• Like
  • Save
(1st-draft) Open-Motivation Learning 3.0: Intrinsic motivation leads learning
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.

(1st-draft) Open-Motivation Learning 3.0: Intrinsic motivation leads learning

  • 402 views
Published

Perus Saranurak, 30 Apr 2014, MA Design Futures and Metadesign at Goldsmiths, University of London, London, UK. Postgraduate project work 'Future of Technology, Culture and Changes'. …

Perus Saranurak, 30 Apr 2014, MA Design Futures and Metadesign at Goldsmiths, University of London, London, UK. Postgraduate project work 'Future of Technology, Culture and Changes'.


It can be seen that the internet can extend the potential of the creative conversation more broad and more various. Also, the internet is much more available of everyone. Actually, it can be seen that the basic knowledge (such as how to, tutorials, e‐learning programmes and so on) is around us on the internet. This represents the technology can change the paradigm of education by allowing users (learners) to freely decide individual areas of
learning following true individual interests and create specific learning models. Moreover, this possibly encourages the learners to boost up individual interests and create own role, which doesn’t have to stick with the traditional definition of each job. This could be the creativity in learning and living.

  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Be the first to comment
    Be the first to like this
No Downloads

Views

Total Views
402
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
1

Actions

Shares
Downloads
1
Comments
0
Likes
0

Embeds 0

No embeds

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
    No notes for slide

Transcript

  • 1. Open-Motivation Learning 3.0 Internet technology creates opportuniƟes to bring learning to match with developing individual moƟvaƟon writer: Perus Saranurak
  • 2. Open-Motivation Learning 3.0 Internet technology creates opportunities to bring learning to match with developing individual motivation Goldsmiths, University of London MA Design Futures Metadesign and Futures of Technology, Culture and Change Writers: Perus Saranurak, Creative Catalyst Internal Reader: External Reader: Social entrepreneurs, Educators, Learners Printed on the 30th April 2014 1st edition
  • 3. 0 Contents 0.0 Preface ................................................................................................................................. 1 1.0 technology and humanity .................................................................................................... 3 Philosophies of technology ................................................................................................... 3 Effects on human .................................................................................................................. 3 Effects on culture change ...................................................................................................... 3 Future of technology ............................................................................................................. 4 2.1 Internet ................................................................................................................................ 5 Data and Learning ................................................................................................................. 5 Internet Era ........................................................................................................................... 5 No Place, No Time ................................................................................................................. 5 2.2 Learning and motivation ...................................................................................................... 7 Between Learning and Education ......................................................................................... 7 Transform an Education to Creative Learning ...................................................................... 7 Cybernetic Dreams ................................................................................................................ 8 Drive by an Intrinsic Motivation ............................................................................................ 8 Revealing the Motivations .................................................................................................... 8 3.0 Inner‐motivation ................................................................................................................ 10 Motivation in learning technology ...................................................................................... 10 3.1. Supporting the first step .............................................................................................. 11 3.2. Improving knowledge or skills. ..................................................................................... 11 Map ..................................................................................................................................... 12 4.0 Collaborative inner‐motivation .......................................................................................... 13 Motivation as force ............................................................................................................. 13 Reinforce motivation ........................................................................................................... 13 Community of Motivation ................................................................................................... 14 Furthermore, ............................................................................................................................ 15 Future of design role ........................................................................................................... 15 Self‐reflection ...................................................................................................................... 15 Appendix .................................................................................................................................. 16 Reference ................................................................................................................................. 17
  • 4. 1 0.0 Preface Learning as writing a future resume, own life. Abstract This topic starts with a simple idea; the persons that have similar interests can discuss for long and develop their interests. This situation always happens when I discuss with my friends. If the topic about robots and space, I would be more interested and can develop ideas in different perspective, than cosmetic topics. Therefore, the discussion is a kind of bouncing ideas. With the same topic of interests, it will be sharing experiences with open mind, a creative conversation. It can be seen that the internet can extend the potential of the creative conversation more broad and more various. Also, the internet is much more available of everyone. Actually, it can be seen that the basic knowledge (such as how to, tutorials, e‐learning programmes and so on) is around us on the internet. This represents the technology can change the paradigm of education by allowing users (learners) to freely decide individual areas of learning following true individual interests and create specific learning models. Moreover, this possibly encourages the learners to boost up individual interests and create own role, which doesn’t have to stick with the traditional definition of each job. This could be the creativity in learning and living. The writer sees learning is the very important process in developing society. This essay tends to demonstrate the possibility and potential of technology for changing or developing the learning culture, could be the alternative educational paradigm which is focusing on individual attraction, not a production line. Also the traditional education is linear pattern, and it kills the children’s creativity.
  • 5. The relatio Key t nships terms u #Co # in this s essay: FIGURE 1 TE n this e used in ommunity Internal # y #Creativ Internet # ETRAHEDRA ssay: FIGUR RE 2 WORD C netic Drea earning #M e #Cybern Limit #Le 2 : AL RELATION N CLOUDS ms #Equa Motivation ality #Impr n #Passion roving #In n #Trackin nner ng
  • 6. 1.0 technology and humanity 3 Introduction Philosophies of technology Aristotle’s four causes, we shape technology. From the early technology discovered around 2.5 million years ago, human use wood and stone extend the limit of possibility, and after that technology becomes the important part of human and human development. We created tools for supporting our life; we learn to use them; developed them for new possibility; we live with them. This seems that technology has been controlled by human stated in the concept of ‘Aristotle’s Four Causes’. Effects on human Heidegger’s enframement, technology shapes us. On the other hand, it can be seen that we are surrounded by technology and most of our daily activities rely on technology. According to Heidegger’s concept of Enframing, Like to frame a picture, enframing sets the parameters of how we see and understand the world we live in; we are living follow system; we think under the limit of language; we transport by cars so we have to continue burning gas. Thus we are unable to see the world in any other way. Human’s thinking and behaviours have been trapped by the potential of technology that has been developed following former vision. To be a survivor, we have to follow the systems which chained us. Interdependent relationship I think the relationship between humanity and technology is interdependent. Thus we can create our futures by technology; we develop technology for improving our life. It is a kind of draw directions for our futures. Effects on culture change The Relationships between Technology, Culture and Change Furthermore, it could be seen technology has influential effects on societies, obviously in terms of culture and change of society. For an explanation, these relationships could be represented as the metaphor of an amoeba life; the ‘technology’ could be the food of amoeba which can develop and mix to create a new menu. Also ‘culture’ could be seen as amoeba which is formed by evaluating, choose and remove some technology. And when the new
  • 7. acceptable innovation happened, this process can create a ‘change’ as the movement of culture (figure 3). Technology is shaped by the consensus of the society, as a culture. Society could be change by the development of new technology. FIGURE 3 AMOEBA OF CULTURAL CHANGE 4 Future of technology Summary Likewise, the effects of technology to culture change could be seen as a kind of the human development process. This also makes me interested in the area of how technology can involve in the developing process of individual scale, such as self‐learning, online course, internet community, and so on.
  • 8. 5 2.1 Internet Data and Learning In these days, the most relevant technology shifting the world is an internet and programming. This creates many effects in this world. Thus, this essay focuses on effect in the improvement in individual scale, which normally calls “Learning.” Internet Era Everything with nothing Nowadays, in the golden age of an internet, Computers and other smart devices, which can do the complex function by programming, become the basics of life. Following the idea of ‘ephemeralization’, coined by Richard Buckminster Fuller (1938 cited by John Wood’s lecture, 2014), this idea explains the direction of technology that “more and more with less and less until eventually you can do everything with nothing.” In that time he used the mass production of Ford for the example that by systems can produce more with less cost. Thus the programmable devices could be the clearer evidence of this idea, which use almost nothing to do everything, just a click. Furthermore, the technological makers (programmers) and the technological takers (users) seem to be closer; sometimes interface design allows user to customize. No Place, No Time Freely access Besides, Ivan Illich also introduces the idea of ‘a convivial society’ in Tools for Conviviality that: “A convivial society would be the result of social arrangements that guarantee for each member the most ample and free access to the tools of the community and limit this freedom only in favour of another member’s equal freedom.” ‐ Illich (1973, p.12) This kind of society seems to happen now on the internet community. On the internet, there is a plenty of information can freely access. It could say that internet shifting our life to free from the limit of place and time, the old limit of living; the internet allows us to extend any interest or learning any new things
  • 9. by providing open‐information, which can be academic e‐books, pdf files of presentation, video clip on YouTube or TEDs and open‐sources code for programming. Moreover, by portable devices, learning can be anywhere and anytime. Learning is the most important to human for improvement. For creating better futures, it should start at the smallest scale, individual development, which futures technology should considering on. There is a project, for instance, call “One Laptop per Child (OLPC)” which has a mission to empower the world's poorest children by an access to education. OLPC believes every kid has a capacity to learn, but some are lack of opportunity and resource. This project provides connected laptops for poor kids, which enable them to access to the knowledge. Moreover, the kids can learn to work with others around the world. This is for developing the passion for learning. 6
  • 10. 2.2 Learning and motivation Between Learning and Education Both learning and education has a similar objective which is to improve individual knowledge and skills, but there are different. Education is the process of providing useful information for improving student to meet the standard of social expectation. On the contrary, learning is the self‐improving process which is influenced by an individual intentional. This makes the definition of education limit in school and university, but learning is a continued process for a whole life. Transform an Education to Creative Learning “Bring on the learning revolution!” is to title of Sir Ken Robinson’s his talk in TED2010. He states that education has to be transformed to something else; change from an industrial, fast food, model ‐ one standard for everywhere ‐ to agriculture model which can customize to each individual’s talent. Moreover, the education system has been developed to mainly support production lines in economy systems by producing a standard worker for a specific discipline. As he said in 2006, “we are shutting children’s senses off instead of waking them up.” Actually, it should focus on supporting student in their talents, passion and interest. Also, it should diagnose and lead students to achieve their varied goals for each student. The education system needs to be a creative learning. By the internet movement, the authority that teachers know more information than students will not happen anymore because an internet can provide more information than teacher and mobile devices enable for googling anytime and anywhere. Hence the role of teachers would become helping students to deal with overloaded information creatively. 7 Creativity In Tibet define creativity as natural beings. According to Kelley (2013 p.6), "[T]here is no word in Tibetan language for 'creativity' or 'being creative.' the closest translation is 'natural'. In other words, if you want to be more creative, you just have to be more natural." Being natural, for example, is like back in kindergarten. Kids always play and experiment new things without afraid of social rejection, which was tough when they grow up.
  • 11. Naturally, we are creative so this is the situation that we have to rethink about creative learning. Cybernetic Dreams 8 Effect on education The educational perception that to complete a task equals to understand could be incorrect in an internet era. According to Ivan Illich’s Cybernetic dreams (1987), students can use a ton of information and material, on an internet to feed their works, essays or presentations without any sense about what they have done. By the easiest process in the world, which can do anything, “copy + paste”, willingness, gut, ambition, even the interests of the students would decline because education becomes the process of reaching the standard or the status, does not considering to individual motivation of students. Moreover, they will be lack of internal motivation and become a robot in the economic system. Drive by an Intrinsic Motivation For a brief introduction about motivation, motivation means moving to do something. It has been distinguished between intrinsic motivation, which comes from inherent interests, and extrinsic motivation, which lead to an outcome. This essay focuses on growing an intrinsic motivation, because it is important in advanced learning and creativity, regarding to Ryan and Deci (2000, p.55) in Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivations. Also, it can drive the learning process naturally, with fun, challenge, novelty, cognitive dissonance or optimal incongruity (Oudeyer, Pierre‐Yves, & Kaplan, Frederic: 2007, p.4). This essay tends to explore about an alternative learning community by using the internal motivation as a key of self‐developing. Revealing the Motivations The tracking technology can collect a personal data which can use for analysing the user behaviour or thinking, such as UP the smart wristband for reporting health quality. Also the internal motivation can be seen on internet behaviours; the searching keywords; the clicked links; the spent time on each content. Moreover, the mobile device also can use for tracking the motivation
  • 12. place by GPS. These processes will report personal data which can use the programme for analysing individual motivation. TalentToday (https://www.talentoday.com), for an example of the motivation revealing, allows internet users to create a profile of their abilities and motivations from taking a personality questionnaire. And it separate motivation into 8 types; (1) social recognition, (2) pay, (3) security, (4) private/ professional life, (5) philanthropy, (6) need to belong, (7) need for relations and (8) need for variety. Even the motivation in this website scopes in the area of working, though this could be the clear example of a motivational analysis. FIGURE 4 MOTIVATION DIAGRAM FROM THE PERSONALITY QUESTIONNAIRE IN TALENTTODAY Motivation for collaborating is a bit different from the motivation for learning because collaborating will focus on expected outcome but learning could be looking at satisfaction 9 Summary Curiosity, interest and passion are the effective driven forces. They would be lost in the development of the traditional education system. Also, this essay calls them “the inner motivation” and tends to bring it back by using them to lead the learning process. This could grow the area of interest and encourage achieving a personal goal.
  • 13. 3.0 Inner-motivation Motivation in learning technology The internet is a place where everything linked together, also the exploration on the internet could reflect the individual interests of the users, the inner‐motivations. By observing internet activities (figure**), especially searching, it represents that internet activity does not direct to one output only; it also provides the context of the first interest for growing your interest by click. → → → → → […] FIGURE 5 AN INTERNET JOURNEY The ending results would be an unrelated website, such as 9gag.com or cat pictures, or an unseen island of new knowledge, but they also can reflect to the inner‐motivation of the users. I am very interested in the journey from tracking this progress. From only one journey, it can represent many different areas of interest from one user, and by continuing to collect this data, it is possible to draw a map of interest and showing the inner‐motivation of each user. 10 Inner‐motivation tracker The inner‐motivation tracker could answer Dr Nick Udall (2014, p.37) in his book Riding the creative rollercoaster. “… that what is needed now are educational systems that teach us how to know ourselves (our talents, passions, dreams, hopes, and fears), how to be curious, hungry learners; how to see beauty in diversity; how to develop multiple ways of knowing; …”
  • 14. Furthermore, by revealing the inner‐motivations, it can be used to develop and customize a learning system for achieving personal goals. So this essay focuses on two main effects of inner‐motivations in learning process on the internet and networking system: (1) starting the first step of learning; (2) improving knowledge or skills. 3.1. Supporting the first step 11 The first step is important and relevant. By seeing own inner‐motivation, it can help to define the unknown areas which possibly support. The starting point or basic skills are also very important for lighting up new areas of individual interest, such as tutorial, how to, YouTube and cooking recipe. The inner motivation can be seen as the seed. And the network of accessible information supports the inner‐motivation conditions to be planted, and the motivation can be thrive by watering. Diversity Consequently, from the easy starting point also affect to the learners can get diversity of knowledge and skills. The learners can customize own curriculum. This leads to the difficulty in defining the role follow the traditional job principle, which values the employee’s ability by graduation. Moreover, some online academic courses launched by universities can provide certification. However, the learning behaviours driven by individual interests are difficult to certify. Without feedback system, this discourages the motivation in self‐learning. Actually, the technology of tracking system could be used in reporting and showing feedback. This system can be developed to show the progress and evidence of learning in any area. It possible change the views of learners form “have to go there to get this” to be “I can build myself everywhere.” I believe that learning is writing own future resumes, and also learning is how we create our life. Life can be diverse because nobody is same. To improve ourselves requires a right feedback. 3.2. Improving knowledge or skills. Creativity Creativity is such a simple and natural process of combination two or more things with the opened mind for unexpected outcome. From the freedom in
  • 15. accessibility to areas of interests, this enables learners to gain the diversity of knowledge, skills and disciplines. So learning process becomes non‐linear, which is a good condition for improving creativity. Also, the freedom to experiment is very necessary for improving creatively. Programming could be an example for learning and experimenting in the same time by investing strong passion and time in it. The creative improvement of disciplinary possibly supports individual independent roles to be happened. This independent role would not be clearly defined in a standard status model; it should be defined by profiling the area of motivations and the creative experiments. Futures of learning would not consider in “what do the learners get?” but “how the learners can synergize their diverse disciplines?” Map 12 Lost the track Some people could argue that learning from internet is difficult to achieve an advanced or complex skill, which need the development in depth. Because of overloaded information, it makes self‐learning on the internet would develop only in wide range. On the other hands, that situation could be seen as getting lost in information. It could be fixed by creating a map. If the learners can see where they and their goals are also the feedback showing their achievement, the learners could decide their track of development by themselves. This chapter explain about the potential of revealing the inner‐motivation to individual improvement. However, the strongest potential of internet is connectivity. In the next chapter, this essay will introduce the situation by connecting the inner‐motivation with other people. Moreover, there is a community of motivation, where connect diversity interest together and the internet users can merge inner‐motivation that can create a big impact to improvement and productivity.
  • 16. 4.0 Collaborative inner-motivation Motivation as force Motivation could be seen as the force to do things. Regarding to force in physic theory; merge the same direction forces together will strengthen the forces; merge the opposite direction forces together will weaken the forces. However, the different direction forces do not have to be merged, but can be used to achieve different goals. This theory of force also could be used to organize different motivation from different people. From the system of tracking individual motivation, this kind of data can be used to develop and guide in learning and creating. Reinforce motivation 13 Community with same inner‐motivation Firstly, the motivation can drive that person to that direction, but sometime that motivation is not strong enough. In the other ways, if many persons who have similar motivation are collected together, the driving force will be stronger. FIGURE 6 COMPARING MOTIVATIONS WITH FRIENDS IN TALENTTODAY
  • 17. For example, TalentToday collects personal ability and motivation of the users and allows them to compare with their friends. 14 Together we grow By matching people who has a similar kind of motivation together, they can support each other to achieve their goals. Also it can raise mutual relationship between people in discussion and knowledge exchange. And also this can improve learning speed for the low experience users; they will realize and learn from the higher experience users. Put the right man together and productivity and creativity would increase by the good combination of the team. Community of Motivation Open‐learning and open‐skill: Skill share The community of motivation is a concept of the space for sharing individual inner‐motivation with others. Firstly, it has a potential to be a self‐developing center by sharing skill and knowledge in community. Organizing Moreover, this community could encourage the members to be makers with a tool for searching the right persons for collaborating in a bigger project or experimental, which needs supporting in different area of ability. FIGURE 7 ORGANIZE MOTIVATIONS IN COMMUNITY
  • 18. 15 Furthermore, Future of design role The production authority of designer would be declined in the situation which the individual motivation becomes stronger that passive consumer mindset. Designers should understand this movement and adapt their role to be as facilitators for a person or groups which want to create things. Self‐reflection For me as a creative catalyst, the community of motivation could encourage the members to be creative and productive. Also the members would be interested in developing their own creativity because now they know how to use it and they know they can create their own role. This system could be used as tools for education which is my mainly concerned topic in this time. Because while I am studying at Goldsmiths, I found the education system in Thailand, my hometown, has many problems, especially in creativity and diversity. This essay only introduces some potential and opportunities to transform the current education system. Moreover, I hope this essay can make the readers rethink and question about the education system in current education system to recreate the new systems that can support the development of humanity.
  • 19. 16 Appendix While I am doing this project, I tried to use tools for tracking my activities. Visual diary: 24 hours wheels The simple visual dairy, which manually records daily activities, is easy to recognise and compare with other day. This tool helps me to find the happy proportion for me, also the productive proportion. Moreover, by colouring this diagram by the user, this affects the user to concern on their activities more spontaneously. FIGURE 8 24 HOURS WHEELS RescueTime: This application can record every activity on computer. I found the feedback from this tracking system is very useful for realizing my unconscious activities. Moreover, I think this feedback data could be translated to the tracking user interest and hidden motivation, which I will study further in. FIGURE 9 RESCUETIME: WEB-BASED TRACKING APPLICATION
  • 20. 17 Reference  Fuller, R. B. (1963). Nine chains to the moon. Carbondale: Southern Illinois Univ. Pr.  Heidegger, M. (1977). The question concerning technology, and other essays. New York: Harper & Row.  Illich, I. (1973). Tools for conviviality. New York: Harper & Row.  Illich, I. (1987). Computer Literacy and the Cybernetic Dream. Bulletin of Science, Technology & Society, 7, 306‐309.  Oudeyer, Pierre‐Yves, & Kaplan, Frederic. (2007). What is Intrinsic Motivation? A Typology of Computational Approaches. Frontiers Research Foundation. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2533589/ [accessed 30/04/2014].  Richard M. Ryan and Edward L. Deci (2000) Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivations: Classic Definitions and New Directions. Contemporary Educational Psychology 25, p.54–67.  Robinson, K. (2006) ‘How schools kill creativity’. TED. http://www.ted.com/talks/ken_robinson_says_schools_kill_creativity [accessed 27/04/2014].  Robinson, K. (2010) ‘Bring on the learning revolution!’. TED. http://www.ted.com/talks/sir_ken_robinson_bring_on_the_revolution [accessed 27/04/2014].  Udall, N. (2014). Riding the Creative Rollercoaster: How leaders evoke creativity, productivity and innovation. London: Kogan Page.