School of Engineering          ThermodynamicsChapter 2: The World Energy System    Dr. Jorge Francisco Estela Uribe
Thermodynamics                                                    Dr. Jorge Francisco Estela  Primary energy:  Primary ene...
Thermodynamics                                                   Dr. Jorge Francisco Estela  Energy flows:      Reserves  ...
Thermodynamics                                                        Dr. Jorge Francisco Estela  Sources of primary energ...
Thermodynamics                                                        Dr. Jorge Francisco Estela  Primary energy, energy c...
Thermodynamics                                                                Dr. Jorge Francisco Estela  Primary energy, ...
Thermodynamics                                                    Dr. Jorge Francisco Estela  Who uses energy:   Those who...
Thermodynamics                                                                         Dr. Jorge Francisco Estela  Histori...
Thermodynamics                                                                                                            ...
Thermodynamics                                                                                                            ...
Thermodynamics                                                                                                            ...
Thermodynamics                                                 Dr. Jorge Francisco Estela   Is this really necessary? Is i...
Thermodynamics                                               Dr. Jorge Francisco Estela   Are these really necessary or ar...
Thermodynamics                                                                  Dr. Jorge Francisco Estela Sustainable ene...
Thermodynamics                                                                  Dr. Jorge Francisco Estela Sustainable ene...
Thermodynamics                                                                  Dr. Jorge Francisco Estela Sustainable ene...
Thermodynamics                                                                                          Dr. Jorge Francisc...
Thermodynamics                                                                                            Dr. Jorge Franci...
Thermodynamics                                                                        Dr. Jorge Francisco Estela  Petroleu...
Thermodynamics                                                 Dr. Jorge Francisco Estela  Broad composition by fractions ...
Thermodynamics                                                                        Dr. Jorge Francisco Estela  Conventi...
Thermodynamics                                      Dr. Jorge Francisco EstelaThe World Energy System - Petroleum         ...
Thermodynamics                                      Dr. Jorge Francisco EstelaThe World Energy System - Petroleum         ...
Thermodynamics                                      Dr. Jorge Francisco EstelaThe World Energy System - Petroleum         ...
Thermodynamics                                      Dr. Jorge Francisco EstelaThe World Energy System - Petroleum         ...
Thermodynamics                                                      Dr. Jorge Francisco Estela  Coal:  Coal is a combustib...
Thermodynamics                                 Dr. Jorge Francisco EstelaThe World Energy System - Coal                   ...
Thermodynamics                                 Dr. Jorge Francisco EstelaThe World Energy System - Coal                   ...
Thermodynamics                                 Dr. Jorge Francisco EstelaThe World Energy System - Coal                   ...
Thermodynamics                                                  Dr. Jorge Francisco Estela  Natural Gas:  Natural gas is a...
Thermodynamics                                        Dr. Jorge Francisco EstelaThe World Energy System – Natural gas     ...
Thermodynamics                                        Dr. Jorge Francisco EstelaThe World Energy System – Natural gas     ...
Thermodynamics                                        Dr. Jorge Francisco EstelaThe World Energy System – Natural gas
Thermodynamics                                        Dr. Jorge Francisco EstelaThe World Energy System – Natural gas     ...
Thermodynamics                                        Dr. Jorge Francisco EstelaThe World Energy System – Natural gas     ...
Thermodynamics                                                      Dr. Jorge Francisco Estela  Nuclear energy:  Nuclear e...
Thermodynamics                                                     Dr. Jorge Francisco Estela  Nuclear energy:  Nuclear en...
Thermodynamics                                                   Dr. Jorge Francisco Estela  Nuclear reactors:  About 80 p...
Thermodynamics                                           Dr. Jorge Francisco EstelaThe World Energy System – Nuclear energ...
Thermodynamics                                           Dr. Jorge Francisco EstelaThe World Energy System – Nuclear energ...
Thermodynamics                                           Dr. Jorge Francisco EstelaThe World Energy System – Nuclear energ...
Thermodynamics                                                    Dr. Jorge Francisco Estela  Hydroelectricity:  Hydroelec...
Thermodynamics                                             Dr. Jorge Francisco EstelaThe World Energy System – Hydroelectr...
Thermodynamics                                             Dr. Jorge Francisco EstelaThe World Energy System – Hydroelectr...
Thermodynamics                                                  Dr. Jorge Francisco Estela  Renewable energy:  Renewable e...
Thermodynamics                                                       Dr. Jorge Francisco Estela  Advantages of renewable e...
Thermodynamics                                         Dr. Jorge Francisco EstelaThe World Energy System – Solar energy   ...
Thermodynamics                                         Dr. Jorge Francisco EstelaThe World Energy System – Solar energy   ...
Thermodynamics                                         Dr. Jorge Francisco EstelaThe World Energy System – Solar energy   ...
Thermodynamics                                         Dr. Jorge Francisco EstelaThe World Energy System – Solar energy   ...
Thermodynamics                                         Dr. Jorge Francisco EstelaThe World Energy System – Solar energy   ...
Thermodynamics                                         Dr. Jorge Francisco EstelaThe World Energy System – Solar energy   ...
Thermodynamics                                        Dr. Jorge Francisco EstelaThe World Energy System – Wind energy     ...
Thermodynamics                                              Dr. Jorge Francisco EstelaThe World Energy System – Geothermal...
Thermodynamics                                         Dr. Jorge Francisco EstelaThe World Energy System – Ocean energy   ...
Thermodynamics                                      Dr. Jorge Francisco EstelaThe World Energy System – Bioenergy         ...
Thermodynamics                                      Dr. Jorge Francisco EstelaThe World Energy System – Bioenergy         ...
Thermodynamics                                                       Dr. Jorge Francisco Estela  Oil and natural gas: why ...
Thermodynamics                                                                        Dr. Jorge Francisco Estela          ...
Thermodynamics                                                                              Dr. Jorge Francisco Estela    ...
Thermodynamics                                                                        Dr. Jorge Francisco Estela  Environm...
Thermodynamics                                                                        Dr. Jorge Francisco Estela  Environm...
Thermodynamics                          Dr. Jorge Francisco EstelaThe World Energy System                         62/84
Thermodynamics                          Dr. Jorge Francisco EstelaThe World Energy System                         63/84
Thermodynamics                          Dr. Jorge Francisco EstelaThe World Energy System                         64/84
Thermodynamics                          Dr. Jorge Francisco EstelaThe World Energy System                         65/84
Thermodynamics                          Dr. Jorge Francisco EstelaThe World Energy System                         66/84
Thermodynamics                          Dr. Jorge Francisco EstelaThe World Energy System                         67/84
Thermodynamics                                                                             Dr. Jorge Francisco Estela     ...
Thermodynamics                                                                                                            ...
Thermodynamics                                                Dr. Jorge Francisco Estela  Emissions scenarios:            ...
Thermodynamics                                              Dr. Jorge Francisco Estela  Emissions scenarios:              ...
Thermodynamics                                                                     Dr. Jorge Francisco Estela  Strategies ...
Thermodynamics                                                                     Dr. Jorge Francisco Estela  Strategies ...
Thermodynamics                                                                         Dr. Jorge Francisco Estela         ...
Thermodynamics                                                                     Dr. Jorge Francisco Estela  Potential r...
Thermodynamics                                                         Dr. Jorge Francisco Estela  Renewable energy scenar...
Thermodynamics                                                   Dr. Jorge Francisco Estela  The hydrogen economy:  It mea...
Thermodynamics                                                    Dr. Jorge Francisco Estela  Technological challenges for...
Thermodynamics                                                               Dr. Jorge Francisco Estela  Hydrogen economy ...
Thermodynamics                                                                 Dr. Jorge Francisco Estela   Solar and nucl...
Thermodynamics                                                                       Dr. Jorge Francisco Estela   Energy s...
Thermodynamics                                                                       Dr. Jorge Francisco Estela   More sus...
Thermodynamics                                                                      Dr. Jorge Francisco Estela  Technology...
Thermodynamics                                                         Dr. Jorge Francisco Estela  Conclusions:   The worl...
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Chapter 2

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Chapter 2

  1. 1. School of Engineering ThermodynamicsChapter 2: The World Energy System Dr. Jorge Francisco Estela Uribe
  2. 2. Thermodynamics Dr. Jorge Francisco Estela Primary energy: Primary energy is the total energy contents of a natural resource. It is the energy in raw form without any transformation. It is the total energy that is available for transformation and end use. Energy carriers: These are forms of energy between primary energy sources, from which they are transformed, and the end use forms, to which they are converted. Energy consumption: As energy is always conserved, the concept of consumption only means the transformation of energy to the forms of end use, i.e. energy services.The World Energy System 2/84
  3. 3. Thermodynamics Dr. Jorge Francisco Estela Energy flows: Reserves Exports Imports Primary energy Exports Imports Transformation Energy carrier Final useThe World Energy System 3/84
  4. 4. Thermodynamics Dr. Jorge Francisco Estela Sources of primary energy: Non-renewable sources Renewable sources Fossil fuels Crude oil Solar Direct Thermal Photovoltaic Coal Indirect Hydroelectricity Wind Natural gas Ocean (waves, currents, thermal gradient) Bioenergy Mineral fuels Uranium Non- Geothermal (nuclear energy) solar TidalThe World Energy System 4/84
  5. 5. Thermodynamics Dr. Jorge Francisco Estela Primary energy, energy carriers and energy systems*: Primary energy sources Energy Energy systems carriers (conversion processes) Non- Crude oil Liquid fuels Oil refinery renewable sources Coal Enthalpy, Fossil fuel power mechanical station work, electricity Natural gas Uranium Electricity Nuclear power plant* www.wikipedia.orgThe World Energy System 5/84
  6. 6. Thermodynamics Dr. Jorge Francisco Estela Primary energy, energy carriers and energy systems*: Primary energy sources Energy Energy systems carriers (conversion processes) Renewable Solar energy Enthalpy Solar power tower, solar sources furnace Electricity Photovoltaic power plant Wind energy Mechanical work, Wind farm electricity Flowing water, Mechanical work, Hydropower plant, wave tidal energy electricity farm, tidal power station Biomass sources Enthalpy, electricity Biomass power station Geothermal Enthalpy, electricity Geothermal power station energy* www.wikipedia.orgThe World Energy System 6/84
  7. 7. Thermodynamics Dr. Jorge Francisco Estela Who uses energy: Those who drink potable water and eat non-raw food. Those who need to preserve food and other materials. Those who need heating, air conditioning or ventilation. Those who need artificial illumination. Those who need to travel through long distances. Those who need mechanical for their work. And those who do not wish or can not put aside all the technological amenities, gadgets and services of modern society.The World Energy System 7/84
  8. 8. Thermodynamics Dr. Jorge Francisco Estela Historical uses of energy per capita*: Period Daily per capita consumption, MJ Food Home & Industry & Transport Total commerce agriculture Primitive 8 8 Stone age 12 8 20 Primitive 16 16 16 48 agriculture Advanced 24 48 28 4 104 agriculture Industrial 28 128 96 56 308 Technological 40 264 364 252 920* E. Cook, The Flow of Energy in an Industrial Society, Scientific American, September 1971The World Energy System 8/84
  9. 9. Thermodynamics Dr. Jorge Francisco Estela Quality of Life and Energy Supply 1.00 Norway Denmark GermanySwitzerland New Zeland Sweden Australia Canada 0.90 Greece FranceNetherlands Japan Austria United States Spain United Kingdom Finland 0.80 Chile Portugal Uruguay Argentina Human Development Index Colombia Mexico Saudi Arabia 0.70 Venezuela Russia Brazil China 0.60 Egypt South Africa Morocco India 0.50 Pakistan Haiti 0.40 Sudan Ethiopia 0.30 Mozambique 0.20 0.10 0.00 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Energy supply per capita (toe/capita)International Energy Agency, Key Energy Statistics 2011The World Energy System 9/84
  10. 10. Thermodynamics Dr. Jorge Francisco Estela Energy Supply and GDP 2009 30 World Average GDP per capita (USD/capita)x1000 OECD 20 10 World Average Latin America China Middle East Asia Non-OECD Europe & Asia Africa 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Energy Supply per capita (toe/capita)International Energy Agency, Key Energy Statistics 2011The World Energy System 10/84
  11. 11. Thermodynamics Dr. Jorge Francisco Estela Energy Effciency and GDP 2009 30 World Average GDP per capita (USD/capita)x1000 OECD 20 10 World Average Middle East Latin America Non-OECD Eurasia China Asia 0 Africa 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Energy Efficiency (USD/toe)x1000International Energy Agency, Key Energy Statistics 2011The World Energy System 11/84
  12. 12. Thermodynamics Dr. Jorge Francisco Estela Is this really necessary? Is it an excess…?The World Energy System 12/84
  13. 13. Thermodynamics Dr. Jorge Francisco Estela Are these really necessary or are they excessive waste of energy?The World Energy System 13/84
  14. 14. Thermodynamics Dr. Jorge Francisco Estela Sustainable energy: why is it so important? The supply of energy is essential for the well-being of society. The current energy systems have been built around the multiple advantages of the fossil fuels. The duration of the fossil fuels reserves is a highly disputed issue, but those are essentially finite and will run out completely. The reserves of fossil fuels are concentrated on a relatively few countries, which leads to instability, crises and conflicts. The exploitation of fossil fuels entails significant threats to human health due to their extraction, distribution and final use. The combustion of fossil fuels produces enormous amounts of greenhouse gases. G. Boyle, B. Everett, J. Ramage, Energy Systems and Sustainability: Power for a Sustainable Future, Oxford University Press, 2003.Sustainability 14/84
  15. 15. Thermodynamics Dr. Jorge Francisco Estela Sustainable energy: why is it so important? There is a sound scientific consensus about the connections between the anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases and the unprecedented increase in ambient temperatures since the last ice age. The increase in global temperatures will severely disrupt agriculture, all ecosystems and the economic system in a generalised scale. Nuclear energy does not emit greenhouse gases but its development has been limited by high operating costs and the public concern about the release of radioactive materials, catastrophic accidents, the disposal of radioactive wastes and the proliferation of materials for nuclear weapons. The efficiency of the conversion of energy from resources down to the energy services is very low and the cost of those services is very low. G. Boyle, B. Everett, J. Ramage, Energy Systems and Sustainability: Power for a Sustainable Future, Oxford University Press, 2003.Sustainability 15/84
  16. 16. Thermodynamics Dr. Jorge Francisco Estela Sustainable energy: why is it so important? The above two circumstances make the environmental and social effects of the energy systems larger than what those should really be. The renewable energy sources are based on energy flows, not on energy stocks, and are expected to play a much larger role in the future. The environmental and social impacts of the renewable energy sources are, in general, smaller than those from the conventional sources. However, there are other constraints for their widespread use such as their intermittence and limited availability, the lack of a global infrastructure for their distribution and use and the high costs for the end user. G. Boyle, B. Everett, J. Ramage, Energy Systems and Sustainability: Power for a Sustainable Future, Oxford University Press, 2003.Sustainability 16/84
  17. 17. Thermodynamics Dr. Jorge Francisco Estela Total Primary Energy Supply and Consumption by Sectors 2009 TPES: 12150 Mtoe; TFC: 8353 Mtoe; Total Losses: 3797 Mtoe Oil: Coal: Natural Gas: Nuclear: Hydraulic: Biofuels, Others: 3987 3300 2540 703 280 Waste: 1238 102 51 330 Liquid fuels: 3874 31 236 2139 1006 703 280 94 102 206 Consumption for electricity/heat: 4591 Non-energy: 747 20 Conversion losses: 2641 1950 37 237 269 64 553 136 2136 3 70 52 23 11 310 644 441 186 690 433 147 618 842 1000 Transport: 2284 Industry: 2282 Res., Comm., Agr.: 3040The World Energy System 17/84
  18. 18. Thermodynamics Dr. Jorge Francisco Estela Total Primary Energy Supply and Total Final Consumption 2009 12150 Hydraulic Others 12000 Biofules/Waste Losses in conversion and 10000 Nuclear 3797 transmission Natural Gas 8000 8353 Non-energy Electricity/Heat Mtoe Residential, 6000 Biofuels/Waste Commercial, Coal Agricultural Natural Gas 4000 Coal Industry 2000 Oil Liquid fuels Transport 0 Primary Energy Energy in Carriers Consumption by SectorsInternational Energy Agency, Key Energy Statistics 2011The World Energy System 18/84
  19. 19. Thermodynamics Dr. Jorge Francisco Estela Petroleum: Petroleum is a naturally occurring complex flammable liquid mixture of hydrocarbons and other organic compounds [1]. Petroleum was formed by the decomposition, under high temperature and pressure in sedimentary rocks, of marine organisms, i.e. zooplankton and algae [2]. Thus, petroleum is currently found in sedimentary basins where marine sediments accumulated over time (the Middle East, the Gulf of Mexico or the North Sea). Petroleum is converted into useful products by distillation (fractioning), i.e. separation by differences in boiling points of the liquid components. Those products are complex blends suited to particular commercial uses.1. www.wikipedia.org2. G. Boyle, B.Everett, J. Ramage, Energy Systems and Sustainability, Power for a Sustainable Future, OxfordUniversity Press, Oxford, 2003.The World Energy System 19/84
  20. 20. Thermodynamics Dr. Jorge Francisco Estela Broad composition by fractions and uses*: Fractions Carbon Hydrocarbons Uses atoms Petroleum gases 1– 4 Methane - Butane Gaseous fuels, petrochemicals Light distillate 5–8 Pentane - Octane Gasoline Medium distillate 9 – 16 Nonane - Diesel fuel, Hexadecane kerosene, jet fuel Heavy distillate 17 – 25 Fuel oil, lubricating oil, marine diesel Asphaltenes 26 – 35 Waxes, asphalts* www.wikipedia.orgThe World Energy System 20/84
  21. 21. Thermodynamics Dr. Jorge Francisco Estela Conventional and non-conventional petroleum*: Petroleum that is obtained by the natural pressure of an underground reservoir is called conventional oil. Conventional oil is extracted by two methods and applies to roughly half of the petroleum reserves: Primary recovery: applies when the pressure of the reservoir is sufficient to drive the crude oil to the surface. Secondary recovery: the pressure of the reservoir has to be increased by the injection of natural gas or water. Non-conventional petroleum applies to oil extracted by tertiary recovery (with high-pressure natural gas or CO2 to recover the remaining crude in the reservoirs) or from all other sources, i.e. shale oil, tar sands and heavy oil.* G. Boyle, B.Everett, J. Ramage, Energy Systems and Sustainability, Power for a Sustainable Future, OxfordUniversity Press, Oxford, 2003.The World Energy System 21/84
  22. 22. Thermodynamics Dr. Jorge Francisco EstelaThe World Energy System - Petroleum 22/84
  23. 23. Thermodynamics Dr. Jorge Francisco EstelaThe World Energy System - Petroleum 23/84
  24. 24. Thermodynamics Dr. Jorge Francisco EstelaThe World Energy System - Petroleum 24/84
  25. 25. Thermodynamics Dr. Jorge Francisco EstelaThe World Energy System - Petroleum 25/84
  26. 26. Thermodynamics Dr. Jorge Francisco Estela Coal: Coal is a combustible black or brownish-black sedimentary rock usually occurring in layers called coal beds or coal seams [1]. Coal is composed primarily of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen and sulphur. Coal was formed by the decomposition, under high temperature and pressure and in the absence of oxygen, of dead vegetation. This is why coal deposits are widely spread in the world. According to its heating value (heat released in combustion) and contents of volatiles, coal is classified in ranks. In ascending order of heating value, these are: peat, lignite, sub-bituminous, bituminous and anthracite.1. www.wikipedia.orgThe World Energy System 26/84
  27. 27. Thermodynamics Dr. Jorge Francisco EstelaThe World Energy System - Coal 27/84
  28. 28. Thermodynamics Dr. Jorge Francisco EstelaThe World Energy System - Coal 28/84
  29. 29. Thermodynamics Dr. Jorge Francisco EstelaThe World Energy System - Coal 29/84
  30. 30. Thermodynamics Dr. Jorge Francisco Estela Natural Gas: Natural gas is a naturally occurring hydrocarbon mixture, primarily composed of methane, other hydrocarbons (ethane up to octane), nitrogen, carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulphide [1]. Natural gas is found in deep underground formations or associated with coal seams and petroleum deposits. Natural gas is created either by two processes: a biogenic process (decomposition) of organic material in shallow sediments, or by thermogenic process at great depths. Before use, natural gas has to undergo extensive treatment to remove undesirable components, such as nitrogen, carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulphide.1. www.wikipedia.orgThe World Energy System 30/84
  31. 31. Thermodynamics Dr. Jorge Francisco EstelaThe World Energy System – Natural gas 31/84
  32. 32. Thermodynamics Dr. Jorge Francisco EstelaThe World Energy System – Natural gas 32/84
  33. 33. Thermodynamics Dr. Jorge Francisco EstelaThe World Energy System – Natural gas
  34. 34. Thermodynamics Dr. Jorge Francisco EstelaThe World Energy System – Natural gas 33/84
  35. 35. Thermodynamics Dr. Jorge Francisco EstelaThe World Energy System – Natural gas 34/84
  36. 36. Thermodynamics Dr. Jorge Francisco Estela Nuclear energy: Nuclear energy results from the sustained use of the energy released by nuclear fission to generate electricity and heat [1]. In nuclear fission, the nuclei of heavy atoms (i.e. Uranium-235) split into lighter nuclei and free neutrons. As the combined mass of the fission products is slightly smaller than that of the original nucleus, the mass defect is converted into energy in the form of photons (gamma radiation) and kinetic energy of the products. The kinetic energy is transformed into thermal energy, which is then used to generate electricity in a power cycle. The released neutrons hit other nuclei causing their fission. Thus, a chain reaction is established so that a sustained nuclear energy operation is possible in practice.1. www.wikipedia.orgThe World Energy System 35/84
  37. 37. Thermodynamics Dr. Jorge Francisco Estela Nuclear energy: Nuclear energy has always been a controversial issue. Its is an important component of the world energy system for it produces about 7 per cent of the world primary energy supply and about 14 per cent of the electricity [1]. The advocates of nuclear energy claim it is a sustainable form of energy for it does no release greenhouse gases, but the processing of uranium minerals do have important environmental impacts. The opponents sustain that nuclear energy poses serious threats to human health and the environment. Those threats come from the accidental release of radioactive materials and from the very important issue of the disposal of used nuclear fuels. There are also the security concerns as nuclear reactors can be used to produce radioactive materials for weapons use.1. www.wikipedia.orgThe World Energy System 36/84
  38. 38. Thermodynamics Dr. Jorge Francisco Estela Nuclear reactors: About 80 per cent of reactors use light water as moderator. Three quarters of those are pressurised water reactors [1]. Pressurised water reactors (PWRs): the reactor core is in a high-pressure vessel is cooled by a primary circuit of pressurised water. The primary water transfers heat to a secondary circuit in a steam generator. Then, the secondary water drives the power cycle. Boiling water reactors (BWRs): they are PWRs but water boils directly in the pressure vessel. Therefore, these are simpler and safer than PWRs. Other technologies include the pressurised heavy water reactor (PHWR), the gas cooled reactors (GCR) and a number of experimental designs.1. www.wikipedia.orgThe World Energy System 37/84
  39. 39. Thermodynamics Dr. Jorge Francisco EstelaThe World Energy System – Nuclear energy 38/84
  40. 40. Thermodynamics Dr. Jorge Francisco EstelaThe World Energy System – Nuclear energy 39/84
  41. 41. Thermodynamics Dr. Jorge Francisco EstelaThe World Energy System – Nuclear energy 40/84
  42. 42. Thermodynamics Dr. Jorge Francisco Estela Hydroelectricity: Hydroelectricity is electricity generated by hydropower, i.e. from the potential energy of water falling through a difference of elevation. This is the second largest source of renewable energy, accounting for about a sixth of the world’s electricity generation [1]. The technologies are: the conventional dams; pumped storage (at times of low demand, water is pumped to higher elevations to be used at times of high demand) and run-of-the-river (it does not use a dam and the water is taken directly from the river to the generator). Hydroelectricity is cheap and does not release carbon dioxide. But it has important environmental impacts because of the disruption of habitats (by the areas that have to be inundated) and the decay of vegetation under water releases methane (a more powerful greenhouse gas than carbon dioxide).1. www.wikipedia.orgThe World Energy System 41/84
  43. 43. Thermodynamics Dr. Jorge Francisco EstelaThe World Energy System – Hydroelectricity 42/84
  44. 44. Thermodynamics Dr. Jorge Francisco EstelaThe World Energy System – Hydroelectricity 43/84
  45. 45. Thermodynamics Dr. Jorge Francisco Estela Renewable energy: Renewable energy rely on natural processes that are continuously replenished [1]. Apart from the comparatively very small amount of geothermal and tidal energy, ultimately almost all renewable energy forms are transformations from solar energy. Renewable energy accounts for around 16 per cent of the total primary energy supply and participates with about 19 per cent in the generation of electricity. Climate change awareness, high oil prices and peak oil are driving a very rapid expansion in investment, development and commercialisation of renewable energy technologies. Those markets are growing at rates far exceeding 20 per cent per annum. Renewable energy technologies are expected to play quite significant a role in power generation, space heating and transport fuels.1. www.wikipedia.orgThe World Energy System 44/84
  46. 46. Thermodynamics Dr. Jorge Francisco Estela Advantages of renewable energy sources: The very fact that they are continuously replenished by natural processes. The fact that they are fluxes and not stocks of energy. They are considerably more benign in environmental and health impacts than fossil fuels and nuclear energy. Disadvantages of renewable energy sources: They are intermittent, so that storage technologies are needed. Their distribution and availability is very limited because the infrastructure for distribution and commercialisation is, so far, very limited. They remain to be expensive to the end user.1. www.wikipedia.orgThe World Energy System 45/84
  47. 47. Thermodynamics Dr. Jorge Francisco EstelaThe World Energy System – Solar energy 46/84
  48. 48. Thermodynamics Dr. Jorge Francisco EstelaThe World Energy System – Solar energy 47/84
  49. 49. Thermodynamics Dr. Jorge Francisco EstelaThe World Energy System – Solar energy 48/84
  50. 50. Thermodynamics Dr. Jorge Francisco EstelaThe World Energy System – Solar energy 49/84
  51. 51. Thermodynamics Dr. Jorge Francisco EstelaThe World Energy System – Solar energy 50/84
  52. 52. Thermodynamics Dr. Jorge Francisco EstelaThe World Energy System – Solar energy 51/84
  53. 53. Thermodynamics Dr. Jorge Francisco EstelaThe World Energy System – Wind energy 52/84
  54. 54. Thermodynamics Dr. Jorge Francisco EstelaThe World Energy System – Geothermal energy 53/84
  55. 55. Thermodynamics Dr. Jorge Francisco EstelaThe World Energy System – Ocean energy 54/84
  56. 56. Thermodynamics Dr. Jorge Francisco EstelaThe World Energy System – Bioenergy 55/84
  57. 57. Thermodynamics Dr. Jorge Francisco EstelaThe World Energy System – Bioenergy 56/84
  58. 58. Thermodynamics Dr. Jorge Francisco Estela Oil and natural gas: why are they so special? Oil and natural gas comprise half of the world primary energy supply and consumption because of the following undisputable advantages: The are cheap and easily available. They are less contaminant than coal. They are convenient and easy to use. They are easy to distribute, store and transport. For many countries, the supply is ensured from domestic production.The World Energy System 57/84
  59. 59. Thermodynamics Dr. Jorge Francisco Estela Regional Distribution of Fossil Fuel Reserves 100 90 North America 80 S&C America 70 Percentage 60 Europe/Eurasia 50 Middle East 40 Africa 30 Asia/Pacific 20 10 0 Oil Natural Gas CoalBritish Petroleum, BP Statistical Review of World Energy, June 2011The World Energy System 58/84
  60. 60. Thermodynamics Dr. Jorge Francisco Estela Reserves/Production Ratios of Fossil Fuels 2009 North America South & Central America Europe & Eurasia Middle East Average Middle East and Africa Africa Asia Pacific World Average 0 50 100 150 200 250 Years Oil Natural Gas CoalBritish Petroleum, BP Statistical Review of World Energy, June 2011The World Energy System 59/84
  61. 61. Thermodynamics Dr. Jorge Francisco Estela Environmental and social impacts associated with energy sources*: Source Potential impacts and concerns Oil Global climate change, air pollution by vehicles, acid rain, oil spills, oil rig accidents. Natural gas Global climate change, methane leakage from pipes, methane explosions, gas rig accidents. Coal Global climate change, acid rain, environmental spoliation by open-cast mining, land subsidence due to deep mining, ground water pollution, mining accidents, health effect on miners. Nuclear power Radioactivity (routine release, risk of accidents, waste disposal), misuse of fissile and other radioactive materials, proliferation of nuclear weapons, land pollution by mining, health effects on uranium miners. Biomass Effects on landscape and biodiversity, ground water pollution due to fertilisers, use of scarce water, competition with food production.* G. Boyle, B.Everett, J. Ramage, Energy Systems and Sustainability, Power for a Sustainable Future, OxfordUniversity Press, Oxford, 2003.The World Energy System 60/84
  62. 62. Thermodynamics Dr. Jorge Francisco Estela Environmental and social impacts associated with energy sources*: Source Potential impacts and concerns Hydroelectricity Displacement of communities, effects on rivers and ground water, dams (visual intrusion and risk of accidents), seismic effects, downstream effects on agriculture, methane emission from submerged biomass. Wind power Visual intrusion in sensitive landscapes, noise, bird strikes, interference with telecommunications. Tidal power Visual intrusion and destruction of wildlife habitat, reduced dispersal of effluents (apply only to tidal barrages). Geothermal Release of polluting gases (SO2, H2S, etc.), ground water pollution by energy chemicals including heavy metals, seismic effects. Solar energy Sequestration of large land areas (centralised plants), use of toxic materials in manufacture of PV cells, visual intrusion.* G. Boyle, B.Everett, J. Ramage, Energy Systems and Sustainability, Power for a Sustainable Future, OxfordUniversity Press, Oxford, 2003.The World Energy System 61/84
  63. 63. Thermodynamics Dr. Jorge Francisco EstelaThe World Energy System 62/84
  64. 64. Thermodynamics Dr. Jorge Francisco EstelaThe World Energy System 63/84
  65. 65. Thermodynamics Dr. Jorge Francisco EstelaThe World Energy System 64/84
  66. 66. Thermodynamics Dr. Jorge Francisco EstelaThe World Energy System 65/84
  67. 67. Thermodynamics Dr. Jorge Francisco EstelaThe World Energy System 66/84
  68. 68. Thermodynamics Dr. Jorge Francisco EstelaThe World Energy System 67/84
  69. 69. Thermodynamics Dr. Jorge Francisco Estela CO 2 Emissions by Fuel 2009 Oil 10643 28999 x 10 6 ton 36.7% Renewables 116 0.4% Coal 12470 Natural Gas 5771 43% 19.9% Asia 3153 11% China 6877 25% Latin America 975 3% Africa 928 3% Non-OECD Eurasia 2497 9% CO 2 Emissions by Region 28999 x 10 6 ton Middle East 1509 5% OECD 1204 43%International Energy Agency, Key Energy Statistics 2011The World Energy System 68/84
  70. 70. Thermodynamics Dr. Jorge Francisco Estela CO2 Emissions and Energy Supply 2009 15 World Average CO2 Emissions per capita (ton/capita) 10 OECD Middle East Non-OECD Eurasia 5 China World Average Asia Latin America Africa 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Energy Supply per capita (toe/capita)International Energy Agency, Key Energy Statistics 2011The World Energy System 69/84
  71. 71. Thermodynamics Dr. Jorge Francisco Estela Emissions scenarios: OECD Rest of the Total world Base line 2009 Population, million 1,225 5,536 6,761 TPES/cap, toe/cap 4.276 1.249 1.97 TPES, Mtoe 5,238 6,582 12,150 Intensity CO2, Mton/Mtoe 2.300 2.53 2.387 Emissions, Mton/year 12,045 16,954 28,999 Growth scenarios Population 0.5 1.0 TPES/cap 0.5 2.0 CO2/TPES 1.5 -0.5The World Energy System 70/84
  72. 72. Thermodynamics Dr. Jorge Francisco Estela Emissions scenarios: OECD Rest of the Total world Projections 2050 Population, million 1,503 8,325 9,828 TPES/cap, toe/cap 5.246 2.813 3.85 TPES, Mtoe 7,885 23,418 31,302 Intensity CO2, Mton/Mtoe 1.237 1.97 1.806 Emissions, Mton/year 9,757 46,772 56,529 Released CO2, Mton 445,292 1,204,731 1,650,023 Stock CO2, Mton 3,029,031 Accumulated CO2, Mton 3,771,541 Concentration CO2, ppm 482The World Energy System 71/84
  73. 73. Thermodynamics Dr. Jorge Francisco Estela Strategies for the control of atmospheric carbon dioxide*: Strategies Technologies and patterns of use Efficiency of end •Increase the fuel economy of 2000 million automobiles from 48 uses and km/gallon to 96 km/gallon. conservation •Reduce the use of 2000 million automobiles from 16,000 km/year to 8,000 km/year at and average 50 km/h. •Reduce in 25 per cent the electricity consumption in residential and commercial uses. Power •Increase the thermal efficiency from 40 to 60 per cent in 1,600 generation large power stations (> 1 GW). •Replace 1,400 large power stations with CCGT. Capture and •Install CCS systems in 800 large power stations. storage of CO2 •Install CCS systems in carbon gasification plants. (CCS) •Install CCS systems in hydrogen production plants for 1500 million vehicles. *R.H. Sokolow, S.W. Pacala, A Plan to Keep Carbon in Check, Scientific American, September (2006, 28-35.The World Energy System 72/84
  74. 74. Thermodynamics Dr. Jorge Francisco Estela Strategies for the control of atmospheric carbon dioxide*: Strategies Technologies and patterns of use Alternative •Double the generation of nuclear energy to displace carbon energy sources consumption. •Multiply by 40 the generation of wind power to displace carbon consumption.. •Multiply by 700 the generation of solar energy to displace carbon consumption.. •Multiply by 80 the generation of wind power to produce hydrogen for automobiles. •Power 2000 million automobiles with ethanol produced from 1/6 of the total cultivable land and biomass with yield of 15 ton/ha. Agriculture and •Stop all deforestation. forestry •Extend conventional agriculture practices to the whole cultivable management land. *R.H. Sokolow, S.W. Pacala, A Plan to Keep Carbon in Check, Scientific American, September (2006, 28-35.The World Energy System 73/84
  75. 75. Thermodynamics Dr. Jorge Francisco Estela Renewables Share of World TPES 2009 Others: 0.5% Tide: 0.0004% Oil Hydroenergy: Wind: 0.064% 34.3% 2.2% Solar: 0.039% Renewables Coal Combustible 13.1% Renewables 25.1% Geothermal: and waste: Nuclear 10.6% 0.414% 6.5% Natural Gas 20.9%International Energy Agency, Key Energy Statistics 2011The World Energy System 74/84
  76. 76. Thermodynamics Dr. Jorge Francisco Estela Potential resources of renewable energy*: Source Potential, 1018 J/year Biomass: equivalent of 35 x 109 ton/year. >440 Hydroelectricity: equivalent to half of the energy of 70 all the rivers in the world. Wind: 35 per cent of the potential in continental areas >630 and coastal waters. Tidal: potential of the most promising locations. >20 Geothermal: potential of the most promising >20 locations. Solar: 10 per cent efficiency of conversion solar >1,600 radiation. Total renewable sources: >2,800 TPES (2009): 500 x 1018 J. TPES (2100): 510 – 2700 x 1018 J.* Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Third Assessment Report, 2001The World Energy System 75/84
  77. 77. Thermodynamics Dr. Jorge Francisco Estela Renewable energy scenarios: As of 2009, all renewable sources (hydroelectricity, biofuels, waste and others) accounted for 13.3 per cent of the world TPES. International Energy Agency: Scenarios to 2030 Current Policy Scenario: All renewable sources would increase to 14.2 per cent. 450 Policy Scenario: All renewable sources would increase to 22.1 per cent. British Petroleum: Scenario to 2030 It foresees the doubling of the percentage of renewable energy in the TPES. US Energy Information Administration: Scenario to 2035 It also foresees the doubling of the share of renewable energy in the TPES. Royal Dutch Shell: Scenario to 2050 It foresees that renewable energy would account around 25 to 30 per cent of TPES.The World Energy System 76/84
  78. 78. Thermodynamics Dr. Jorge Francisco Estela The hydrogen economy: It means the proposed extensive use of hydrogen as an energy carrier. Hydrogen does not occur freely in nature. Therefore, hydrogen is not a primary energy source, it is an energy carrier. Hydrogen is produced basically by reforming of natural gas. It is also produced by electrolysis of water and by biotechnological processes involving algae and micro organisms. Hydrogen is currently used for: petroleum refining (hydrocracking), the production of ammonia, methanol and hydrochloric acid, the hydrogenation of vegetable oils, the reduction of minerals, the treatment of metals, welding in reducing atmosphere, cooling of generators and for rocket fuels. As the production of hydrogen is an energy expensive process, the feasibility of the hydrogen economy depends on coupling it with a zero- or low-emission energy source.The World Energy System 77/84
  79. 79. Thermodynamics Dr. Jorge Francisco Estela Technological challenges for the hydrogen economy: Production: If it is produced by reforming of hydrocarbons, it has to be coupled with CCS systems. If it is produced by electrolysis of water, the electricity must come from zero-emissions sources. Storage in vehicles: The mass energy density of hydrogen of 120 MJ/kg is much higher than that of gasoline (46 MJ/kg). But, due to its very low molar mass, the hydrogen volume energy density (10 MJ/m3) is much smaller than that of gasoline (35000 MJ/m3). Therefore, it has to be used either as compressed gas (∼70 MPa) or as cryogenic liquid (∼-253° C), but both processes would consume up to 30 per cent of the carried energy. The use as metallic hydrides, that solve the problem of volume storage, would otherwise impose heavy penalties in terms of weight and cost.The World Energy System 78/84
  80. 80. Thermodynamics Dr. Jorge Francisco Estela Hydrogen economy based on fossil fuels: Homes, Fuel cells industry, transport Gas turbines Liquefaction Gas turbines Hydrogen from reforming of Gaseous hydrogen natural gas Natural gas wells Liquid hydrogen Natural gas CO2 capture CO2 Geologic storage Electricity Reforming: CH4 + 2H2O → CO2 + 4H2The World Energy System 79/84
  81. 81. Thermodynamics Dr. Jorge Francisco Estela Solar and nuclear hydrogen economy: Homes, Fuel cells industry, transport Gas turbines Liquefaction Gaseous hydrogen Hydroelectricity Liquid hydrogen Wind Hydrogen from Photovoltaic Electricity electrolysis Waves NuclearThe World Energy System 80/84
  82. 82. Thermodynamics Dr. Jorge Francisco Estela Energy sustainability: how to achieve it*: To achieve a sustainable world energy system, the following is needed: To develop much improved technologies for the exploitation and use of fossil and nuclear fuels with much lower environmental and social impacts. To significantly develop and implement renewable energy technologies in a significantly greater scale. To significantly improve the efficiency of the conversion, distribution and end use of energy and change the patterns of use of energy.* G. Boyle, B.Everett, J. Ramage, Energy Systems and Sustainability, Power for a Sustainable Future, OxfordUniversity Press, Oxford, 2003.The World Energy System 81/84
  83. 83. Thermodynamics Dr. Jorge Francisco Estela More sustainable fossil fuels*: Improve the efficiency of combustion: Highly efficient combined-cycle gas turbines (CCGT, IGCC). Combined use of heat and power (co-generation). Improved heating systems and appliances. More efficient internal combustion engines. Reduce the combustion emissions: Removal of sulphur dioxide. Smaller emissions of nitrogen oxides and particulates. Capture and storage of carbon dioxide (CCS). Non-combustion conversion of energy: Fuel cells.* G. Boyle, B.Everett, J. Ramage, Energy Systems and Sustainability, Power for a Sustainable Future, OxfordUniversity Press, Oxford, 2003.The World Energy System 82/84
  84. 84. Thermodynamics Dr. Jorge Francisco Estela Technology perspectives for energy sustainability*: Transforming the energy services: Improved energy efficiency in buildings, industry and vehicles. Transforming the energy supply: Advanced combustion and CCS. Generation of electricity from natural gas and nuclear energy. Generation of electricity from renewable sources. Use of biofuels and hydrogen fuel cells in vehicles. Transforming the electric system: Advanced storage technologies for intermittent renewable sources. Integration of power transmission and telecommunications.* International Energy Agency, Energy Technologies Perspectives; Energy Technologies for a SustainableFuture, 2005 .The World Energy System 83/84
  85. 85. Thermodynamics Dr. Jorge Francisco Estela Conclusions: The world energy system is the largest and most complex industrial operation in the world. This is so because energy is essential for our civilisation. Although we cannot dispense with the energy supply, the world energy system has significant environmental impacts and threats to human health. Due to the undeniable conveniences of fossil fuels, about 80 per cent of the world energy system relies upon the use of these fuels. Climate change results from the carbon dioxide emitted by combustion of coal, oil and natural gas. The increase in temperatures, the raise of sea level and changes in rain patterns will affect all aspects of human life by the second half of the century. A shift to extensive use of low-emissions renewable energy sources is the only solution to mitigate in the medium term the effects of climate change. A number of promising technologies are well identified, but much more research and investment is needed to progress towards the extensive commercialisation of renewable energy.The World Energy System 84/84
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