance , Toughness ,Low coefficient of friction, free from seasonal cracking
    • PHASE DIAGRAM
    • SILICON BRONZES • Alloys of Copper And Silicon • Maximum Solubility In Alpha Phase is 5.3 and decrease with the temperature • Alloys contains less than 5% Si are single Phased • These are the Strongest of the work hard enable Copper Alloys • Their Mechanical Properties are comparable to mild steel and corrosion resistance is comparable to copper • These are used for Tanks , pressure vessels , Marine construction , hydrulic preassure lines
    • PHASE DIAGRAM
    • ALUMINUM BRONZE • Alloys of Al & Cu • Maximum solubility of Al in α-solid solution is 9.5% • Commercial Al bronzes contain (4-11%)Al • Alloys containing up to 7.5% al are single phase, other are double phase • Other elements are also added intentionally e-g , Fe , Mn , Si , Ni • Iron Increases strength , silicon improves machinability , Mn improves sound casting • Single phase Bronze show good cold working propertis along with high corrosion resistance to water and atomsphere • These are used for water condenser tubes,nuts , bolts, corrosion resistance vessels ,and in marine application
    • PHASE DIAGRAM
    • BERYLLIUM BRONZES • Alloys of Cu & Beryllium • Maximum solubility in Alpha solid Solution is 2.1 % and decreases to 0.25 % to room temperature • It is increased by age hardening • They have excellent formability ,high tensile strength , creep resistance , high electrical conductivity • These are used in diaphrames , surgical instrument ,bolts & screws , firing pins , dies.
    • PHASE DIAGRAM
    • CUPRO NICKELS • Alloys of Cu & Ni , contains upto 30 % Ni • Cupronickels Alloys are single phase alloys • No heat treatment is required • Properties are improved only by cold working • They have high fatigue resistance , high corrosion & erosion resistance toward sea water • These are widely used in condenser , heat exchanger tubes , coastal power plants
    • PHASE DIAGRAM
    • NICKEL SILVER • Alloys of Cu-Ni-Zn • Commercial Alloys are contain Cu (50-70%) , Ni (5-10%) , Zn (5-40%) • If copper is more than 60 % these are single phased ,ductile & easily workable at room temp. • Addition of Zinc imparts silver-blue-white colour ,good corrosion resistance. • These are Excellent base metals for plating with Cr ,Ni ,Ag • These are used For Rivets, screws, Costume jewelry , name plates & radio dials
    • COPPER AND COPPER ALLOYS APPLICATIONS ELECTRICAL APPLICATIONS  Approximately 65% of copper produced is used for electrical applications.  Power generation and transmission generators, transformers, motors, busbars and cables provide and deliverelectricity safely and efficiently to homes and businesses.  Electrical equipment - providing circuitry, wiring and contacts for PCs, TVs and mobile phones.
    •  Copper is used in the manufacturing of heatsinks.  In a microchip, copper is commonly used for what is known as the 'global interconnects' because of its good conductivity. These are the wires that connect different sections of the chip together.  Cu-Ni 70-30 alloy is used in steam generators, heat exchangers, coolers, condensers, tanks, pipework, valves and fittings in electricity generation by Nuclear means
    • CONSTRUCTION APPLICATIONS  25% of all the copper produced is used in buildings.  The skin of STATUE Of LIBERTY is made of 81.3 tones Cu.  Cu is used in roofs, flashings, gutters, downspouts, domes, spires, vaults, wall cladding and building expansion joints.
    • TRANSPORT APPLICATIONS  Transport accounts for 7% of copper usage. NUCLEAR WASTE is enclosed in these containers having Cu shell on it.
    •  Automotives radiator is made of copper-brass alloy. MEDICAL APPLICATIONS  Bacteria will not grow on cu surface b/c it is BIOSTATIC.  Cu doorknobs are used by hospitals to reduce the transfer of diseases.  LEGIONNAIRE’S disease is suppressed by Cu tubing in air conditioning system.  Copper's naturally antimicrobial properties can be exploited in hygienic surfaces for hospitals and healthcare facilities.  CuSO4 is used as a fungicides and as algae control in domestic
    • KITCHENWARE APPLICATIONS  The burnished glow of copper radiates beauty and warmth the kitchen.
    • COMMON APPLICATIONS  The remaining 3% is used for coins, sculptures, musical instruments and cookware.  Cu-alloy is used in Bullets making. One eurocent coin: 94.35% steel 5.65% copper 10 eurocent coin: 89% copper 5% aluminium 5% zinc 1% tin PKR 5: Cupro Nikle alloys
    • HEAT EXCHANGERS/RADIATORS: INNER GROOVED COPPER TECHNOLOGY
    • CUTTING BRASS:  Hardware: Gears and pinions  Industrial: Automatic high speed screw machine parts GILDING METAL (BRONZE):  Bullet proof jackets  Jewellery  Enameled badges
    • THANK YOU FOR PAYING ATTENTION!
    • QUESTIONNAIRE????