Hacking Happiness - sustainability from inside out


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"Even someone knows what behaviours are harmful for the world, but they keep doing, Why?"
This essay re-define happiness and needs into the terms of sustainability by introducing an alternative guided life. This guided life focuses on accessing straight to happiness and try to shift the paradigm of consumerism to be 'Prosumer'. This concept I call it "Hacking Happiness".

"Happiness", a simple word, which everyone possibly understand and experience, generally means the state of positive feeling. But in these days, as we live in capitalism, happiness seems to be more and more expensive and difficult to reach them because it lay on many elements becoming more complex.
Hacking Happiness - will create a shortcut to happiness in sustainable way

by: Perus Saranurak, 22 Nov 2013, Volume 1 -Futures of Sustainability, MA Design Futures and Metadesign at Goldsmiths, University of London, London, UK. Postgraduate project work 'Future of Sustainability'.

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Hacking Happiness - sustainability from inside out

  1. 1. Hacking Happiness Writer: Perus Saranurak Sustainability from inside out Volume 1 - Futures of Sustainability MA Design Futures and Metadesign, Goldsmiths, University of London, UK
  2. 2. Volume 1 (2014) Futures of Sustainability MA Design Futures and Metadesign, Goldsmiths, university of London, UK Cover image: Happiness is here: only you can make it happen by Perus Saranurak “Happiness happens when you stop waiting and start doing now.”
  3. 3. Hacking Happiness Sustainability from inside out Designers → Happiness Hacker Create an alternative paradigm of your own happiness Writer: Perus Saranurak MA Design Futures student [Product designer and Metadesigner] Reader: Sustainable design students Anti-consumerist activists Design activists Life hackers MA Design Futures Goldsmiths, university of London 2nd edition
  4. 4. MA Design Futures and Metadesign, Department of Design, Goldsmiths, University of London, United Kingdom http://www.gold.ac.uk/pg/ma-design-futures/ Perus Saranurak, 2014 First edition printed on 21st November 2013 Revised and updated edition printed on 17th July 2014 Design by Perus Saranurak Printed and bound in London by Perus Saranurak
  5. 5. To Hannah Jones, Mathilda Tham and John Wood, who extend my perspective of futures and design possibilities To my family, who give me the freedom to think, and always support To you, who think life can be re-designed.
  6. 6. Content Preface ..................................................................................................................... viii Glossary................................................................................................................. xii Introduction of Hacking Happiness.......................................................................1 Sustainability ..............................................................................................................5 Consumerism............................................................................................................. 8 Economy for sustainability.................................................................................11 Tools for conviviality...........................................................................................12 Buddhist economics ............................................................................................13 Sufficiency economy .......................................................................................... 14 Design activism.....................................................................................................15 Happiness..................................................................................................................17 Happiness as a tool..............................................................................................17 Money and happiness......................................................................................... 18 Assumption: Meet the needs without pay..................................................... 20 Lifestyle: actions with meanings......................................................................... 22 Conclusion.................................................................................................................25 Hacking Happiness’ Guidebook........................................................................ 26 Self-reflection..........................................................................................................27 Appendix................................................................................................................... 28 Collective storytelling workshop..................................................................... 29 Reference ..................................................................................................................31 Bibliography............................................................................................................. 32 Image reference...................................................................................................... 33
  7. 7. viii Preface Postgraduate project work in MA Design Futures and Metadesign at Goldsmiths, University of London, London, UK. The key topic of this essay is Futures of Sustainability. This essay will focus on bringing design thinking and activities to be a part of daily lifestyle. And design the accessibility of happiness which can be the motivation for the sustainable lifestyle. This could be a conceptual principle of an alternative lifestyle, which can sustain itself and against the consumerist paradigm. Keyword: Anti-consumption, Buddish, Happiness, Metadesign, Prosumer, Sustainability Are you happy? Happiness can reflect to a good quality of life, but it seems to be more difficult to get it in these days and in the future, because the required conditions of living are increasing also they are harder to get happiness. The restriction of resource affects individuals to be more competitive and stressful. Furthermore, this endless progress would be more tightened through time and it hardly leads us to a sustainable future. Why we need an entertainment? Why we love shopping even we can survive with the thing we already have? Is our happiness a commodity? Is it because we over-depend our happiness on others, or we currently lose the capabilities to sustain our lives and our happiness by ourselves? For this essay “Hacking Happiness”, I would like to ask you (especially, a sustainable designer) a question: “How we live sustainably under the paradigm that happiness is fulfilled by contributors easier than oneself?” There is no absolute solution to this question, but this essay would like to introduce some relevant ideas of sustainable living and alternative
  8. 8. ix courage lifestyles. Hopefully, this essay can stretch the approach of sustainability which could emerge from a tangibly self-sustainable life. Hello, my name is Pesus Saranurak. Lets me briefly introduce myself before. I was born in a Buddhist family and I have learnt many Buddhist philosophies of living since I was young. Most of Buddhist philosophies tend to make folks realize everything will not stay forever for reducing a senses of an ownership which could lead to a sorrow. Before I came to Goldsmiths, I was suffering from the design role because there is the significant conflict between Buddhist philosophies and the mechanic of consumption, which have to keep allure consumers to buy more and be endlessly unsatisfied. The identification of newness, lack and status has been used to drag consumers far from sustainable happiness. Whilst working as a product designer, my role has to support this economy mechanic and it seems to be the basis of many unsustainable issues, such as over-consumption and waste problem. I have studied Buddhism and meditation for understanding its perspective of life and happiness. In 2013-14 I was studying in MA Design Futures and Metadesign at Goldsmiths. There is a tipping point of shifting my perspective and thinking framework about design in to life designer My working experiences, which stand between production and consumption, help me to understand the system of consumption and explore new alternative systems, which possibly lead to a sustainable future. Further, I would like to develop my designer role to not only support on consumerism. The sustainable designers can design a living guideline and facilitate people to be able to access to happiness equality, as a happiness hacker. Also, for myself this would be my future design principle.
  9. 9. x Nice to meet you, the future happiness hackers. This writing is for one who believes that we can create better futures by our actions. Congratulations If you are that person. This writing would be your guidebook which introduces the foundations of the context for reaching happiness based on individual actions. Moreover, it could helps you to gain the potential in creating your challenged lifestyle. On the other hand, if you do not believe that possibility, this writing could extend your vision and it will reveal alternative lifestyle. Perhaps, it could change your mind. Designers are the main target of this writing. I write it to suit with designer’s reading style which is not linear and long passage by using discussion style with many diagrams and pictures. It could help designers to see the connections between each context and keyword which could be easier in designing or getting ideas Even though you are not a designer, this book will help you to understand the basis of being happy in life. Consequently, you could become a designer because you will have a capacity to design own happiness in lifestyle. Hope you will enjoy this writing, while reading it, please try to reflect on your own life and start design it, a future design activist. : )
  10. 10. xi I appreciate to exchange ideas, experiences and opinions with you about this topic Hacking Happiness. Contract: Perus Saranurak MA Design Futures + Metadesign (2013-2014) http://designfutures2013.tumblr.com Email: more.openmore@gmail.com https://www.linkedin.com/in/perus https://goldsmiths.academia.edu/PerusSaranurak/ http://cargocollective.com/monkix
  11. 11. In th exp Wha ‘Hap exp days exp beco The From Int his first ch lain the sc at is ‘Hack ppiness’, erience, g s, as we ensive an oming mo word ‘Ha m the Oxf Hack (v Gain un They hha Hack in To brea l or dam school s MA Desi troduc Mak hapter I w coped terr FIGUR king Happ a simple generally live in ca d difficult ore comple ack’ is bro ford dictio erb withou nauthorized acked into to, Compu ak into (a se mage data: server to c gn Futures, G ction o ke yoursel will describ ritory of r RE 2: THE CO piness’? word, w means th apitalism, t to reach ex. oadly use onaries de ut object) d access to the bank’s uters. erver, web : Students change the Goldsmiths, 1 of Hack lf happy th be the con research. ONCEPT OF H which ever he state o happines h them b ed in term efinition is o data in a s s computer site, etc.) f s are const eir grades. University of king H hrough de ncept of ‘H ACKING HAP ryone po of positive s seems ecause it ms of com s: system or r from a rem tantly tryin f London appine esign Hacking H PINESS ssibly un e feeling. to be mo lay on m mputer and computer: mote locatio ng to hhack i ess Happiness’ derstand But in th ore and m many elem d technol : on to stea into their ’ and and hese more ents logy. r
  12. 12. Hacking Happiness: Sustainability from inside out 2 On the other hand, It could be mean to access the target through a restricted system by individual skill and knowledge. Thus, I carry this word in the context of the real world by joining the words together with ‘Happiness’. Then ‘‘Hacking Happiness’ could be understand as the action (figure 2) against the system where we are living in and also makes a shortcut way to reach a goal. Propose Since the concept of sustainability was created until now, this concept still has been too radical in the individual scale because the effect is shown in the global scale which is hard to recognize that it connects to individual behaviours. Hacking happiness bring the sustainability to engage with people life and action by re-conceptualising the perception of happiness. This could be easier to gain their awareness in ecology. Moreover, this concept aims to integrate a personal benefit into sustainability and create an alternative value in society. Writing ingredients While researching, the concept of ‘Hacking Happiness’ has many relations with various intellects (in the figure 3). FIGURE 3: THE ASPECTS OF ‘HACKING HAPPINESS’ IDEA
  13. 13. MA Design Futures, Goldsmiths, University of London 3 So in this writing, I try to combine varied aspects which Haidt (2006 cites by Greve 2012: 17) states happiness involve in Psychology, Philosophy, Economy and Sociology. Including sustainability concern, Ecology is also the one of the key aspects for covering many perspectives in generating design concept. Direction of research A grand tour question “How to make an idea of sustainability become more tangible?” Sub-question 1. “Why people still do what they know it damages the world?” 2. “What are the common problems in people’s life?” 3. “How to encourage people to have better behaviours?” ‘Hacking Happiness’ concept development After researching different aspects (figure 4), I can generate the key elements which relevant to this concept, such as sustainability, consumerism, happiness and activist. These elements become a core of Hacking Happiness concept. For making the concept more tangible, I develop it into action, lifestyle and individual system which has the benefit of both individual and environment. Moreover, some relevant movement or lifestyle into reality is revealed too. FIGURE 4: PROCESS OF TANGIBLE SUSTAINABILITY
  14. 14. Hacking Happiness: Sustainability from inside out 4 Design role On a large scale like changing notion, it is hard to imagine how designers can play in this game. Metadesign is the great tool for dealing with complex problems because it delivers the wider perspective for designers to think beyond the old paradigm to create the new opportunity, likewise Wood (2007, cited by Jones, 2013) state “… think beyond the possible”. Moreover, Fisher (cited by Fischer 2013) suggests that the complex problem required more knowledge from collaboration (2000), and the users should be owners of problems, not only passive consumers restricted to consumption of the existing knowledge (2006).
  15. 15. MA Design Futures, Goldsmiths, University of London 5 Sustainability Design for the next seven generations Sustainability has been addressed in many aspects. In this essay will scope to the dehierachical aspect, to create equality, in term of anti- consumerism; to approach the method to straight access to happiness. Hacking Happiness aims to create a good quality of life which is broadly affordable, reducing consumption. What is sustainability? Sustainability is consideration of actions and system for futures of humanity, our future generations. In the Design Futures class, the idea of sustainability was defined by the World Commission on Environment and Development (WCED) states in 1987: “Development that meets the needs of the present generation without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.” However, it is not an easy way to become sustainable. On one hand, Alastair Fuad-Luke (2009: 23) states “Sustainability is grounded in ecological praxis and systems thinking. It challenges the capitalist system of production and consumption that assumes unlimited growth.” Because the capitalist system seems to be a grand-narrative and other systems are developed in the same direction to support it. This makes the system become dominant and hardly changeable. However, a development of the production and the consumption creates a mechanic for accelerating the economic progress with carelessness about ecology. This draws us to an unsustainable problem.
  16. 16. Hacking Happiness: Sustainability from inside out 6 FIGURE 5: AN ECOLOGICAL FOOTPRINT From an ecological footprint (figure 5), It is abundantly clear that current rates of consumption of many resources are unsustainable. (Fuad-Luke, 2009: 67) Question of sustainability “People know to harm the world is not good, but they still do it. Why?” As a reason, we live in this system which is highly competitive and stressful, but we cannot avoid it because all infrastructure also relies on it (figure 6). Consequently, economic system influence people to be less awareness in sustainability than making money. FIGURE 6: OUR LIFE WAS DRAWN
  17. 17. MA Design Futures, Goldsmiths, University of London 7 This is a wicked problem which seems impossible to solve, but metadesign can be used for solving this problem by rethinking holistically. “We can’t solve problems with the type of thinking we used to create them.” states Albert Einstein (cited by John Wood’s lecture, 2013). Designer in sustainability According to a designer’s role, designers should be the easiest person to understand and consider in sustainability. Also, the designer has the capacities to design a creative solution for raising people’s awareness. For example, reframing the scale of time into the longer view could help to visualize a concept of sustainability (Thorpe 2007: 162) Year-individual Decades- family Centuries- tribe or nation Millennia- civilization Tens of millennia- species Eons- whole web of life on our planet
  18. 18. Con sust Eco Gen eval whic Sch cate man com info uns Mor be nsumerism tainable fu nomy in c nerally, an luates eve ch is q umacher egorized nufactures mparison orm misco ustainable reover, th satisfied. Hackin Ju m, which k uture. ‘Ha F consumer n econom erything w uantitativ (2011: 35) into 4 s and ser because t onception e behaviou his proces As Ivan ng Happiness Con ump out o eep consu cking Hap FIGURE 7: HA ism my is base which can ve standa ) argues groups, vices, wh they have n of goo urs in con s tents to n Illich s s: Sustainabi 8 nsumer of the gran umers fee ppiness’ te ACKING ECON ed on sel be sold, a ard for in Small such ich shoul e differen ods’ cost sumption o reconst states (19 lity from insi rism nd narrativ el lack, is t ents to ha NOMIC SYSTEM lling and and simplif easy to is Beautif as renew d have a nt qualita to co n. ruct cons 990: 74) de out ive he main r ck throug M buying, s fy each va o compar ful that g wable, n different ative valu nsumers umer’s ne that the resistance gh it (figur so it pos alue into p re. Howe goods can nonrenewa t standard e. This c and lead eeds to n e process of a re 7). sibly price ever, n be able, d for ould d to ever s of
  19. 19. MA Design Futures, Goldsmiths, University of London 9 consumption is to foster a belief that anything "new" will be proven "better" to devalue "old" models. It tends to generate demand by hypnotizing consumers to feel a lack between what they had and what they ought to get. As a result, the consumer would be happy in achieving more than in the function of things. This process could be called consumption mechanism. Economic tools Economic tools, such as advertising, have been developed for rising demand in a market by creating consumer’s needs. Regarding John Wood lectures in Design Future class, “There are professions more harmful than industrial design, but only a very few of them. And possibly only one profession is phonier. Advertising design, in persuading people to buy things they do not need, with money they do not have, in order to impress others who do not care, is probably the phoniest field in existence today.” Viktor Papanek in Design for the Real World (1971) The mechanisms behind consumption (Shove and Warde, 1999) Social comparison Creation of self-identity Mental stimulation – novelty The Diderot effect/matching Specialisation Socio-technical systems This process seems to draw market to consume beyond function and material. It could be called Conspicuous consumption (Veblen, 1999 The Theory of the Leisure Class): Consumption beyond satisfaction of ‘needs’ Immediate gratification Narcissistic behaviour Displaying wealth
  20. 20. Hacking Happiness: Sustainability from inside out 10 How it works? This system educates us to meet our needs by consuming and for some people they have no other way to fulfil their needs, as a metaphor of a fish cannot realize it is living in the water because it never without water while they alive. FIGURE 8: MONEY MEETS HUMAN NEEDS This figure 8 illustrates how the money system transfers into human needs in different hierarchies. Design in consumerism For driving the capitalist system, designers are the important role standing between production and consumption. Essentially, this role has a potential to draw the consuming system to be more sustainable. However, they do not have an authority to change it because almost clients and investors usually hire them to gain their profit and they are expert at using consumption mechanics for increasing demand. Luckily, Victor Papanek also suggests a design responsibility that (cite by Fuad-Luke, 2009 : 44)
  21. 21. MA Design Futures, Goldsmiths, University of London 11 “Designers needed to take responsible decisions, spend less time designing ephemeral goods in the consumer economy, and spend more creative time on generating solutions to the real needs of the disadvantaged 80 per cent population of the planet.” What is mean designers should concerning in sustainability and design a solution for creating better futures. In terms of designer who want to create sustainable futures, this writing tries to explore the ideas of sustainable economy, which could be used for developing the ‘Hacking Happiness’ concept. (These ideas would be explained in the next chapter) FIGURE 9: CONCEPTS OF SUSTAINABLE ECONOMY Economy for sustainability The concept of sustainability has been developed for many decades ago. In this writing, I will introduce 4 concepts which have divers directions and areas (figure 9).
  22. 22. Too Illich whic sugg too con from dev futu as a Furt crea prod 1975 ols for co Ivan Il Conce being s h gives th ch can be gests divi ls tend t trast, Illic m merely elop thei ures. Simu convivial “A conv guarant tools o another thermore, ating a ne duction o 5: 75) Hackin onviviality lich (1975 pt: creatin supplied by he definit e used in ide tools to determ h introdu consumer r environ ultaneousl society: vivial socie tee for eac f the com r member's , convivial ew model of goods a ng Happiness y FIGURE 10: T ) ng tools f y industria tion of ‘to the proc in indust mine and ces conviv rs (figure nment in ly, people ty would b ch member mmunity an s equal fre l tools cou of indust and unlim s: Sustainabi 12 TOOLS FOR C for everyo l tools. ools’ as t ess of de trial tools d manipu vial tools 10). More society e have to be the resu r the most nd limit th edom.” (Ill uld lead so trial socie mited grow lity from insi CONVIVIALITY one which he man-m evelopmen s and con late indiv to enhan eover, the to suit w use tools ult of socia t ample and his freedom ich 1975: 12 ociety to ety which wth in th de out Y free peop made devi nt and de nvivial too vidual ex ce individ ey can use with their s with reg l arrangem d free acce m only in 2) be more s is a clea e service ple from ice or sys esign. Also ols. Indus xpectation ual’s free e the too r visions garding ot ments that ess to the favour of sustainabl n and lim sector. ( stem o, he strial n. In dom ls to and thers le by mited Illich
  23. 23. Bud Gen ‘bigg eco con (Sch ddhist ec E. F. S Conce (much) nerally, in ger is bett nomics is cept has humacher The mo the am econom to obt consum MA Desi onomics chumache pt: Buddhi ) less. the high ter’ as a m s known taken its 2001: 36). odern econ mount of mist argues tain the mption stat gn Futures, G FIGURE 11: er (1973) ist econom hly compe modern ec as an un place in . omist is us consumpt s that the m maximum tes Schuma Goldsmiths, 13 : BUDDHIST my aims to etitive so conomy. H nsustaina teaching. sed to mea tion as m meaning o m well-bei acher (2001 University of ECONOMICS be well-b ociety, ma However, T ble syste . It’s calle asure the s more is b of human w ing with 1: 42) f London eing by co any peop The conce m, and a ed Buddhi standard o better. A well-being the min onsuming ple think ept of mod also the ist econo of living by Buddhist should be nimum of that dern new mics
  24. 24. Mor sugg and Furt aims a lim sati simp exam dep such chea Suff The King Dev reover, fr gests the creative a thermore, s to ‘redu mited reso sfy their plicity and mple, Sch end on co h as why aper than ficiency e H.M. K Conce can rel philosop g of Tha velopment Hackin om Budd system sh activity m , Schuma ces the w ource. For needs wit d non-vio humacher onsumptio we still us renewab economy King Bhum pt: sustain ly upon on phy of self iland and t Board 20 ng Happiness hist econ hould con ore impor cher (200 work load’ r instance th modes lence are (2001: 45 on, but de se non-re le fuel wh y FIGURE 12: mibol Adul nable econ eself. f-sufficien d he (cite 007: 7) s: Sustainabi 14 nomics (fi nsider peo rtant than 01: 39) ex and consi e, the eco st use of the main 5) introdu epend on enewable ich is less : SUFFICIENC lyadej (19 nomy start ncy econo ed by th explains lity from insi gure 1), S ople more n consump xplains th ider about onomy sho a resourc n idea of B ces that t ecosystem fuel carel harm the CY ECONOMY 97) ts at a sma omy (figur he Nation s that de out Schumach importan ption. e Buddhi t a physic ould supp ce. It can Buddhist the syste m and hol essly only e world; su all scale w re 12) is i al Econom “sufficien her (2001: nt than go st econo al resourc ort peopl be seen economy. m should listic think y because ustainabili which one ntroduce mic and So ncy” m : 41) oods, mics ce as e to that . For not king, it is ty. d by ocial eans
  25. 25. mod prot This also whic 1 2 3 4 In th acco prot farm capa Des deration, r tection fro “...If we greedy not only - being happily. s concept o focuses ch also ed 1. Knowle 2. Ethnic 3. Happin 4. Sustain he individ ording to t totypes su mers could able of he sign activ MA Desi reasonabl om impac e are happ and will ex ly in an eco g sufficient ...” states H seems in more abo ducate citi edge Base Economy ness Econo nable Econ ual scale, their role ufficiency d be indep elping othe vism gn Futures, G eness, an t arising f py with ho xploit othe onomic sen t and not H.M. King B the simila out how zens the d d Econom omy nomy this conce s and resp economy pendence ers and co FIGURE Goldsmiths, 15 d the nee from inter however lit ers less. If a nse, but to extreme, Bhumibol A ar directio to develo developed my ept enable ponsibilitie y in cultiva and efficie ontribute 13: DESIGN A University of ed of self- rnal and ex ttle we ha all countrie try to keep not greedy Adulyadej. on with B op this ph d ideas of es ones to es, Moreo ation syste ently rely to society ACTIVISM f London immunity xternal ch ave, we wi es observe t ep the midd dy, then we uddhist e hilosophy economy o be reaso ver, the H em which upon one y. for suffic anges. will be less this idea - dle ground we can live economics into prac . onable in li H.M. King shows th eself and b cient d e s but ctice ife, at be
  26. 26. Hacking Happiness: Sustainability from inside out 16 Alastair Fuad-Luke (2009) Concept: everyone can use design to have sustainable futures Fuad-Luke (2009: xx) introduces that design has a great potential to make a positive change in society and the environment. Therefore, he joins the word ‘design’ with ‘activism’ to become ‘design activism’ which is a creative way to create the policy or social movement for better futures (figure 13). Design activism is ‘design thinking, imagination and practice applied knowingly or unknowingly create a counter-narrative aimed at generating and balancing positive social, institutional, environmental and/or economic change’. (Fuad-Luke, 2009 : 27). In terms of concept, ‘Hacking Happiness’ could be the one of design activism too, because it wishes to criticize on consumerism and facilitate the new system more sustainable.
  27. 27. The cou Hap The to w by u Acco othe Hap Man of h the muc tran consume ld be the t ppiness a happines work, to d using hap ording to er enjoy in ppiness by ny people happiness economi ch resourc nsfer qua MA Desi erism has tool for so s a tool ss has bee evelop or ppiness to Diener (2 n improvin FIG y a succes think tha because o ically dev ces owned ntitative gn Futures, G Ha A posi always inf olving this en used as to do som ools such 2008: 18), ng one’s s GURE 14: ENC s in econo at the suc of a freed eloped so d. Howeve indices i Goldsmiths, 17 appine sitive moti fluenced c s wicked p s a goal fo mething (f as rewa , People c skills. COURAGE TO omic cess in th dom in spe ocieties s er, it coul into qual University of ess ivation consumer problem. or encoura figure 14). rds and t create rew DO SOMETH he econom ending. Pa scoring ho ld be criti itative sa f London to feel la aging one This proc the notio ward to m ING my would ahl (1995: ow succe cized in t atisfaction ack. Happi eself or ot cess is cre n of succ make them be the st 8) shows ess from he proces ns. Moreo ness thers ated cess. m or tates that how ss of over,
  28. 28. Hub ladd succ of s life. Mon “Can Yes, mec hum allow stat hap that Wha Aris form ber (cited der of suc cessful co success ha ney and h n money b , of cou chanism o man needs ws us to tus and fe piness (D t also ther at is happ stotle is q mula (2006 Hackin by Pahl ccess is a ould lead t as been ch happines buy Happi rse, acco of consum s. It canno access n eelings of Diener 200 re are imp FIGU piness? uoted as 06) on the ng Happiness 1995: 33) topless la to stress, hanged in s ness?” ording to merism an ot be denie needs, also control. A 08: 110). F portant ex URE 15: WHAT saying “g BBC-2 ch s: Sustainabi 18 argues t adder”. O fear and nto seekin consume nd the fig ed that m o more t At the sa Fortunate xceptions. T DOES HAPP good living hannel. Ha lity from insi hat “whe n the oth unstablen ng balance erism cha gure 8 sho oney is dr than purc me time, ely, Diene PINESS LOOK g is happin appiness s de out n made o her hand, ness. Also e between apter, it ows how riving the hasing po materialis er (2008: LIKE? ness” in T seams har of money the state o the mea n working explains money m world no ower, suc sm is toxi 91) ment The happi rd and unc the es of ning and the meet w. It h as ic to tions iness clear
  29. 29. to m Este Mor the He whic emo prob part frien alwa com measure th es (2010 ci The ex The avo Self-de Contrib reover, pro foundatio Good s A mean Having introduce ch means otional d bably forg t of happi nd explain ays been a me from do MA Desi he states ited by Gr perience o oidance o evelopmen bution to ofessor Ed ons of hap social relat ning which g a goal or es “Happi s Happine estination got to enj iness and ns “climbi about the oing rathe FIGURE gn Futures, G of feeling eve 2012: of pleasur f negative nt others. d Diener, ppiness in tionship h may com an interes ness is a ess is mor n (figure oy an env even mo ing has ne process o er than ha E 16: HAPPIN Goldsmiths, 19 g. It could 8) explain re e experien Psycholog the happi me from re st to work Process. re than a 16). By vironment re import ever been of climbin ving (Dien NESS IS A PRO University of be seen c ning the m nce gist, Unive piness form eligion or p k on (shor Not a Pl an achieve focusing t and a pr tant. For g n about t g”. In sho ner 2008: 1 OCESS. NOT A f London clearer by meaning of ersity of Il mula on BB philosoph rt and long ace” (Die ement of only a ocess whi good exam he summi rt, happin 15). A PLACE McMahan f happines llinois, exp BC: hy of life g term) ener 2008 f needs o goal, pe ich is also mple, Dien it for me, ness has o and ss: plain : 13) r an ople o the ner’s , It’s often
  30. 30. Hacking Happiness: Sustainability from inside out 20 In this writing, Diener’s concept of happiness has been used as the goal of ‘Hacking Happiness’ which tends to encourage people to create and design their better life. Social happiness Even these days technology enables us to live more isolated. However, the research by using the experience sampling method (Diener 2008, p.52) with introverts and extroverts has an unsuspected result that both two groups are happier with a social situation than being alone. “[W]hat really makes us happy is not technology but people. It is not more productivity we need, but social enfranchisement. Ultimately, if ‘giving’ makes us feel good, maybe ‘sharing’ can make us feel better” states John wood (2003, p.3) in Attainable Utopia. Humans are developed to be social species. For a clearer idea, Try to Imagine the world without others, how many years you want to live? It can be seen that a relationship with others in social has a very strong connection with happiness and they support each other. Diener shows three different types of relationship (2008, p.58-59) 1. Infatuation is a feeling good and overlooking a partner’s flaws. 2. Companionate love is a readiness to acknowledge and accept some flaws. It makes one feel happy while helping others, not because of one’s need. 3. Deficiency-love is based on to satisfy our need. That is why the easily bored person is attracted to an entertaining or exciting person, sadly, until the needs fulfilled or changed. Assumption: Meet the needs without pay By understanding the ideas of happiness, It could help designer to review design principle about human needs for sustainability. As in the previous
  31. 31. MA Design Futures, Goldsmiths, University of London 21 chapter, the economy provides many tools for serving different needs for driving itself. FIGURE 17: ACTIONS MEET NEEDS This figure (18) shows the exploration how to meet human needs in different hierarchies by action. In this exploration, I question how to complete the Maslow’s hierarchy of human needs without using money. So, I match these different needs with actions, according to the Diener’s happiness which come from doing rather than having. Surprisingly, these actions have interesting relations with the other (figure 18). FIGURE 18: FULFILLING ACTIONS FLOW
  32. 32. To hap lifes obje of d dura ‘Hac “Wh Foll to b con rath as a L bring sus piness’ u style, but ects. As C durable m able produ cking Hap hy this con owing the be active cept of h her by hav tool for r Hackin ifesty stainable uses the s reveres t hapman (2 eaning an ucts. ppiness’ o ncept focu e sustaina not only happiness, ving. Furth representi ng Happiness le: act A set of ideas clos same tool them for 2005) says nd value t n actions uses on an ble conce stay pass , it also m hermore, f ing one’s FIGU s: Sustainabi 22 ions w f chosen a se to peo ls as cons giving a s In Durab that produ n individu ept, this co sive. More mentions for getting attitude a URE 19: LIFES lity from insi with me activities ople real sumerism meaning ble Emotio uct delive al action? oncept sh eover, the happiness g accepta and poten STYLE de out eaning life, tang which te into actio onal Desig er, not on ” ould enco e action i s often co nce, one c tial. gs gible. ‘Hac nds to cr on instea gn, the de ly a desig ourage pe s free. In ome by d can use ac cking eate d of esign gn of ople the oing ction
  33. 33. MA Design Futures, Goldsmiths, University of London 23 ‘Hacking happiness’ go lifestyle Lifestyle is a group of actions and has a specific interest and meaning. If the concept becomes a lifestyle, it would be easy to communicate ideas. Simultaneously, lifestyle can communicate more value to consumers because activity is only one part in lifestyle (figure 19): Meaning Activities Members The idea of communicating meaning or story to consumers is used for creating product’s value. According to Mark Poster (cited by Toffoletti, 2011: 78) “in modern society, consumer objects represented social status; in postmodernity, they express one’s identity”. It thus can be used by consumers in self-identification and communicate with others. This tool could be called lifestyle. Likewise, Mathilda gave a lecture about the lifestyle in Design Futures class on 16th November 2013: “Lifestyles refer to the way we live our lives that allows us to fulfil our needs and aspirations. They serve as “social conversations”, in which people signal their social position and psychological aspirations to others. Since many of the signals are mediated by goods, lifestyles are closely linked to material and resource flows in the society.” (Backhaus, Breukers et al. 2011) In Status Anxiety, Botton (2004) explains that this social mechanic affect us to be unstable and unsatisfied. He calls it the hunger of status. Sustainability movements in lifestyles Around the world also has many activities and lifestyle which probably match with ‘Hacking Happiness’ concept. This part will reveal some less- consuming alternative lifestyles in different contexts for visualized examples.
  34. 34. Hacking Happiness: Sustainability from inside out 24 FIGURE 20 SUSTAINABILITY LIFESTYLES Freegans (2003) New York: A group of people who live in minimizing consumption http://freegan.info/ Time bank (1998) UK: Using time of helping others as a currency with a bank system. http://www.timebanking.org/ Live without money (1996) Germany: Life without money for 14 years http://livingwithoutmoney.org/ Self-sufficiency (1998) Thailand: Life in the middle path to self-producing and rational consuming http://www.sufficiencyeconomy.org/
  35. 35. The In t for whic and The prob achi acti Mor from 1 2 3 4 5 As a e concept erms of s conveying ch close t know the n this w blem of ieve their on also ha reover, th m the rele 1. TTools f makers 2. BBuddh consum 3. SSufficie 4. DDesign 5. Diener a result, th MA Desi of Hackin sustainabi g the idea to people e benefit f riting sho sustainab r needs b as a capac is concep evant conc for conviv s. ist econo mption ency econ activism ’s concep he solutio FI gn Futures, G Co ng Happin lity, the c a of sustai daily life. from susta ows an e le develo by spendi ity for ful pt has bee cepts abou viality – cr omics – a nomy –sys – design pt of happ n ‘Hacking GURE 21: AD Goldsmiths, 25 onclusi ess concept o inability t . So it pro ainable life economic opment b ng mone filling nee en explore ut futures reating th an attitud stem for r moves so piness – ha g Happine DDRESSING O University of on f ‘Hacking o be tang obably rais estyle. system s ecause it y only. T eds. ed and dev s concept e tools fo de of we elying on ociety appiness i ess’ is happ OWN HAPPINE f London g Happine ible and i ses people seems to t persuad This writin veloped b and happi or consum ell-being w oneself s a proces piness gui ESS ess’ is cre n the con e’s aware be a wic es people ng introd by researc iness theo mers to be with less ss. idebook. ated ntext ness cked e to uces ching ory:
  36. 36. Hacking Happiness: Sustainability from inside out 26 Hacking Happiness’ Guidebook If you feel suffering from your life, now you should not blame others. You just ask yourself “what do I need?” and ”what I will do?” because now you know the shortcut to fulfil your needs without pay. So, If you see happiness is easy to access, congratulation now you are the hacker- a design activist in terms of ‘Hacking Happiness’ Let's start creating your life as you want it This writing is the only guidebook which describes the area and reveal same interests to you, the reader, for getting ideas to create own happiness, similarly with a concept of sufficiency economy but the product is happiness. As you have read the happiness chapter, these actions (in figure 21) that can complete human needs are rather easy and simple, but the key is you realize the action what you are doing and understand how it benefit you happiness; rethink about what make you happy; analyse them. Moreover, these activities possibly push you out of the loop of consumerism. Let start with any action you like. To become a hacker you don’t have to change your whole lifestyles, your behaviours or your beliefs. You might try to take the action sometime, in leisure time or when you feel free- don’t be too serious - following an idea of Buddhist economics. Last but not least, Do just because you enjoy doing, don’t expect the outcome – “Happiness is a Process. Not a Place.” (Diener 2008: 13) “What will you do today, Hacker?”
  37. 37. MA Design Futures, Goldsmiths, University of London 27 Self-reflection Sustainability is a very big issue which has many aspect to talk. Many people know what is sustainable, but few people do it in practice. In my opinion, it could be because the sense of sustainability does not motivate individual enough to do it. In this essay I try to bring the sense of sustainability to be closer to the individual scale, which I focus on human need. It is a big issue to re-define the meaning of sustainability. I start studying in many aspects and I found the happiness issue is related to individual and sustainability. So I explore the concept of happiness and re-interpreted in term of sustainability. Finally, I got the concept of Hacking Happiness. This project extends my vision in a design role from thinking that the result of the design process should only be products or services. Now I saw a new opportunity to design which is to facilitate people by designing tools for designing and solving a problem by themselves. Personally, I really like this idea. And I would like to develop this concept further which this definition could be my future role in my sustainable designer as Happiness designer. Also, this essay still needs to be re-organize; cut some redundant parts; and I should explain more about my key idea "to achieve needs by Action" (figure 17).
  38. 38. Hacking Happiness: Sustainability from inside out 28 Appendix Working processes FIGURE 22: VALUE MAPPING Generating concept The concept of sustainability has very broadened it could be called as a ‘wicked problem’ which hard to solve. However, for generating a concept, I have to use metadesign tools. For instance, brainstorming in the class can broaden an idea boundary then I collect the ideas from the class and mapping with my value and capacity (figure 22). The concept seems to be clearer through the process. I found the metadesign tools do not only support working with many people. It also can be useful for individual thinking.
  39. 39. MA Design Futures, Goldsmiths, University of London 29 Collective storytelling workshop On 18th November 2013, I had a collective storytelling workshop in MA Design Futures class. This workshop tent to represent the dynamic in collaborative working by letting us to share stories, experiences and ideas to re-conceptualize a library. FIGURE 23: COLLECTIVE STORYTELLING WORKSHOP In my group, we tough each individual life experience has a value in itself. And this value is different from reading a book. In this workshop (figure 23), reframing the idea of libraries from the place of a stable information to the place of many alive stories. My group co-design a new system named ‘Story club’
  40. 40. Hacking Happiness: Sustainability from inside out 30 Story club The club provides a storytelling area which allows anyone to share the individual life story and get a free access to the club’s facilities, such as food, drink, or shower. Also, this activity could be interesting for consumers. Moreover, the club can use the good story in sharing for a podcast which seem to be a free advertising for the club (figure 24). FIGURE 24: STORY CLUB
  41. 41. MA Design Futures, Goldsmiths, University of London 31 Referennce Chapman, J. (2005) Emotionally durable design: Objects, experiences and empathy. London: Earthscan. De, B. A. (2004). Status anxiety. New York: Pantheon Books. Diener, E and R. Biswas-Diener (2008) Happiness: unlocking the mysteries of psychological wealth. Oxford: Blackwell. Fischer, G. (2013). “Learning, Social Creativity, and Cultures of Participation” in A. Sannino, & V. Ellis (Eds.),Learning and Collective Creativity: Activity-Theoretical and Sociocultural Studies, Taylor & Francis/Routledge, New York, NY, p. (in press). Fuad-Luke, A. (2009) Design activism: beautiful strangeness or a sustainable world. London: Earthscan. Greve, B. (2012) Happiness. New York: Routledge. Illich, I. (1990) Tools for conviviality. London: Marion Boyars Publishers Ltd. National Economic and Social Development Board (2007) Sufficiency Economy Implications and Applications. Bangkok Pahl, R. (1995) After Success: Fin-de-siècle Anxiety and Identity. Cambridge: Polity Press. Sanders, E. and P. J. Stoppers (2012) Convivial toolbox: Generative research for the front end of design. Amsterdam: BIS Publishers. Schumacher, E.F. (2011) Small is Beautiful: A study of Economics as if People Mattered. London: Vintage. Shove, E. and A. Warde (1999) Noticing inconspicuous consumption. Consumption, Everyday Life and Sustainability. - http://www.lancaster.ac.uk/ fass/projects/esf/inconspicuous.htm [accessed 15/07/2014]
  42. 42. Hacking Happiness: Sustainability from inside out 32 Tham, M. (2013) ‘Design, Lifestyles and Sustainability’. Metadesign and Futures of Sustainability. Goldsmiths, London, 11 Nov 2013. The happiness formula (2006) Presented by Mark Easton [Channel] London: BBC-2. Thorpe, A. (2007) The designer’s atlas of sustainability. Washington: Island Press. Bibliography Ariely, D. (2012) What Makes Us Feel Good About Our Work?. TEDx, Rio de la Plata. http://www.ted.com/talks/dan_ariely_what_makes_us_feel_good_about_o ur_work.html [accessed 05/01/14]. Bourdieu, P. (1986) The Forms of Capital. http://www.marxists.org/reference/ subject/philosophy/works/fr/bourdieu-forms-capital.htm [accessed 05/01/14]. Fischer, G. (2003) Meta-Design: A Framework for the Future of End User Development (EUD). http://l3d.cs.colorado.edu/~gerhard/presentations/eud-meta-d-slides-final.pdf [accessed 05/01/14]. Fry, T. (2011) Design as Politics. Oxford: Berg. Meadows, D. H., & Club of Rome. (1972). The Limits to growth: A report for the Club of Rome's project on the predicament of mankind. New York: Universe Books.
  43. 43. MA Design Futures, Goldsmiths, University of London 33 Image reference Figure 1: tetrahedron mapping of this essay. by author Figure 2: the concept of Hacking Happiness. by author Figure 3: the aspects of ‘hacking happiness’ idea. by author Figure 4: process of tangible sustainability. by author Figure 5: an ecological footprint. by author Figure 6: our life was drawn. by author Figure 7: hacking economic system. by author Figure 8: money meets human needs. by author Figure 9: concepts of sustainable economy. by author Figure 10: Tools for conviviality. by author Figure 11: Buddhist economics. by author Figure 12: Sufficiency economy. by author Figure 13: Design activism. by author Figure 14: encourage to do something. by author Figure 15: what does happiness look like? . by author Figure 16: Happiness is a Process. Not a Place. by author Figure 17: actions meet needs. by author Figure 18: fulfilling actions flow. by author Figure 19: Lifestyle. by author Figure 20 sustainability lifestyles. by author Figure 21: Addressing own happiness. by author Figure 22: value mapping. by author Figure 23: Collective storytelling workshop. by author Figure 24: Story club. by author
  44. 44. Don’t forget to smile